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1 Image Segmentation Preview Segmentation subdivides an image to regions or objects Two basic properties of intensity values Discontinuity Edge detection Similarity Thresholding Region growing/splitting/merging

2 Detection of Discontinuities: Point detection Mask operation R = i= 1 Point detection Isolated point 9 w i z i R T whose gray value is significantly different from its background

3 Detection of discontinuities: Line detection Mask operation Preferred direction is weighted by with a larger coefficient The coefficients in each mask sum to zero response of constant gray level areas Compare values of individual masks (run all masks) or run only the mask of specified direction

4 Image Segmentation: Line detection Example: interested in lines of -45 o Run the corresponding mask All other lines are eliminated

5 Detection of discontinuities: Edge detection Basic formulation Edge: a set of connected pixels that lie on the boundary between two regions Local concept in contrast to more global boundary concept To be measured by grey-level transitions Ideal and blurred edges

6 Edge detection First derivative can be used to detect the presence of an edge (if a point is on a ramp) The sign of the second derivative can be used to determine whether an edge pixel lie on the dark or light side of an edge Second derivative produces two value per edge Zero crossing near the edge midpoint Non-horizontal edges define a profile perpendicular to the edge direction

7 Edge detection Edges in the presense of noise Derivatives are sensitive to (even fairly little) noise Consider image smoothing prior to the use of derivatives Edge definition again Edge point whose first derivative is above a pre-specified threshold Edge connected edge points Derivatives are computed through gradients (1 st ) and Laplacians (2 nd )

8 Edge detection: Gradient operators Gradient Vector pointing to the direction of maximum rate of change of f at coordinates (x,y) Magnitude: gives the quantity of the increase (some times referred to as 2 2 gradient too) f = mag( f ) = G x + Gy Direction: perpendicular to the direction of the edge at (x,y) Partial derivatives computed through 2x2 or 3x3 masks Sobel operators introduce some smoothing and give more importance to the center point f [ ] 1/ 2 G = G x y α( x, y) = tan f = f x y f G x + G y 1 G G x y

9 Edge detection: Gradient operators Detecting diagonal edges

10 Edge detection: Examples

11 Edge detection: Examples

12 Edge detection: Examples

13 Edge detection Laplacian f f Second-order derivative of a 2-D function f = x y Digital approximations by proper masks Complementary use for edge detection Cons: Laplacian is very sensible to noise; double edges Pros: Dark or light side of the edge; zero crossings are of better use Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG): preliminary smoothing to find edges through zero crossings h r 2 2σ ( r) = e r = x + y 2 2 h 2 2 r r σ 2 2σ ( r) = e 4 σ 2

14 Edge detection

15 Edge detection Example: Edges through LoG zero-crossings on an angiogram image 27x27 Gaussian mask, 3x3 Laplacian Thinner than the gradient edges Closeed loops (spagetti effect) Zero-crossing calculation is not straighforward

16 Edge linking and boundary detection Local processing Analyze pixels in a small neighborhood following predefined criteria. Connect similar (labeled edge ) points Strength of the gradient vector response f G x + G y ; f x, y) f ( x, y ) ( 0 0 E Gradient vector direction ( ) 1 α( x, y) = tan G x / G y α x, y) α( x, y ) < ( 0 0 A Both magnitude and angle criteria should be satisfied

17 Edge linking and boundary detection Example: find rectangular shapes similar to license plate Find gradients Connect edge points Check horizontal-vertical proportion

18 Edge linking and boundary detection Global processing via the Hough transform Determine if points lie on a curve of specified shape Consider a point (x i,y i ) and the general line equation yi = axi + b Write the equation with respect to ab-plane (parametric space) b = x a + Write the equation for a second point (x j,y j ) and find the intersection point (a,b ) on the parametric space All points on a line intersect at the same parametric point i y i

19 Edge linking and boundary detection Computational aspects of the Hough transform Subdivision of the parametric space into accumulator cells The cell at (i,j) with accumulator values A(i,j) corresponds to (a i,b j ) For every point (x k,y k ) vary a from cell to cell and solve for b: b = x a + If a p generates b q, then increment the accumulator A(p,q)=A(p,q)+1 At the end of the procedure, a value of Q in A(i,j) corresponds to Q points in the xy-plane lying on the line y = aix + b j K different incremens of a generate K different values of b; for n different image point, the method involves nk computations (linear complexity) k y k

