ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING FOREIGN MANAGERS IN IRAN OIL INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS

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1 Volue: 02 Issue: 05 Aug p-issn: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING FOREIGN MANAGERS IN IRAN OIL INTERNATIONAL PROJECTS Mahoud Gholipoor, Safoora Rashidinejad(Corresponding Author) 2 Project Manager at ICOFC (Iranian Central Oil Fields Copany), Tehran, Iran 2 M.Eng. Project, University of Calgary, Tehran, Iran *** Abstract- Since several foreign anagers work in Iran Oil international projects, the ipact of their participation on perforance of execution of projects is. INTRODUCTION International anageent has becoe a ajor challenge for governents and organizations due to going to be investigated in this research. Based on increasing international projects in the world [9]. personal discussion with nubers of top anagers in Iran Oil industry, they are keen to know the advantages Copanies are interested to cooperate in international projects in order to take the advantages of lower cost and and disadvantages of using foreign anagers in Iran iproving quality in host countries. Foreign anagers international Oil projects. In addition, the productivity of foreign anagers in coparison with local anagers is of interest. This paper describes the findings of the productivity of foreign and local anagers as well as ust be able to work with local anagers and eployees to achieve the benefits of global arket [4]. It is a key decision for international or ultinational copanies whether to use foreign or local personnel to anage coparison between the. Also the strengths, international projects [5]. weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of using foreign anagers in Iran Oil international projects are According to unofficial inforation, it is realized that identified. soe senior anagers in oil industry are concerned about A survey has been conducted in Aryasasol Polyer beneficial of using foreign anagers in Iran international Copany (ASPC), that is located in south of Iran, to projects. Also they think that eploying foreign anagers collect the data about effectiveness and efficiency of are costly for local ultinational copanies without foreign and local anagers working in ASPC. To showing any official docuents to prove it. Furtherore, perfor the survey, the authors have asked experienced there is lack of inforation about the productivity of eployees, who have worked with both foreign and foreign anagers in coparison with local anagers in local anagers, to fill out the questionnaires. In Iran international Oil projects. addition, the researcher has conducted interviews with This research has been found out that absence of the highly experienced foreign and local anagers to know inforation is the ain reason that recruiting foreign their opinion about strengths, weaknesses, anagers has becoe controversial. Hence, providing opportunities, and threats of foreign anagers in ASPC. suitable inforation would be useful for strategic Based on the data analysis, various advantages and anagers of Iran Oil industry to ake appropriate disadvantages of foreign anagers are found out in this decision whether to use foreign anagers in future paper. For instance, high experience and expertise, projects. teawork ability, and tie anageent are identified as advantages while counication proble and culture differences are recognized as disadvantages of foreign anagers working in ASPC. Keyword: Foreign, Aryasasol Polyer Copany, Oil international projects, Iran The ain objective of this research is to identify whether using foreign anagers in Iran international Oil projects is cost-effective. The sub objectives of this paper are to identify: a) Advantages and disadvantages of using foreign anagers in Iran Oil projects. b) Productivity of local and foreign anagers as well as coparison between the. 205, IRJET ISO 900:2008 Certified Journal Page 923

