Impedance Measuring Instruments

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1 Impedance Measuring Instruments 472 RF Impedance Material Analyzer, 1 MHz to 1.8 GHz HP 4291B Basic accuracy ±0.8% Advanced calibration and error compensation Four component test fixtures (DUT size: 0.5 mm to 20 mm) Independent parameter selection in 2 channels Direct read-out permittivity, permeability (option) Two material fixtures (operating temperature: 55 to +200 C) Versatile analysis (temperature, cole-cole plot, relaxation time) Sweep parameters (frequency, ac level, dc bias, temperature) 12 HP 4291B HP 4291B RF Impedance/ 1 Material Analyzer Excellent Performance The HP 4291B RF impedance/material analyzer provides a total solution for high-accuracy and easy measurement of surface-mount components and dielectric/magnetic materials. The HP 4291B uses a direct currentvoltage measurement technique, opposing the reflection measurement technique, for more accurate impedance measurement over wide impedance range. Basic impedance accuracy is ± 0.8%. High Q accuracy enables low-loss component analysis. An internal synthesizer sweeps frequency from 1 MHz to 1.8 GHz with 1 mhz resolution. A 1.8-m error-less cable connects the analyzer to a test station so you can extend your test point away from the analyzer without losing accuracy. Advanced calibration and error compensation function eliminate measurement error factors in fixtures and assure high accuracy and repeatability at DUT/MUT. The HP 4291B also provides automatic level control and monitor of test signals by using IBASIC programming function; devices can be measured under a constant voltage or current. Measure bias-dependent impedance characteristics with optional dc bias (up to 40 V and 100 ma). At the push of a button, the built-in Equivalent Circuit Analysis Function automatically calculates the circuit constant values of five circuit models. The HP 4291B has two measurement channels; each channel can be set to measure a single (e.g. Z) or dual (e.g. Z-theta) impedance parameter. The color TFT with split-display can show both active traces and memory traces (stored in RAM). A built-in floppy disk drive stores programs and test data in either LIF or MS-DOS format. With built -in IBASIC, you can control external test equipment such as a temperature chamber or wafer prober directly from the HP 4291B. You do not need a separate instrument controller. Material Evaluation The HP 4291B enables easy and sophisticated material evaluation and improves material evaluation quality and efficiency. The HP 4291B provides the total dielectric/magnetic material measurement solutions in wide frequency range (1 MHz to 1 GHz). See page 477 for more information. Key Features Direct material parameter read-out (permittivity, permeability) Material analysis functions (Cole-Cole plots, relaxation time analysis) Versatile evaluation using a variety of swept parameters (frequency, signal level, temperature, etc.) Test Fixtures Select from four types of component test fixtures: HP 16191A, HP 16192A, HP 16193A, and HP 16194A. These test fixtures directly connect to the test station s APC-7 connector. Each fixture is designed for a different component size range, from 0.5 mm to 20 mm, and can handle different types of termination. These adjustable fixtures simplify device connection. For temperature coefficient testing, the HP 16194A high-temperature component test fixture can be used in a temperature oven from 55 to +200 C. Together with the HP 4291B s built-in compensation software, the fixtures ensure impedance accuracy and measurement repeatability. The HP 16453A dielectric material test fixture and HP 16454A magnetic material test fixture improve the accuracy and ease of use for permittivity or permeability measurements. These material fixtures have wide operating temperature of 55 to +200 C. For measuring thin-film devices and semiconductors, the HP 4291B easily interfaces to a wafer prober. An extension cable connects the HP 4291B s test head to a probe station. For temperature and humidity testing, the HP 4291B can control an external temperature humidity chamber via GPIB and display the measurement result vs. temperature or humidity. Ease of Use With the HP 4291B, impedance testing is easy. The analyzer comes with on-line calibration and compensation routine to simplify the task. Markers and limit-line function offer quick data analysis. With compliments Helmut Singer Elektronik fon fax Feldchen D Aachen Germany