20 Edge linking and boundary detection Hough transform: handling the vertical lines Through normal representation x cosθ + y sinθ = ρ Instead of straight lines, there are sinusoidal curves in the parameter space The number or intesecting sinusoids is accumulated and then the value Q in the accumulator A(i,j) shows the number of colinear points lying on a line x cosθ + y sinθj = ρ j i

21 Edge linking and boundary detection Example: two lines connecting three points each Fig (d) indicates that the Hough transform exhibits a reflective adjacency relationship Summary of Hough transform for edge linking Compute the gradient Specify subdivisions in the parametric plane Examine the counts of the accumulator cells Examine the continuity relationship between pixels in a chosen cell

22 Edge linking and boundary detection Example: Hough transform removing gaps (no longer than 5 pixels) between edge pixels

23 Edge linking and boundary detection Global processing via Graph-Theoretic Techniques Graph G=(N,U): a set of nodes N and a set U of arcs (n i, n j ). In a directed arc n i is called parent and n j is called successor. Expansion: identifying successors of a node Starting (0 or root) level, last (goal) level Cost c(n i, n j ) associated with an arc; Path n 1, n 2,,n k, with each n i, being a successor of n j-1. Cost of a path is the sum of costs of the arcs constituting the path. Edge element defined between two neighboor pixels p and q (x p, y p ) (x q, y q ) Associate cost with an edge element c( p, q) = H [ f ( p) f ( q)]

24 Edge linking: examples of graph search

25 Thresholding Foundation Histogram dominant modes: two or more Threshold and thresholding operation 1 T = T[ x, y, p( x, y), f ( x, y) ]; g( x, y) = 0 Illumination Image is a product of reflectance and illuminance Reflection nature of objects and backaground Poor (nonlinear) illumination could impede the segmentation The final histogram is a result of convolution of the histogram of the log reflectance and log illuminance functions Normalization if the illuminance function is known if if f ( x, y) > T f ( x, y) T

26 Thresholding Basic Global Thresholding Threshold midway between maximum and minimum gray levels Appropriate for industrial inspection applications with controllable illumination Automatic algorithm Segment with initial T into regions G 1 and G 2 Compute the average gray level m 1 and m 2 Compute new T=0.5(m 1 +m 2 ) Repeat until reach an acceptably small change of T in successive iterations

27 Thresholding Basic Adaptive Thresholding Divide the image into sub-images and use local thresholds

28 Thresholding Optimal Global and Adaptive Thresholding Histograms considered as estimates of probability density functions Mixure probability p( z) = P1 p1( z) + P2 p2( z); P1 + P2 = 1 Select the value of T that minmizes the average error in making the decision that a given pixel belongs to an object of to the background Minimizing the probability of eroneous classificaion Differentiate the error equation and solve for T Estimating the densities using simple models, e.g. Gaussian T ( T ) = P2 p2( z) dz + P1 p1 T E ( z) dz P 2 p2( T ) = P1 p1( T )

29 Thresholding Boundary Characteristics for Histogram Thresholding Consider only pixels lying on and near edges Use gradient or Laplacian to preliminary process the image 0 s( x, y) = + if f if f if f < T T T and and 0 < 0 Transition from light background to dark object is characterized (-,+), object interior is coded by either 0 or +, transition from object to background (+,-) 2 2 f f

30 Thresholding Thresholds based on several variables Color or multispectral histograms Thresholding is based on finding clusters in multi-dimensional space Example: face detection Different color models Hue and saturation instead of RGB

31 Region-based segmentation Basic formulation Every pixel must be in a region Points in a region must be connected Regions must be disjoint Logical predicate for one region and for distinguishing between regions Region growing Group pixels from sub-regions to larger regions Start from a set of seed pixels and append pixels with similar properties Selection of similarity criteria: color, descriptotors (gray level + moments) Stopping rule Region splitting and merging Quadtree decomposition

32 Chapter 10 Image Segmentation

33 Chapter 10 Image Segmentation

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35 Chapter 10 Image Segmentation

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