2 Volue: 02 Issue: 05 Aug p-issn: c) Whether using foreign anagers in Iran Oil projects are cost-effective. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.. Global Market Needs International copanies are looking to capture the global arkets advantages via taking part in international projects in foreign countries [4]. Nowadays, international organizations require copetent anagers who can think globally, but act locally [6] Cultural Diversity The anagers in international copanies play a key role in the projects to achieve their goals. They should be able to work with host country eployees to deliver the projects successfully. Cultural diversity is an obstacle to develop productive interaction between foreign anagers and local eployees [8]. The cooperative but not copetitive goals will facilitate developing a productive relationship and interaction between foreign anagers and local eployees [4]. Knowing the culture and its effects on conflicts helps to develop a coon culture in international projects and to provide a proper view to anage the conflicts [8]. Another research [5] shows that projects productivity will be enhanced if foreign anagers could lead local eployees successfully. This is achieved via developing an effective relationship between foreign anagers and local eployees. The results claied that the effect of foreign anagers' leadership is higher than local anagers' according to Chinese eployees viewpoints Cross-Cultural Training Training of foreign anagers will assist the to develop cooperative goals, personal relationship, tea building, and cooperation skills with local eployees [9]. Cross-cultural training is an appropriate tool, which is required for foreign anagers, to develop productive cross-cultural interactions with host country anagers and eployees [7] Expenses vs. Productivity A coon clai aong Chinese anagers and eployees is about high cost of hiring foreign anagers in international projects. one study[3] indicated that the salary of foreign anagers is 20 to 50 ties ore than local Chinese anagers in China projects. In spite of global business belief, the predoinant tendency looks to be ethnocentric in international organizations [3]. The ethnocentric orientation has created any barriers like cultural and environental nonconfority, high rates of failure, effect on oral and otivation of local eployees, and high expenses. Furtherore, international organization has accounted a set of costs including selection, training, and perforance costs when they want to decide whether to eploy foreign or local anager in their international projects [5] Short Ter Contract Copetent foreign anagers fro western countries are not willing to ake long ter contract to work in China and they ostly sign only one or two year s contract. Based on interviews with local eployees [], it has indicated that foreign anagers should stay longer tie in the projects, since it takes tie for the to adapt with different culture and working environent as well as to develop effective relationship with local anagers and eployees Relationship In several interviews with Finnish project leaders in different teas like Finnish Chinese, Finnish European, and Finnish Aerican groups, ost of the indicated only task oriented leadership style. A few of the iplied relationship orientation or both task and relationship orientation. Those few anagers have realized that close relationship with local eployees is essential to overcoe on cross-cultural obstacles. It is apparent that both relationship and task orientation are characteristics that international anagers should apply as leadership style in leading their projects [2] Copetency Many international organizations have had difficulty in identifying copetent international anagers for foreign assignents. Selecting the right candidates is one of critical success factors to deliver projects successfully [0]. The study [7] indicated that an average of 20% to 40% of all Aerican foreign anagers were not successful in their assigned projects and went back to their country soon. Alost half of the also had poor perforance and low productivity in their assignent. Unsuccessful crosscultural interactions of those anagers were the ain factor of their failure [7]. These days, for selecting the right candidates to anage international projects, different skills should be considered such as intuition and creative abilities []. According to a survey done in 993 between 05 European ultinational copanies, ajority of the believe that their anagers 205, IRJET ISO 900:2008 Certified Journal Page 924