2 Specifications Measurement Parameters Impedance Parameters: Z, Y,, R, X, G, B, Cp, Cs, Lp, Ls, Rp, Rs, D, Q Converted Parameters:, U, x, y Material Parameters:,,,, μ, μ, μ Operating Frequency: 1 MHz to 1.8 GHz Frequency Resolution: 1 mhz Frequency Reference Accuracy: < ± 10 ± 5 C Precision Frequency Reference (Option 1D5) Accuracy: < ± 1 0 to 55 C, referenced to 23 C Basic Measurement Accuracy Frequency (Hz) Impedance % Phase (radian) 1 M to 100 M m 200 M m 500 M m 1 G m 1.8 G m Source Characteristics OSC Level: 0.2 mv to 1 V rms (1 MHz to 1 GHz) (Output terminal open) 0.2 mv to 0.5 V rms (1 GHz to 1.8 GHz) Basic OSC Level Accuracy: 2 db + 6 db X 23 ± 5 C; (terminated with 50 V 250 mv Display Level Unit: V,I, dbm Level Monitor Function: Voltage, current Connector: APC-7 Output Impedance (nominal value): 50 Ω DC Bias DC Level: 0 to ± 40 V, 0 to ± 100 ma DC Level Accuracy: Voltage Level: 0.1% + 4 mv + (Idc[mA] X 5 [Ω] 23 ± 5 C Current Level: 0.5% + 30 μ A + (Vdc [V]/10 [kω]) 23 ± 5 C DC Level Monitor Function: DCV, DCI Sweep Characteristics Sweep Parameter: Frequency, ac signal level, dc bias voltage/current (temperature by using IBASIC) Capacitor Calibration Open/Short/50 Ω Calibration, low loss CAL Open/Short/Load Compensation, port extension, fixture electrical length Key Specifications of Test Fixtures Type of fixture HP 16191A HP 16192A HP 16193A HP 16194A Operating dc to 2 GHz dc to 2 GHz dc to 2 GHz dc to 2 GHz freq. (typ.) Operating 55 to +55 C 55 to +85 C 55 to +85 C 55 to +200 C temperature DUT size 2.0 to to to to 15.0 (length: mm) Impedance Measuring Instruments RF Impedance/Material Analyzer, 1 MHz to 1.8 GHz Display CRT Type: Color TFT Size: 8 inch Number of Display Channels: 2 Format: Single, dual, active + memory, graphic, and tabular Storage Type: Built-in inch floppy disk drive; volatile RAM disk memory Disk Format: LIF, DOS Programming: Instrument BASIC (built-in) Input and Output Characteristics External Reference Input: 10 MHz ± 100 Hz typically Internal Reference Output: 10 MHz nominal Reference Oven Output (Option 1D5): 10 MHz nominal External Trigger Input: BNC female, TTL Level General Specifications Operating Temperature/Humidity: 10 to 50 C/15% to 80% RH Warm-Up Time: 30 min. Power Requirements: 90 V to 132 V, or 198 V to 264 V, 47 to 66 Hz, 500 VA max. Size/Weight Mainframe: 426 mm W x 234 mm H x 537 mm D/24.2 kg Test Station: 275 mm W x 95 mm H x 205 mm D/3.7 kg Key Literature HP 4291B 1.8GHz Impedance/Material Analyzer Product Overview, p/n E HP 4291B 1.8GHz Impedance/Material Analyzer Technical Specifications, p/n E Ordering Information HP 4291B RF Impedance/Material Analyzer Furnished Accessories: High-Impedance Test Head, Calibration Kit, Operation Manual, Floppy Kisk, and Power Cable. (No test fixture is supplied with the HP 4291B.) Options Opt 1D5 Add High-Stability Frequency Reference Opt 001 Add DC Bias Opt 002 Add Material Measurement Software Opt 011 Delete High-Impedance Test Head Opt 012 Add Low-Impedance Test Head Opt 013 Add High-Temperature High-Impedance Test Head Opt 014 Add High-Temperature Low-Impedance Test Head Support Options Opt W30 Extended Repair Service Opt W32 Calibration Service Accessories HP 16190A HP 4291B Performance Test Kit HP 16191A Side Electrode Test Fixture HP 16192A Parallel Electrode Test Fixture HP 16193A Small Side Electrode Test Fixture HP 16194A High-Temperature Component Test Fixture HP 16453A Dielectric Material Test Fixture HP 16454A Magnetic Material Test Fixture 473 HP 4291B 12 Fax-on-demand (24hr) Internet URL Product & Order Info 8am-8pm EST

3 Agilent 4291B RF Impedance/Material Analyzer Data Sheet With compliments Helmut Singer Elektronik fon fax Feldchen D Aachen Germany Overview Specifications describe the instrument s warranted performance over the temperature range of 0 C to 40 C (except as noted). Supplemental characteristics are intended to provide information that is useful in applying the instrument by giving nonwarranted performance parameters. These are denoted as typical, nominal, or approximate. Warm-up time must be greater than or equal to 30 minutes after power on for all specifications. Specifications of the stimulus characteristics and measurement accuracy are defined at the tip of APC-7 connector on the test head connected to the instrument. Figure 1-1

4 Agilent 4291B RF Impedance/Material Analyzer Measurement Parameters Impedance parameters Z, θ z, Y, θ y, R, X, G, B, C p, C s, L p, L s, R p, R s, D, Q, Γ, θ y, Γ x, Γ y Stimulus Characteristics Frequency Characteristics Operating frequency MHz to 1.8 GHz Frequency resolution mhz Frequency reference 23±5 C < ±10 ppm Precision frequency reference (Option 1D5) 0 C to 40 C < ±1 ppm Source Characteristics OSC level Voltage 1 MHz Frequency 1 GHz (When terminal is open) mv rms to 1 V 1 GHz < Frequency 1.8 GHz (When terminal is open) mv rms to 0.5 V rms Current 1 MHz Frequency 1 GHz (When terminal is shorted) μa rms to 20 ma 1 GHz < Frequency 1.8 GHz (When terminal is shorted) μa rms to 10 ma rms Power 1 MHz Frequency 1 GHz (When terminating with 50 Ω) dbm to 7 1 GHz < Frequency 1.8 GHz (When terminating with 50 Ω) dbm to 1 dbm OSC level resolution AC voltage resolution 0.22 V rms < V OSC 1 V rms mv 70 mv rms < V OSC 220 mv rms mv 22 mv rms < V OSC 70 mv rms mv 7 mv rms < V OSC 22 mv rms mv 2.2 mv rms < V OSC 7 mv rms mv 0.7 mv rms < V OSC 2.2 mv rms mv 0.2 mv rms V OSC 0.7 mv rms mv 2

