# Shading Effects on Output Power of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Generator Systems

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2 94 R.E.Hanitsch et al. Table 1: Inverter parameters Parameter Type A Type B input voltage in V input current in A U max in V nominal power in W (max) For the photovoltaic generator a number of 70 W modules were used and the circuit was designed to match with the inverter requirements [1]. The arrangement of the modules is shown in Fig. 1 and the details of the generators can be taken from Tables 2 and 3. Fig. 1: Circuits of PV generator Table 2: PV Generator data Inverter Strings Modules/String Number of modules Type A Type B Table 3: PV Generator details Inverter P n in W U MPP in V I MPP in A U o in V I SC in A U max in V Type A Type B

3 UPEC : Shading Effects on Output Power of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Generator MODELLING The classical one-diode model of the solar cell is not sufficient to handle problems of shade on cells. Therefore the model was extended, now including also the negative section of the diode characteristic. The well known equation is modified to: I = Iphoto IS U + I R m U U + I R S S exp 1 T b( U I RS ) RP n U + I RS + 1 (1) U Bt with U bt n m R S U break through voltage ( V) exponent ( ) diode factor series resistor output voltage B I S U T R P I correction factor saturation current temperature voltage: U T = k T/e parallel resistor output current We measured the dark characteristic and realised that in the blocking state the voltage is often larger than 10 V. In combination with the resulting current the losses can be quite high. Fig. 2 shows the complete characteristic. 8 A cell current V cell voltage Fig. 2: Complete characteristic The incomplete I-U-characteristic of 35 cells under full insolation and one cell shaded with only 50 % of the insolation is shown in Fig. 3. A characteristic of one cell (E=100%) module current characteristic of 35 cells (E=100%) short circuit current of cell (E=50%) part of characteristic of shaded cell (50%) module voltage V Fig. 3: Incomplete module characteris tic

5 UPEC : Shading Effects on Output Power of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Generator 97 Fig. 6: Measured module characteristic no shade module power W 1 cell under shade 2 cells under shade module voltage V Fig. 7: Measured power versus voltage 3. GRID COUPLED PV SYSTEMS Grid coupled PV systems are also characterised by the solar inverter, including the MPP tracker, between the grid and the module array. Before switching on the system the PV generator is in no-load mode. As soon as the inverter is feeding into the grid the voltage drops and approaches the MPP-voltage. Once the controller has reached that point only small oscillations around the MPP can be observed. In the case of poor insolation and therefore modest currents the controller will provide a fixed voltage level below MPP voltage. If the voltage drops further, e.g. due to high ambient temperature or less effective cooling, below a set-point the inverter will cut off the grid and the PV generator is in no-load conditions again. 4. PATTERN OF SHADE As a new parameter to describe the level of shading of a cell we used the following definition: ( c,shaded ) S = 1 E / E (2) c

7 UPEC : Shading Effects on Output Power of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Generator 99 In addition voltage drops occur up to 50 % and also a voltage increase above U MPP of about 20 % was found. The temperature influence was also analysed because beside the STC temperature of 25 C the voltage for - 10 C and + 60 C is of interest: U MPP, ϑ = U MPP, STC + ( 25 ϑ) RTCV (3) For inverter type A the U MPP will vary between 77.6 V (- 10 C) and 56.0 V (60 ) and for inverter type B we calculated 388 V (- 10 C) and 280 V (60 C). 6. CONCLUSIONS Beside insolation and temperature also the pattern of shade has a big influence on the position of maximum power point. Shade pattern may result in two MPP s and the voltage U MPP can increase above U MPP,STC or drop below. However, the voltage U MPP should always be within the range of operation of the inverter. The actual working point of the inverter is also a function of the shade distribution which will change with the position of the sun. If we switch on an already shaded PV system connected to an inverter the working point will be the upper MPP although this is not the real MPP. If the MPP-voltage operation range is selected too narrow the lower MPP might be outside the range for higher temperature and shaded cells. In this case the controller will operate always with the upper MPP resulting in reduced energy yield. REFERENCES [1] SOLON AG, Manual NEG (1999) [2] V. Quaschning, Simulation der Abschattungsverluste bei solarelektrischen Systemen, Diss. TU Berlin, Verlag Dr. Köster (1996)

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