3 Volue: 02 Issue: 05 Aug p-issn: need international skills for foreign assignents [2]. the results of Twenty interviews were conducted aong UK and Kenya senior anagers state that building effective tea in international projects require developing trust, counication, and sypathy in leadership [4] The Gap in the Literature By reviewing previous researches, it has been found out that the ain focus is on interactions between foreign anagers and local eployees, international anagers copetency and selection, cross-cultural leadership and training, and difficulties of using foreign anagers in ultinational projects. This shows that there is lack of relevant research about advantages and disadvantages of using foreign anagers as well as productivity of foreign and local anagers in international copanies and projects. The ain goal of this study is to exaine these issues. Quality Iproveent Tiely and Proper Decision Participation in Decision Making Ethical and Politeness Bravery and Risk Tolerant Satisfaction Consider Training Consider Skills Transferring Inforation & Experiences Regulations 3. METHODOLOGY In this research, chosen ethodologies for collecting the required inforation are questionnaire and interview conducted in ASPC as one of the Largest Multinational Petrocheical Copanies in Iran, a 50/50 JV (Joint venture) between Iran National Petrocheical Copany (NPC) and Sasol Polyer Copany (SPC) of South Africa as a selected case in this research. To copare the productivity of foreign and local anagers, soe variables have been defined. Productivity eans to do the right things in the right way, a cobination of effectiveness and efficiency. So In this study, the variables of effectiveness and efficiency based on designed questionnaire are defined as Table. 63 questionnaires are distributed between ASPC eployees who have worked with both local and foreign angers. 60 out of 63 have been responded and returned. After collecting the data, SPSS software is used to analyze the data. Table -Effectiveness and Efficiency of Variables Effectiveness Variables Expertise Experience Efficiency Variables Tie Responsibility Also 6 interviews with foreign and local anagers conducted to find out the opportunities, threats, strengths, and weaknesses of foreign anagers in Iran Oil Industry. Of these interviewees, 6 were foreign anagers and 0 were local anagers who have worked in different disciplines in ASPC. Based on collected data fro interviews, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of using foreign anagers in ASPC are obtained. SWOT analysis is a strategic ethod perfored to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of a project, organization, or business. SWOT analysis uses SWOT atrix to evaluate both internal and external factors of organization. It is a ain tool to copare the data and to prepare four strategies included SO, WO, ST, and WT for organizations. In this research, all four strategies of using foreign anagers in ASPC are developed. In order to develop SWOT atrix, it is required to create the Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) Matrix and External Factor Evaluation (EFE) Matrix initially. 3.. SWOT Analysis Matrix Based on the data gathered fro the interviews with highly experienced local and foreign anagers, the advantages (strengths and opportunities) and disadvantages (weaknesses and threats) of foreign anagers working in ASPC are identified as shown in Table 2 and 3. Culture Differences Language Differences Motivation Monetary Viewpoints Direct Presence in Projects Disciplines, Rules and 205, IRJET ISO 900:2008 Certified Journal Page 925

4 Volue: 02 Issue: 05 Aug p-issn: Table 2 - Advantages of Foreign Strengths Opportunities - Experience - Train Local - Systeatic Thinking - Transfer New Technology - Discipline - Transfer Experiences - Consider Rules and Regulation - Consider Tie - Proficiency - Accountability - Assist Local - Increase Copetition - Iprove Local Syste - Ipleent New Syste - Release Authorities - Increase Productivity Table 3- Disadvantages of Foreign Weaknesses Threats - Low Flexible - Increase Local Weaknesses - Low Confority with Local Environent - Low Bravery and Risk Tolerant - Culture Differences - Decrease Confidence of Local - Incoplete Projects due to Political Issues - Projects Proble due to Econoic Issues - Language Differences - Increase Dependency - Lack of Inforation about Unusual Risks in host Country - Low Trust to local - Ignore Local Potential and Capabilities - Negative Effect on Local Motivation - Effective Decisions - Concentrate on Main Issues - Knowledge - Consider Ethical at Work - Teawork Ability - Productivity - ly Organized - Follow Instructions - Honesty - Frankly Speech - Work in Cross-Cultural Environent - Learn Different Language - Establish Proper Rules and Regulations - Monetary Viewpoints - Counication Proble - Frankly Speech - Low Flexibility to Work in Undisciplined Environent - Different Mentality Identifying advantages and disadvantages are needed to develop SWOT Analysis Matrix. In this research, strengths are defined as advantages of foreign anagers while weaknesses are the disadvantages of the. Opportunities are chances to get higher productivity by eploying foreign anagers that are defined as advantages of the, and Threats are atters related to foreign anagers that could cause trouble for Iran Oil Industry and are identified as the disadvantages of the. 205, IRJET ISO 900:2008 Certified Journal Page 926