5 Agilent 4291B RF Impedance/Material Analyzer AC current resolution 4.4 ma rms < I OSC 20 ma rms μa 1.4 ma rms < I OSC 4.4 ma rms μa 0.44 ma rms < I OSC 1.4 ma rms μa 140 μa rms < I OSC 440 μya rms μa 44 μa rms < I OSC 140 μa rms μa 14 μa rms < I OSC 44 μa rms μa 4 μa rms I OSC 14 μa rms μa AC power resolution dbm OSC level accuracy A + B + 6 [db] f [MHz] db 1800 where, A depends on temperature conditions as within referenced to 23±5 C other environmental temperature conditions db B depends on OSC level as V OSC 250 mv rms db (I OSC 5 ma rms ) (P OSC mv rms > V OSC 2.5 mv rms (5 ma rms > I OSC 50 μa rms ) ( 5 dbm > P OSC 45 dbm) other OSC level db Definition of OSC level Voltage level: 2 voltage level across the 50 Ω which is connected to the output terminal (This level is approximately equal to the level when a terminal is open.) Current level: 2 current level through the 50 Ω which is connected to the output terminal (This level is approximately equal to the level when a terminal is shorted.) Power level: when terminating with 50 Ω OSC level accuracy /2 of specification value (typical) Connector APC-7 Output impedance Ω (Nominal value) DC bias (Option 001) DC voltage level to ±40V DC current level μa to 100 ma and 20 μa to 100 ma DC level resolution mv, 20 μa DC level 23±5 C Voltage % + 4 mv + (I dc [ma] 5 [Ω] ) mv Current % + 30 μa + (V dc [V] /10 [kω] ) 8 to 18 C and 28 to 38 C Voltage % + 8 mv + (I dc [ma] 10 [Ω] ) mv Current % + 60 μa + (V dc [v] /5 [kω] ) 0 to 8 0C and 38 to 40 C Voltage % + 12 mv + (I dc [ma] 15 [Ω] ) mv Current % + 90 μa + (V dc [V] 3/10 [kω] ) ma 3

6 Agilent 4291B RF Impedance/Material Analyzer Level monitor Monitor parameters OSC level (voltage, current), DC bias (voltage, current) Monitor accuracy OSC level Same as OSC level accuracy (typical) DC bias Twice as bad as specifications of dc level accuracy (typical) Sweep Characteristics Figure 1-2. DC Voltage and Current Level Range (Typical) Sweep parameters Frequency, OSC level (voltage), DC bias voltage/current Sweep setup Start Stop, or Center Span Sweep type Frequency sweep Linear, Log, Zero-span, List Other sweep parameters Linear, Log, Zero-span Sweep mode Continuous, Single, Manual, Number of groups Sweep direction AC level, DC bias (voltage and current) Up sweep, Down sweep Other sweep parameters Up sweep Number of measurement points to 801 points Averaging Sweep average, Point average Delay time Point delay time, Sweep delay time Measurement circuit mode Series circuit mode, parallel circuit mode Calibration/Compensation Calibration function Open/Short/50 Ω calibration, Low loss calibration Compensation function open/short/load compensation, Port extension, Electric length 4

7 Agilent 4291B RF Impedance/Material Analyzer Measurement Accuracy Conditions of accuracy specifications Open/Short/50 Ω calibration must be done. Calibration ON. Averaging (on point) factor is larger than 32 at which calibration is done if Cal points is set to USER DEF. Measurement points are same as the calibration points. Environmental temperature is within ±5 C of temperature at which calibration is done, and within l3 C to 33 C. Beyond this environmental temperature condition, accuracy is twice as bad as specified. Z, Y Accuracy ±(E a + E b ) [%] The illustrations of Z and Y accuracy are shown in Figures l-3 to 1-6. θ Accuracy ± (E a + E b ) [rad] 100 L, C, X, B Accuracy ±(E a + E b ) (1 + D x2 ) [%] R, G Accuracy ±(E a + E b ) (1 + Q x2 ) [%] D Accuracy (ΔD) E D x tan ( a + E b (1 + D x2 )tan ( a + E b ) ) < ± E 1 D x tan ( a + E b ) 100 D x ± (E a + E b ) 100 Q Accuracy (ΔQ) E Q x tan ( a + E (1 + Q x2 )tan ( a + E b ) b ) < ± E a + E b (1 Q x )tan ( 100 ) 10 (E 2 a + E b ) (E Q x ±Q x ± a + E b ) 100 Where, D x : Measured vaulue of D E a : depends on measurement frequency as 1 MHz Frequency 100 MHz MHz < Frequency 500 MHz MHz < Frequency 1000 MHz MHz < Frequency 1800 MHz E b = (Z s / Z x + Y o Z x 100 Q x : Measured value of Q Z x : impedance measurement value [Ω] Z s and Y o depend on number of point averaging (N av ), OSC level (V OSC ), impedance measurement value (Z x ) and the test head used as follows: 5