5 Volue: 02 Issue: 05 Aug p-issn: In order to develop SWOT atrix, it is required to create the Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) Matrix and External Factor Evaluation (EFE) Matrix initially. To create IFE atrix, the strengths and weaknesses of foreign anagers are used. After categorizing the, weight fro 0.00 to.00 is assigned to each factor. Zero indicates uniportant and one eans very iportant. The su of all weights should be equals.00. Then, it is assigned rating fro to 4 to each factor according to table Consider Tie Proficiency Accountability Table4- Rating for Factors Weakness Strength Minor Major Minor Major 8 9 Release Authorities Effective Decisions Concentrate on Main Issues A weighted score for each factor is calculated by ultiplying each factor s weight by its rating. At last, total weighted score is the su of the weighted scores of each factor [6]. The weight and rating of factors are identified by discussing with foreign and local anagers of ASPC and the total weighted score is calculated as reported in Table 5. If the total weighted score becoes less than 2.5, it shows that the organization has weakness about its internal factors. But if the total weighted score becoes ore than 2.5, it illustrates that the copany has strengths in its internal factors [6]. According to Table 5, total weighted score in ASPC is 3.04, which could help ASAP to use the strengths of its foreign anagers and to iprove the weaknesses of the Knowledge Consider Ethical at Work Teawork Ability Productivity Table 5- Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix (IFE) Strengths and Weaknesses 2 Strengths Experience Systeatic Thinking Weigh t Ratin g Weighte d Discipline Consider Rules and Regulation ly Organized Follow Instructions Honesty Frankly Speech Weaknesses Weigh t Ratin g Weighte d Low Flexible , IRJET ISO 900:2008 Certified Journal Page 927

6 Volue: 02 Issue: 05 Aug p-issn: Low Confority with Local Environent 3 Low Bravery and Risk Tolerant 4 Culture Differences 5 Language Differences 6 Lack of Inforation about Unusual Risks in Local Country 7 Low Trust to local 8 Monetary Viewpoints 9 Counicatio n Proble Frankly Speech Low Ability to Work in Undisciplined Environent Different Mentality Total Developing EFE atrix is as sae as IFE atrix but the type of factors is opportunities and threats. Assigning weights to each factor in EFI is siilar to IFE and the su of all weights should be equals.00. Also rating to each factor is fro to 4 as; = poor response, 2= below average response, 3= above average response, and 4= superior response. Both opportunities and threats receive rating to 4. The weight and rating of factors are designated by interviewees. Weighted score and total weighted score in EFI atrix are calculated like IEF atrix as displayed in Table 6. If the total weighted becoes close to, it illustrates that the organization is not able to use the opportunities or to avoid fro the threats factors in its strategies. But if the total weighted score becoes close to 4, it shows that the organization has reacted well about the opportunities and threats in its strategies [6]. The total weighted score of EFI is 3.24 that ean ASPC has utilized the opportunities of its foreign anagers in a successful way and has reduced the threats. Table 6- External Factor Evaluation Matrix (EFE) Opportunities Weight Rating Train Local Transfer New Technology Transfer Experiences Assist Local Increase Copetition Iprove Local Syste Ipleent New Syste Increase Productivity Work in Cross- Cultural Environent Learn Different Language Establish Proper Rules and Regulations Weighted Threats Weight Rating Increase Local Weaknesses Weighted , IRJET ISO 900:2008 Certified Journal Page 928

7 Volue: 02 Issue: 05 Aug p-issn: Totals Decrease Confidence of Local Incoplete Projects due to Political Issues Projects Proble due to Econoic Issues Increase Dependency Ignore Local Potential and Capabilities Negative Effect on Local Motivation SWOT Analysis Matrix for foreign anagers of ASPC is shown in Table 7. Table 7- SWOT Analysis Matrix Strength Points (S) - Experience and Proficiency - Consider Tie - Knowledge - Accountability Weaknesses Points (W) - Low Confority with Local Environent - Low Bravery and Risk Tolerant - Culture Differences -Train Local -Transfer New Technology -Transfer Experiences - Assist Local -Increase Copetition -Increase Productivity coprehensive training progra to transfer foreign anagers knowledge and experiences to local anagers and eployees - To ake effective teawork with foreign and local anagers to sort copany ajor issues out - To establish proper copetition between foreign and local anagers to increase copany s productivity training for foreign anagers to know ore about host country s culture and work environent -To ake close relationship between foreign & local anagers/ eployees to solve counication proble and to facilitate transferring the inforation - To held periodical eeting with foreign and local anagers to exchange inforation/ experiences Opportunities (O) - Effective Decisions - Teawork Ability SO Strategies - To prepare - Counication Proble - Different Mentality WO Strategies - To conduct Threats (T) - Incoplete Projects due to Political Issues -Projects Proble due to Econoic ST Strategies - To establish special coittee with foreign and local anagers to ake effective decision in WT Strategies - To establish coon goals and objectives with foreign anagers and to consider all probable risks 205, IRJET ISO 900:2008 Certified Journal Page 929

8 Volue: 02 Issue: 05 Aug p-issn: Issues -Increase Dependency -Ignore Local Potential and Capabilities critical situation - To enhance confidence level of local anagers and eployees and to use their capabilities in various disciplines and uncertainties in the projects 4. DISCUSSION AND VALIDATION In this section, the results of SPSS Analysis and SWOT Analysis Matrix are discussed and Student t-test for SPSS validation is applied. 4.. SPSS Results Productivity (Effectiveness, Efficiency) of foreign and local anagers of ASPC are identified based on a questionnaire included 35 different variables (Table 8). Chronbach s alpha is used to easure the reliability of questionnaire and the content validity is applied to easure the validity of it. The required data is collected and analyzed using SPSS software. Consequently, the effectiveness and efficiency of both foreign and local anagers are categorized and presented in this paper. Table 8 -Variables Defined in SPSS Variables in Questionnaire Foreign Expertise Foreign Experience Local Expertise Local Experience Culture Differences Effect to Foreign Relationship Language Differences Effect to Foreign Relationship Consider Motivation by Foreign Consider Motivation by Local Foreign Effect on Tasks Quality Proper and Tiely Decision by Foreign Proper and Tiely Decision by Local Participation in Decision Making by Foreign Variables in SPSS V V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9 V0 V V2 Participation in Decision Making by Local Ethical and Politeness of Foreign Ethical and Politeness of Local Bravery and Risk Tolerant of Foreign Bravery and Risk Tolerant of Local Consider Satisfaction by Foreign Consider Satisfaction by Local Consider Tie by Foreign Consider Tie by Local Accountability of Foreign Accountability of Local Foreign Monetary Viewpoints Local Monetary Viewpoints Direct Presence of Foreign in Projects Direct Presence of Local in Projects Consider Disciplines, Rules and Regulations at Work by Foreign Consider Disciplines, Rules and Regulations at Work by Local Consider Skills by Foreign Consider Skills by Local Consider Training by Foreign Consider Training by Local Transfer Inforation and Experiences by Foreign Transfer Inforation and Experiences by Local 205, IRJET ISO 900:2008 Certified Journal Page 930 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9 V20 V2 V22 V23 V24 V25 V26 V27 V28 V29 V30 V3 V32 V33 V34 V35 the answers in SPSS are defined as: Very Low:, Low: 3, : 5, : 7, and Very : 9. Since ost of SPSS calculated nubers are in between the defined nubers, to facilitate results analyzing, the following odel are used: Table 9 shows the score of 35 variables of this research.