8 Agilent 4291B RF Impedance/Material Analyzer Table 1-1. Z s and Y o When High Impedance Test Head Is Used Measurement Conditions Number of Point Meas. Averaging OSC Signal Level Impedance (N av ) (V osc ) (Z x ) Z S [Ω] Y o [S] V osc < 0.02V x ( x f [MHz] ) x (5 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] ) Vosc Vosc 1 N av V V osc < 0.12V x f [MHz] 5 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] 0.12V V osc Z x 500 Ω x f [MHz] 5 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] Z x < 500 Ω x f [MHz] 2 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] 0.02 V osc < 0.02V x ( x x f [MHz] ) x (2 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] ) Vosc Vosc N av V V osc < 0.12V x 10 4 x f [MHz] 2 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] 0.12V V osc Z x 500 Ω x 10 4 x f [MHz] 2 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] Z x < 500 Ω x 10 4 x f [MHz] 7 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] Table 1-2. Z s and Y o When Low Impedance Test Head Is Used Measurement Conditions Number of Point Meas. Averaging OSC Signal Level Impedance (N av ) (V osc ) (Z x ) Z S [Ω] Y o [S] V osc < 0.02V x ( x f [MHz] ) x (1 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] ) Vosc Vosc 1 N av V V osc < 0.12V x f [MHz] 1 x x 10-7 x f [MHz] 0.12V V osc Z x 5 Ω x f [MHz] 1 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] Z x > 5 Ω x f [MHz] 1 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] 0.02 V osc < 0.02V x ( x x f [MHz] ) x (3 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] Vosc Vosc N av V V osc < 0.12V x 10 4 x f [MHz] 3 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] 0.12V V osc Z x 5 Ω x 10 4 x f [MHz] 3 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] Z x > 5 Ω x 10 4 x f [MHz] 3 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] At the following frequency points, instrument spurious characteristics could occasionally cause measurement errors to exceed specified value because of instrument spurious characteristics MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz See EMC under Others in General Characteristics. 6

9 Agilent 4291B RF Impedance/Material Analyzer Figure 1-3. Impedance Measurement Accuracy Using High Impedance Test Head Low OSC Level) Figure 1-4. Impedance Measurement Accuracy Using High Impedance Test Head High OSC Level) 7

10 Agilent 4291B RF Impedance/Material Analyzer Figure 1-5. Impedance Measurement Accuracy Using Low Impedance Test Head Low OSC Level) Figure 1-6. Impedance Measurement Accuracy Using Low Impedance Test Head High OSC Level) 8

11 Agilent 4291B RF Impedance/Material Analyzer Typical measurement accuracy when open/short/50 Ω/low-loss-capaciter calibration is done Conditions Averaging on point factor is larger than 32 at which calibration is done. Cal Points is set to USER DEF. Environmental temperature is within ±5 C of temperature at which calibration is done, and within 13 C to 33 C. Beyond this environmental temperature condition, accuracy is twice as bad as specified. Z, Y Accuracy ±(E a + E b ) [%] θ Accuracy ± [rad] 100 L, C, X, B Accuracy ± (E a + E b ) 2 + (E c D x ) 2 [%] R, G Accuracy ± (E a + E b ) 2 + (E c Q x ) 2 [%] D Accuracy (1 + D x tan(e c /100) < ± x ) tan(e c /100) ± 1 D x tan(e c /100) Especially, D x ± E c ± 100 Q Q x tan(e c /100) < ± (1 + Q2 x )tan(e c /100). 1 Q x tan(e c /100) 10 E Especially, Q x ± Q 2 c E x. c 100 Where, D X : Actual D value of DUT E a, E b : are as same as E a and E b of the measurement accuracy when OPEN/SHORT/50 Ω calbration is done. E c = F 1800 (Typical) F : measurement frequency [MHz] Q x : Actual Q value of DUT E c With compliments Helmut Singer Elektronik fon fax Feldchen D Aachen Germany 9

12 Agilent 4291B RF Impedance/Material Analyzer Figure 1-7. Typical measurement accuracy when open/short/50 Ω/low-loss-capaciter calibration is done 10

13 Options 013 and 014 High Temperature Test Heads Specification for Option 013 and 014 High Temperature Test Heads Frequency Characteristics Operating frequency MHz to 1.8 GHz Source Characteristics OSC level Voltage 1 MHz Frequency < 1 GHz mv rms to 500 mv 1 GHz Frequency 1.8 GHz mv rms 250 mv rms OSC level resolution AC voltage 110 mv rms < V OSC 500 mv rms mv rms < V OSC 110 mv rms mv rms < V OSC 11 mv rms mv rms V OSC 1.1 mv rms μv AC current 2.75 ma rms < I OSC 12.5 ma rms ma rms < I OSC 2.75 ma rms μa rms < I OSC 275 μa rms μa I OSC 27.5 μa μa AC power 66.1 dbm P OSC 1.9 dbm dbm max OSC level 1 MHz Frequency 1 GHz, V OSC 0.25 V rms (I OSC 6.3 ma, P OSC 4.1 dbm) A + B + 8[ db ] frequency[ MHz ] db 1800 Where, A depends on temperature conditions as follows: within referenced to 23±5 C C to 18 C, 28 C to 40 C db B depends on OSC level as 0.5 V rms V OSC 120 mv rms db (12.5 ma rms I OSC 3mA rms ) (1.9 dbm P OSC mv rms > V OSC 1.2 mv rms (3 ma rms > I OSC 30 μa rms ) ( 10 dbm > P OSC 50 dbm) mv rms > V OSC 0.2 mv rms db (30 μa rms > I OSC 5 μa rms ) ( 50 dbm > P OSC 66.1 dbm) Output impedance Ω (Nominal value) Level Monitor Monitor accuracy OSC level Same as OSC level accuracy (typical) DC bias Twice as bad as specifications of dc level accuracy (typical) 11