9 Volue: 02 Issue: 05 Aug p-issn: Table 9- Variables Variables in Questionnaire Mean (Result) Foreign Expertise (V) 6.30 Foreign Experience (V2) 6.66 Local Expertise (V3) 5.43 Very Low X<2 Low 2<X<4 4<X<6 6<X<8 Very 8<X Local Experience (V4) 5.43 Culture Differences Effect to Foreign Relationship (V5) 6.20 Language Differences Effect to Foreign Relationship (V6) 6.63 Consider Motivation by Foreign (V7) 6.3 Consider Motivation by Local (V8) 5.90 Foreign Effect on Tasks Quality (V9) 6.73 Proper and Tiely Decision by Foreign (V0) 6.40 Proper and Tiely Decision by Local (V) 5.36 Participation in Decision Making by Foreign (V2) 5.93 Participation in Decision Making by Local (V3) 4.26 Ethical and Politeness of Foreign (V4) 6.50 Ethical and Politeness of Local (V5) 6.3 Bravery and Risk Tolerant of Foreign (V6) 5.34 Bravery and Risk Tolerant of Local (V7) 6.3 Consider Satisfaction by Foreign (V8) 6.33 Consider Satisfaction by Local (V9) 5.86 Consider Tie by Foreign (V20) 7.73 Consider Tie by Local (V2) 4.53 Accountability of Foreign (V22) 7.0 Accountability of Local (V23) 5.93 Foreign Monetary Viewpoints (V24) 6.26 Local Monetary Viewpoints (V25) 6.70 Direct Presence of Foreign in Projects (V26) 6.30 Direct Presence of Local in Projects (V27) 5.86 Consider Disciplines, Rules and Regulations at Work by Foreign 7.80 (V28) Consider Disciplines, Rules and Regulations at Work by Local (V29) 5.40 Consider Skills by Foreign (V30) 7.43 Consider Skills by Local (V3) 6.06 Consider Training by Foreign (V32) 7.3 Consider Training by Local (V33) 4.50 Transfer Inforation and Experiences by Foreign (V34) 6.36 Transfer Inforation and Experiences by Local Low (V35) 3.83 The results of effectiveness and efficiency of foreign and local anagers are reported in Tables 0 and. Table 0- Effectiveness and Efficiency of Foreign Effectiveness Variables Expertise Efficiency Variables Tie Experience Responsibility Culture Differences Effect Language Differences Effect Motivation Monetary Viewpoints Direct Presence in Projects Disciplines, Rules and Regulations 205, IRJET ISO 900:2008 Certified Journal Page 93

10 Volue: 02 Issue: 05 Aug p-issn: Quality Iproveent Tiely and Proper Decision Participation in Decision Making Ethical and Politeness Bravery and Risk Tolerant Satisfaction Consider Training Consider Skills Transferring Inforation and Experiences Medi u Table 0 shows the effectiveness and efficiency of foreign anagers working in ASPC. It indicates that ost of effectiveness variables of foreign anagers such as expertise, experience, and eployees otivation are obtained high score but the bravery and risk tolerant variable is acquired ediu score. However, cultural and language differences effect have obtained high scores, which are considered as negative points for foreign anagers. In addition, all efficiency variables of foreign anagers such as tie anageent and responsibility have gotten high score. Table - Effectiveness and Efficiency of Local Effectiveness Variables Expertise Experience Motivation Tiely and Proper Decision Participation in Decision Making Ethical and Politeness Bravery and Risk Tolerant Satisfaction Efficiency Variables Tie Responsibility Monetary Viewpoints Direct Presence in Projects Disciplines, Rules and Regulations Consider Training Consider Skills Transferring Inforation and Experiences 205, IRJET ISO 900:2008 Certified Journal Page 932 Low Table reports the effectiveness and efficiency of local anagers working in ASPC. It shows that soe of effectiveness variables such as eployees otivation, bravery and risk tolerant are acquired high score, soe others like expertise, experience, and tiely and proper decision aking are obtained ediu score, and transferring inforation and experiences is obtained low score. Efficiency variables of local anagers are also obtained high and ediu scores. For instance, tie anageent has ediu score while responsibility has high score. It is also considerable that both foreign and local anagers have obtained high score in onetary viewpoints factor SWOT Matrix Results SWOT Analysis Matrix helps senior anagers of the copanies to get a better understanding of the strategic choices that they face. To start developing SWOT Analysis Matrix, the factors with higher weighted score of the opportunities, threats, strengths, and weaknesses are selected fro Tables 7 and 8. The opportunities and threats with strengths and weaknesses are atched. This helps to identify Strengths and Opportunities (SO), Strengths and Threats (ST), Weaknesses and Opportunities (WO), and Weaknesses and Threats (WT) strategies of eploying foreign anagers in ASPC as reported in Table 7. SO indicates how to use strengths to take advantage of opportunities, ST iplies how to take advantage of strengths to escape fro actual and potential threats, WO refers how to use opportunities to overcoe the weaknesses, and WT signifies how to iniize weaknesses and keep away fro threats. Preparing required training progra for local anagers and eployees, building effective tea with foreign and local anagers, and aking appropriate copetition between foreign and local anagers are suggested for SO strategies developent in ASPC. Building special coittee with local and foreign anagers and increasing trust to local anagers are recoended to develop ST strategies for ASPC.. Conducting required training for foreign anagers about different issues of Iran, aking close relationship between local and foreign anagers, and regular eetings with foreign anagers are suggested as WO strategies for ASPC. Founding coon goals and objectives with foreign anagers and considering all probable risks and

11 Volue: 02 Issue: 05 Aug p-issn: uncertainties in the projects are proposed as ASPC WT strategies Student s T-Test In this study, the obtained results are quantitative and therefore the Student s t-test is a proper ethod to use here. The forula of Student s t-test with considering 95% level of confidence is as: Where t is Student s t-test, is the ean of each variable, is Standard ean that is considered 5 in this study, s is the saple standard deviation of each variable, and n is the saple size that is 60 in this research. SPSS software is used in this research to assess Student s t-test. Table 2 displays the Student s t-test calculated by SPSS for this study. The iportant ite to be considered in Table 2 is the level of significant (Sig) that is calculated by subtracting the level of confidence fro one. Since the level of confidence is considered 0.95% in this research, therefore Sig should not exceed Table 2 displays that all Sig tabulated values in this research is less than 0.05 and thus the confident level of the results is acceptable. For instance, as per Table 2 the biggest Sig is 0.039, so the iniu confident level of Variables is 0.96%, which belongs to V29 in this research. In addition, Sig in ost of Variables is 0.00 that indicates the confidence level of those Variables is 00%. Consequently, the Student s t-test shows that the results of this research are applicable in ASPC and other international copanies in Iran Oil Industry as well. Table 2- Student s t-test (One Saple Test) t df Sig.(2- tailed) Test Value=5 Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V CONCLUSION The productivity of foreign and local anagers of ASPC has been identified and copared in this research. The results show that foreign anagers have obtained high score in ost of productivity (effectiveness and efficiency) factors such as expertise; experience, tie anageent, and responsibility while in bravery and risk tolerant have acquired ediu score. However, the culture and language differences are considered as negative points for foreign anagers. In contrast, local anagers have acquired high, ediu, and low scores in the productivity factors. For instance, they have obtained high score in bravery, risk tolerant, and responsibility, ediu score in tie anageent and tiely decisions, and low score in transferring inforation and experiences. In addition, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of foreign anagers working in ASPC have been studied in this paper. SWOT Analysis Matrix has been developed and the Strengths and Opportunities (SO), Strengths and Threats (ST), Weaknesses and Opportunities (WO), and Weaknesses and Threats (WT) strategies have been identified and presented. Identifying advantages and disadvantages of foreign anagers would be helpful for 205, IRJET ISO 900:2008 Certified Journal Page 933

12 Volue: 02 Issue: 05 Aug p-issn: senior anagers of international or ultinational copanies in Iran Oil Industry to develop appropriate strategic plan in order to utilize the strengths and opportunities, to iprove the weaknesses, and to reduce the threats of foreign anagers working in their organization. 6. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORKS Based on SWOT Analysis Matrix shown in Table 7, the authors has given soe recoendations regarding SO, WO, ST, and WT strategies that are applicable for ASPC and other copanies in Iran Oil Industry, which use foreign anagers in their organization and projects. The strategies provide the instructions that how to use strengths to take advantage of opportunities, how to take advantage of strengths to escape fro actual and potential threats, how to use opportunities to overcoe the weaknesses, and how to iniize weaknesses and escape fro threats. The recoendations are listed as following: To conduct practical training progra through special support fro foreign anagers to enhance the proficiency and skills of local anagers and eployees. To develop QCC (Quality Control Circles) tea coprised of foreign and local anagers for resolving ajor issues of organization. To build proper copetition between foreign and local anagers for increasing the copany or project s productivity via allocating bonus or other otivation tools to higher