14 Options 013 and 014 High Temperature Test Heads Basic Measurement Accuracy Conditions of accuracy specifications OPEN/SHORT/50 Ω calibration must be done. Calibration ON. Averaging (on point) factor must be larger than 32 at which calibration is done. Measurement points are same as the calibration points. Environmental temperature is within ±5 C of temperature at which calibration is done, and within 13 C to 33 C. Beyond this environmental temperature condition, and within 0 C to 40 C, accuracy is twice as bad as specified. Bending cable should be smooth and the bending angle is less than 30. Cable position should be kept in the same position after calibration measurement. OSC level must be same as level at which calibration is done. OSC level is less than or equal to 0.25 V, or OSC level is greater than 0.25 V and frequency range is within 1 MHz to 1 GHz. Z Accuracy ±(E a + E b ) [%] (E θ Accuracy ± a + E b ) [rad] 100 Where, E a : depends on measurement frequency as 1 MHz frequency 100 MHz MHz < frequency 500 MHz MHz < frequency 1 GHz GHz < frequency 1.8 GHz [%] E b = (Z s /Z x + Y o Z x ) 100 [%] Z s and Y o depend on number of point averaging (N av ) and OSC level (V osc ) as follows: Z x : Impedance measurement value [Ω] 12

15 Options 013 and 014 High Temperature Test Heads Table 1-3. Z s and Y o When High Impedance Test Head Is Used Measurement Conditions Number of Point Averaging OSC Signal Level (N av ) (V osc ) 1 Z S [Ω] Y o [S] V osc < 0.02 x ( x f [MHz] ) x (5 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] ) Vosc Vosc 1 N av V V osc < x f [MHz] 5 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] 0.12V V osc x f [MHz] 3 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] V osc < 0.02 x ( x f [MHz] ) x (2 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] ) Vosc Vosc 8 < N av 0.02V V osc < x f [MHz] 2 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] 0.12V V osc x f [MHz] 2 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] 1. V osc = 0.12V l osc = 3 ma P OSC = 10 dbm, V osc = 0.02V l osc = 0.5 ma P osc = 26 dbm Table 1-4. Z s and Y o When Low Impedance Test Head Is Used Measurement Conditions Number of Point Averaging OSC Signal Level (N av ) (V osc ) 1 Z S [Ω] Y o [S] V osc < 0.02 x ( x f [MHz] ) x (1 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] ) Vosc Vosc 1 N av V V osc < x f [MHz] 1 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] 0.12V V osc x f [MHz] 1 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] V osc < 0.02 x ( x f [MHz] ) x (3 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] ) Vosc Vosc 8 < N av 0. 02V V osc < x f [MHz] 3 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] 0.12V V osc x f [MHz] 3 x x 10 7 x f [MHz] 1. V osc = 0.12V l osc = 3 ma P OSC = 10 dbm, V osc = 0.02V l osc = 0.5 ma P osc = 26 dbm At the following frequency points, instrument spurious characteristics could occasionally cause measurement errors to exceed specified value because of instrument spurious characteristics MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz See EMC under Others in General Characteristics. The excessive vibration and shock could occasionally cause measurement errors to exceed specified values. 13

16 Options 013 and 014 High Temperature Test Heads Figure 1-8. Impedance Measurement Accuracy Using High Temperature High Impedance Test Head Low OSC Level) Figure 1-9. Impedance Measurement Accuracy Using High Temperature High Impedance Test Head High OSC Level) 14

17 Options 013 and 014 High Temperature Test Heads Figure Impedance Measurement Accuracy Using High Temperature Low Impedance Test Head Low OSC Level) Figure Impedance Measurement Accuracy Using High Temperature Low Impedance Test Head High OSC Level) 15

18 Options 013 and 014 High Temperature Test Heads Typical Effects of Temperature Drift on Measurement Accuracy When environmental temperature exceeds ±5 C of temperature at which calibration is done, add the following measurement error. Conditions of typical effects of temperature drift Environment temperature of a test head is within 55 C to 0 C or 40 C to 200 C. Environment temperature of the mainframe is within ±5 C of temperature at which calibration is done, and within 0 C to 40 C. Other conditions are as same as the conditions of the basic measurement accuracy of Option 013/014. Z Accuracy ±(E a2 + E b2 ) [%] (E θ Accuracy ± a2 + E b2 ) [rad] 100 Where, E a2 = (ΔA 1 ΔT + ΔA 2 ) 10 8 E b2 = (Z s2 /Z x + Y o2 Z x ) 100 ΔA 1 is the effect of temperature drift on the impedance measurement value as follows: ( f ) [ppm/ C] (typical) ΔA 2 is the hysterisiss of the effect of temperature drift on the impedance measurement value as follows: ΔA 1 ΔT [ppm] (typical) 3 f : Measurement Frequency [GHz] ΔT: Difference of temperature between measurement condition and calibration measurement condition. [ C] Y o2 = (ΔY o1 ΔT + ΔY o2 ) 10 6 [S] Z s2 = (ΔZ s1 ΔT + ΔZ s2 ) 10 3 [Ω] Z x : Impedance measurement value [Ω] Y o1 is the temperature coefficient for OPEN residual as High Temperature High Impedance Test Head is used ( f 2 ) [μs/ C] High Temperature Low Impedance Test Head is used ( f ) [μs/ C] (typical) ΔY Y o2 is the hysterisis of the OPEN residual as follows: ΔT [μs/ C](typical) 3 ΔZ s1 is the temperature coefficient for SHORT residual as High Temperature High Impedance Test Head is used ( f ) [mω C] High Temperature Low Impedance Test Head is used ( f 2 ) [mω C] (typical) ΔZ s2 is the hysterisis of the SHORT residual as follows: ΔZ s1 ΔT 3 [mω/ C](typical) 16

19 Options 013 and 014 High Temperature Test Heads Figure Typical Frequency Characteristics of Temperature Coefficient Using High Temperature High Impedance Test Head Figure Typical Frequency Characteristics of Temperature Coefficient Using High Temperature Low Impedance Test Head 17

20 Options 013 and 014 High Temperature Test Heads Operation Conditions of the Test Head The cable must be at the same temperature as the main frame at least 15 cm from the test station C to +200 C Figure Dimensions of High Temperature Test Head 18

21 Options 013 and 014 High Temperature Test Heads Display LCD Type/size Color TFT, 8.4 inch Resolution Effective Display Area mm 115 mm ( dots) Number of display channels Format single, dual split or overwrite, graphic, and tabular Number of traces For measurement trace/channel For memory traces/channel (maximum) Data math functions gain data-offset gain memory offset gain (data memory) offset gain (data + memory) offset gain (data/memory) offset gain (data memory) offset Marker Number of markers Main marker for each channel Sub-marker for each channel ΔMarker for each channel Data Storage Type floppy disk drive, Volatile memory disk Capacity floppy disk kb/1.44 MB Volatile memory disk, can be backed up by flash memory kb (maximum) Disk format LIF, DOS GPIB Interface IEEE , IEC625 Interface function SH1, AH1, T6, TE0, L4, LE0, SR1, RL1, PPO, DC1, DT1, C1, C2, C3, C4, C11, E2 Numeric Data Transfer formats ASCII 32 and 64 bit IEEE 754 Floating point format, DOS PC format (32 bit IEEE with byte order reversed) Protocol IEEE With compliments Helmut Singer Elektronik fon fax Feldchen D Aachen Germany 19

22 Options 013 and 014 High Temperature Test Heads Printer Parallel Port Interface IEEE 1284 Centronics standard compliant Printer control language HP PCL3 Printer Control Language Connector D-sub (25-pin) General Characteristics Input and Output Characteristics External reference input Frequency MHz ±100 Hz (typically) Level > 6 dbm (typically) Input impedance Ω (nominal) Connector BNC female Internal Reference Output Frequency MHz (nominal) Level dbm (typically) Output impedance Ω (nominal) Connector BNC female External trigger input Level TTL Level Pulse width (Tp) > 2μs (typically) Polarity positive/negative selective Connector BNC female Figure Trigger Signal External monitor output Connector D-sub (15-pin HD) Display resolution VGA 20

23 Options 013 and 014 High Temperature Test Heads Operation Conditions Temperature Disk drive non-operating condition C to 40 C Disk drive operating condition C to 40 C wet bulb temperature <29 C, without condensation Disk drive non-operating condition % to 95 % RH Disk drive operating condition % to 80 % RH Altitude to 2,000 meters Warm-up time minutes Non-operation conditions Temperature C to 60 C wet bulb temperature <45 C, without condensation % to 95 % RH Altitude to 4,572 meters Others EMC Complies with CISPR 11 (1990) / EN (1991) : Group 1, Class A Complies with IEC (1995) / EN (1995) Complies with IEC (1994) / EN (1995) Complies with IEC (1995) / EN (1992) : 4 kv CD, 8 kv AD Complies with IEC (1995) / EN (1992) : 3 V/m Complies with IEC (1995) / EN (1992) : 1 kv / Main, 0.5k V / Signal Line Note: When tested at 3 V/m according to IEC (1995), the measurement accuracy will be within specifications over the full immunity test frequency range of 27 to 1000 MHz except when the analyzer frequency is identical to the transmitted interference signal test frequency. Safety Complies with IEC (1990), Amendment 1 (1992) and Amendment 2 (1995) Complies with CSA-C22.2 No Power requirements V to 132V, or 198V to 264V (automatically switched), 47 to 63 Hz, 300VA max Weight Mainframe kg (SPC) Test Station kg Dimensions Mainframe (W) 235 (H) 553 (D) mm Test Station (W) 95 (H) 205 (D) mm 21

24 Options 013 and 014 High Temperature Test Heads External Program Run/Cont Input Connector BNC female Level TTL Keyboard connector mini-din I/O port bit in/ 8 bit out port, TTL Level Figure I/O Port Pin Assignment Specifications for Option 1D5 High Stability Frequency Reference Reference Oven Output Frequency MHz (nominal) Level dbm (typically) Output Impedance Ω (nominal) Connector BNC female 22