productive tea. To conduct appropriate instructing for foreign anagers to know ore about the culture, work environent, and other iportant issues related to Iran. To ake close relationship with foreign anagers to facilitate transferring the inforation. To held periodical eeting with foreign anagers for exchanging inforation and experiences. To found special Coittee coposed of foreign and local anagers to be prepared for aking effective decisions in critical situations. To enhance confidence level of local anagers by using their capabilities in various disciplines particularly in critical circustances. To build coon goals and objectives with foreign anagers and to consider all expected risks and uncertainties in the projects. REFERENCES [] Bjorkan, I. & Schaap, A. (994). Outsiders in themiddle Kingdo: Expatriate in Chinese-Western Joint Ventures. European Journal, 2, [2] Brooklyn Derr, C. & Oddou, G. (993). Internationalizing : Speeding Up the Process. European Journal,, [3] Chen, C. C., Choi, J., & Chi, S. (2002). Making Justice Sense of Local-Expatriate Copensation Disparity: Mitigation by Local Referents, Ideological Explanations, and Interpersonal Sensitivity in China-Foreign Joint Ventures. Acadey of Journal, 45, [4] Chen, Y., Tjosvold, D., & Su, S. F. (2005). Goal interdependence for working across cultural boundaries: Chinese eployees with foreign anagers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29, [5] Chen, Y. F. & Tjosvold, D. (2005). Cross-cultural leadership: Goal interdependence and leader eber relations in foreign ventures in China. Journal of International,, [6] David, F. R. (997). Strategic ( 7th Edition. ed.). [7] Deshpande, S. P. & Viswesvaran, C. (992). Is crosscultural training of expatriate anagers effective? A eta analysis. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 6, [8] Earley, P. C. & Gibson, C. B. (2002). Multinational Teas: New Perspectives: Routledge. [9] Faria, A. & Guedes, A. (2008). What is international anageent? A critical analysis. Strea 3: Critical Perspectives on International Business. [0] Harvey, M. (997). The selection of for Foreign Assignents: A Planning Perspective. The Colubia Journal of World Business, 3, [] Harvey, M. & Novicevic, M. M. (2002). The hypercopetitive global arketplace: the iportance of intuition and creativity in expatriate anagers. Journal of World Business, 37, [2] Makilouko, M. (2004). Coping with ulticultural projects: the leadership styles of Finnish project anagers. International Journal of Project, 22, [3] Mayrhofer, W. & Brewster, C. (996). In praise of ethnocentricity: expatriate policies in European ultinationals. International Executive, 38, [4] Ochieng, E. G. & Price, A. D. F. (200). Managing cross-cultural counication in ulticultural construction project teas: The case of Kenya and UK. International Journal of Project, 28, [5] Perez, J. N. & Pla-Barber, J. (2005). When are international anagers a cost effective solution? The rationale of transaction cost econoics applied to staffing decisions in MNCs. Journal of Business Research, 58, , IRJET ISO 900:2008 Certified Journal Page 934

13 Volue: 02 Issue: 05 Aug p-issn: [6] Seler, J. (200). Coping and adjustent of Western expatriate anagers in Hong Kong. Scandinavian Journal of, 7, [7] Seler, J. (2005). Cross-cultural training and expatriate adjustent in China: Western joint venture anagers. Personnel Review, 34, [8] Swierczek, F. W. (994). Culture and conflict in joint ventures in Asia. International Journal of Project, 2, [9] Tjosvold, D. (995). Effects of power to reward and publish in cooperative and copetitive contexts. Journal of Social Psycholog, 35, WEB REFERENCES Aryasasol Polyer Copany Retrieved fro Azardashti, A. H Characters of a successful project anager. Retrieved fro Barrett, J The inforation needs of elderly, disabled elderly people, and their careers. Retrieved fro WebPart5.ht. Blank., C What is SPSS software? Retrieved fro Data Analysis Australia. What Are You Really Measuring? 200. Reliability and Validity in Questionnaire Design. Retrieved fro EFE Matrix (External Factor Evaluation Matrix) Retrieved fro Flinders University Retrieved fro Gheybi, S. M Retrieved fro Habibi, M Retrieved fro IFE Matrix (Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix) Retrieved fro Kuter, U., &Yilaz, C Survey Methods: Questionnaires and Interviews. Retrieved fro Questionnaire construction Retrieved fro SWOT Analysis Matrix Retrieved fro Using SWOT Matrix Retrieved fro _89.ht 205, IRJET ISO 900:2008 Certified Journal Page 935

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