25 Option 002 Material Measurement Supplemental Characteristics for Option 002 Material Measurement Measurement Frequency Range Using the Agilent 16453A MHz to 1.0 GHz (Typical) Using the Agilent 16454A MHz to 1.0 GHz (Typical) Measurement Parameters Permittivity parameters ε r, ε r ', ε r ", tanδ Permeability parameters μ r, μ r ', μ r ", tanδ Typical Measurement Accuracy Conditions of accuracy characteristics Use the High Z Test Head for permittivity measurement Use the Low Z Test Head for permeability measurement OPEN/SHORT/50 Ω calibration must be done. Calibration ON. Averaging (on point) factor is larger than 32 at which calibration is done if Cal points is set to USER DEF. Measurement points are same as the calibration points if Cal point is set to USER DEF. Environment temperature is within ±5 C of temperature at which calibration is done, and within 13 C to 33 C. Beyond this environmental temperature condition, accuracy is twice as bad as specified. Δε' ε r ' Accuracy ( rm ) ε' rm 0.04 t ε' rm tanδ < (10 + f ) ε' [%] (Typical) rm t 1 (13/ ε' rm /f) 2 A Loss Tangent Accuracy of ε (Δtanδ) tanδ < E a + E b (Typical) frequency 1 GHz t 0.1 E a = f + (Typical) f ε' m 1 (13/ ε' rm /f) frequency > 1 GHz t 0.1 E a = f + (Typical) f ε' m 1 (13/ ε' rm /f) 2 Δε' E b = ( rm ε' rm ) tanδ (Typical) ε' rm 100 t f is measurement frequency [GHz] t is thickness of MUT [mm] ε' rm is measured value of ε' r tanδ is measured value of dielectric loss tangent 23

26 Option 002 Material Measurement Δμ' μ r ' Accuracy rm μ' rm 25 tanδ < Fμ' rm (1 + ) 2 f 2 [%] (Typical) Fμ' rm Fμ' rm A Loss Tangent Accuracy of μ r tanδ < E a + E b (Typical) Where, E a = E b = Δμ' rm μ' rm Fμ' rm f tanδ f (Typical) (Typical) f is measurement frequency [GHz] c F = hln [mm] b h is the height of MUT [mm] b is the inner diameter of MUT c is the outer diameter of MUT tanδ is the measured value of loss tangent μ' rm is the measured value of permeability At the following frequency points, instrument spurious characteristics could occasionally cause measurement errors to exceed specified value MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz See EMC under Others in General Characteristics. 24

27 Option 002 Material Measurement Figure Typical Permittivity Measurement Accuracy thickness = 0.3 mm) Figure Typical Permittivity Measurement Accuracy thickness = 1 mm) 25

28 Option 002 Material Measurement Figure Typical Permittivity Measurement Accuracy thickness = 3 mm) Figure Typical Dielectric Loss Tangent (tanδ) Measurement Accuracy thickness = 0.3 mm) 26

29 Option 002 Material Measurement Figure Typical Dielectric Loss Tangent (tanδ) Measurement Accuracy thickness = 1 mm) Figure Typical Dielectric Loss Tangent (tanδ) Measurement Accuracy thickness = 3 mm) 27

30 Option 002 Material Measurement Figure Typical Permittivity Measurement Accuracy (ε r vs. thickness = 0.3 mm) Figure Typical Permittivity Measurement Accuracy (ε r vs. thickness = 1 mm) 28

31 Option 002 Material Measurement Figure Typical Permittivity Measurement Accuracy (ε r vs. thickness = 3 mm) With compliments Helmut Singer Elektronik fon fax Feldchen D Aachen Germany 29

32 Option 002 Material Measurement Figure Typical Permeability Measurement Accuracy F* = 0.5) Figure Typical Permeability Measurement Accuracy F* = 3) *F = hln c b 30

33 Option 002 Material Measurement Figure Typical Permeability Measurement Accuracy F* = 10) Figure Typical Permeability Loss Tangent (tanδ) Measurement Accuracy F* = 0.5) *F = hln c b 31

34 Option 002 Material Measurement Figure Typical Permeability Loss Tangent (tanδ) Measurement Accuracy F* = 3) Figure Typical Permeability Loss Tangent (tanδ) Measurement Accuracy F* = 10) *F = hln c b 32

35 Option 002 Material Measurement Figure Typical Permeability Measurement Accuracy (μ r vs. F* = 0.5) Figure Typical Permeability Measurement Accuracy (μ r vs. F* = 3) *F = hln c b 33

36 Option 002 Material Measurement Figure Typical Permeability Measurement Accuracy ( μ r vs. F* = 10) *F = hln c b 34

37 Option 002 Material Measurement Applicable MUT (Material Under Test) Size See Tables 1-5 and 1-6 Maximum DC Bias Voltage / Current Using the Agilent 16453A ±40 V Using the Agilent 16454A ±500 ma Operating Temperature Using the Agilent 16453A or 16454A C to +200 C Operating Humidity Wet bulb temperature < 40 C Using the Agilent 16453A or 16454A up to 95% RH Table 1-5. Applicable Dielectric Material Size Using with the Agilent 16453A t d 3 mm φ 15 mm Table 1-6. Applicable Magnetic Material Size Using the Agilent 16454A Fixture Small Large Holder A B C D c φ 8 mm φ 6 mm φ 20 mm φ 20 mm b φ 3.1 mm φ 3.1 mm φ 6 mm φ 5 mm h 3 mm 3 mm 10 mm 10 mm 35

38 Material Measurement Accuracy with High Temperature Test Head Option 002 Material Measurement Accuracy with Options 013 and 014 High Temperature Test Head (Typical) Dielectric Material Measurement Accuracy with High Temperature Test Head (Typical) Conditions of Dielectric Material Measurement Accuracy with High Temperature Test Head Environment temperature is within ±5 C of temperature at which calibration is done, and within 0 C to 40 C. High Temperature High Impedance Test Head must be used. Bending cable should be smooth and the bending angle less than 30. Cable position should be kept in the same position after calibration measurement. OPEN/SHORT/50 Ω calibration must be done. Calibration ON. Measurement points are same as the calibration points. Averaging (on point) factor must be larger than 32 at which calibration is done. OSC level must be same as level at which calibration is done. OSC level is less than or equal to 0.25 V rms, or greater than 0.25 V rms and frequency range is within 1 MHz to 1 GHz. Environment temperature of the main frame is within ±5 C of temperature at which calibration is done, and within 0 C to 40 C. Δε' ε r ' Accuracy ( rm ) Same as accuracy at which a normal test head is used ε' rm A Loss Tangent Accuracy of ε r (Δtanδ) Same as accuracy at which a normal test head is used At the following frequency points, instrument spurious characteristics could occasionally cause measurement errors to exceed specified value MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz See EMC under Others in General Characteristics. The excessive vibration and shock could occasionally cause measurement errors to exceed specified value. 36

39 Material Measurement Accuracy with High Temperature Test Head Typical Effects of Temperature Drift on Dielectric Material Measurement Accuracy When environment temperature is without ±5 C of temperature at which calibration is done, add the following measurement error. Δε' ε r Accuracy ( rm ) E ε + E a3 + E b3 [%] ε' rm A Loss Tangent Accuracy of ε r (Δtanδ) E (E a3 + E b3 tanδε + ) 100 Where, E ε is ε r ' accuracy when a normal test head is used. E tanδε is loss tangent accuracy when a normal test head is used. E a3 is the effect of temperature drift on the accuracy as follows: E a3 = T c ΔT E b3 is the hysterisis of the effect of temperature drift on the accuracy as follows: E b3 = T c ΔT 3 Where, T c is temperature coefficient as follows: T c = K 1 + K 2 + K 3 K 1 = ( f) ε' K 2 = (4 + 50f) ( rm ) f t 1 (f/f 0 ) 2 1 K 3 = ( f 2 ) ε' rm 1 ( t 1 (f/f 0 ) ) f f : Measurement Frequency [GHz] 13 f 0 = [GHz] ε' rm t : Thickness of MUT [mm] ε' rm : measured value of ε' r The illustrations of temperature coefficient T c are shown in Figures 1-35 to ΔT is difference of temperature between measurement condition and calibration measurement condition as follows: ΔT = T meas T cal T meas : Temperature of Test Head at measurement condition T cal : Temperature of Test Head at calibration measurement condition 37

40 Material Measurement Accuracy with High Temperature Test Head Figure Typical Frequency Characteristics of Temperature Coefficient of ε r and Loss Tangent Accuracy (Thickness = 0.3 mm) 38

41 Material Measurement Accuracy with High Temperature Test Head Figure Typical Frequency Characteristics of Temperature Coefficient of ε r and Loss Tangent Accuracy (Thickness = 1 mm) 39

42 Material Measurement Accuracy with High Temperature Test Head Figure Typical Frequency Characteristics of Temperature Coefficient of ε r and Loss Tangent Accuracy (Thickness = 3 mm) 40 With compliments Helmut Singer Elektronik fon fax Feldchen D Aachen Germany

43 Material Measurement Accuracy with High Temperature Test Head Material Measurement Accuracy with High Temperature Test Head (Typical) Conditions of Dielectric Material Measurement Accuracy with High Temperature Test Head Environment temperature is within ±5 C of temperature at which calibration is done, and within 0 C to 40 C. High Temperature Low Impedance Test Head must be used. Bending cable should be smooth and the bending angle less than 30. Cable position should be kept in the same position after calibration measurement. OPEN/SHORT/50 Ω calibration must be done. Calibration ON. Measurement points are same as the calibration points. Averaging (on point) factor must be larger than 32 at which calibration is done. OSC level must be same as level at which calibration is done. OSC level is less than or equal to 0.25 V rms, or greater than 0.25 V rms and frequency range is within 1 MHz to 1 GHz. Environment temperature of the main frame is within ±5 C of temperature at which calibration is done, and within 0 C to 40 C. Δμ' μ r ' Accuracy ( rm ) Same as accuracy at which a normal test head is used μ' rm Loss Tangent Accuracy of μ r '(Δtanδ) Same as accuracy at which a normal test head is used At the following frequency points, instrument spurious characteristics could occasionally cause measurement errors to exceed specified value MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz See EMC under Others in General Characteristics. The excessive vibration and shock could occasionally cause measurement errors to exceed specified value. 41

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