# Recommended Levels of Digital Signals Relative to Analog Video Levels

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Recommended Levels of Digital Signals Relative to Analog Video Levels Introduction Audience This document provides recommendations for the operating levels of digital (64QAM and 256QAM) channels relative to the levels of analog video channels in hybrid fiber/coax (HFC) networks. The term 'level' must be clearly defined in order to avoid ambiguity. In the case of a QAM channel, the 'level' is the true power of the signal, measured over any interval of time. In the case of an analog video signal, on the other hand, the 'level' is the true power of the modulated RF carrier measured during the interval of the horizontal synchronising pulse. It is sometimes referred to as the 'peak video envelope power'. If the same modulated carrier is measured over an extended period of time, using a so-called 'video' filter, then the result will be the 'average' power. This technical bulletin applies to design and application HFC engineers that need to calculate levels of digital (QAM) signals relative to analog video levels.

2 Assumptions Assumption 1: Amplitude Distributions of Analog and Digital Signals The recommended QAM level is determined by first assuming that it is desirable to set it equal to the average power of an analog video signal. However, even when this is done, the two signals will have significantly different amplitude distributions; that is to say, the probability of measuring any specified amplitude at any given instant of time will be markedly different for the two signals. (Viewing an analog video signal and a digital QAM signal alternately on an oscilloscope will highlight these differences. The analog signal has a predictable, repetitive element due to the line and field blanking pulses, whereas the digital signal is essentially random). In statistical terms, it is said that the Probability Density Functions (pdf) of the two signals are dissimilar, with the digital signal having an almost Gaussian shape. However, when a sufficiently large number of independent signals are combined, the amplitude distribution of the overall signal tends toward a Gaussian distribution. This can be proved by the Central Limit Theorem, although an exhaustive discussion of the mathematics is beyond the scope of this bulletin. (For further information, the attention of the reader is drawn to the References at the conclusion of this document). The practical consequence of this is that the 'peakiness' of the two signal types tends to become more and more similar, as the number of the signals is increased, and therefore the effect on optical transmitters, which might respond to signal peaks by 'clipping', will be the same. In this context, a 'sufficiently large' number of analog video signals are taken to be approximately 20. Assumption 2: Difference Between Peak Envelope Power and Average Power of an Analog Video Signal The peak envelope power of an analog video signal is equal to the power of the unmodulated RF carrier, because, in the interval of the horizontal synchronising pulse, the modulation depth is zero. The reduction in power when the carrier is modulated will be determined by the maximum modulation depth, corresponding to peak white level, and the average picture level (APL). For a single signal, the APL will vary with scene changes and may have a significantly different value during different types of programming, but when a number of signals are combined, the APL will not be subject to such a large variation. A suitable value for the APL must therefore be selected, and the figure of 50% has been chosen for this analysis. This corresponds to an average picture luminosity mid-way between black and white, and seems to be a reasonable assumption when, again, a 'sufficiently large' number of signals is considered. The calculations that follow are therefore largely concerned with the determination of the average power of an analog video signal having an APL of 50%. Continued on next page 2 Recommended Levels of Digital (QAM) Signals Relative to Analog Video Levels Rev C

3 Assumptions, Continued Assumption 3: Effect of the Vertical Blanking Interval During the vertical blanking interval, which has a duration equivalent to 25 horizontal lines in the PAL B/G standard, no video is transmitted, although some of the 'lines' may contain teletext data and test signals. The effect of this interval on the APL is therefore hard to assess. In the calculations, a small adjustment is made to account for the vertical blanking interval, but the detailed derivation of this adjustment is not given. In the worst case, it will increase the average power of the modulated signal by about 0.2 db. Assumption 4: Effect of the Chrominance and Audio Signals The amplitudes of the chrominance and audio signals are so much less than the synchronising signals and the 50% APL luminance signal, that their effect can be ignored. Assumption 5: Choice of Television Standard The characteristics of the PAL B/G television standard are used in the following calculations. With the simplifying assumptions that have been made, it will be seen that calculations based on the NTSC (M) standard will produce almost identical results. The PAL I standard, however, is sufficiently different (in regard to depth of modulation, in particular), to warrant a separate calculation Rev C Recommended Levels of Digital (QAM) Signals Relative to Analog Video Levels 3

4 Calculation Calculations Figure 1 shows a time-domain representation of an analog video signal during the horizontal blanking interval. It will be noted that, in documents that define in detail the characteristics of various TV signals, the duration of the horizontal synchronizing pulse and the blanking interval are specified at a certain signal level, because an instantaneous transition from one level to another is, of course, impossible. However, the calculations are greatly simplified if such an instantaneous transition is assumed, and the durations of the horizontal synchronizing pulse and the blanking interval are average values. Therefore, the duration of the synchronizing pulse (B) is taken to be 4.7 µs, and the duration of the blanking interval, consisting of front porch (A) and the synchronizing pulse (B), and the combined interval of the breezeway, color burst and back porch (C), is taken to be 12 µs. If the overall amplitude of the video signal, from synchronizing tip to peak white level, is taken to be 1 volt, then blanking occurs at 0.3 volt, and a 50% white APL occurs at 0.65 volt. 1.0 volt (white level) 0.65 volt (50% white) A C 0.3 volt (blanking) B 4.7 µs 12 µs 0 volt (sync tip) Figure 1: Analog signal during the H blanking interval The baseband analog video signal is impressed upon an RF carrier using negative modulation (in the majority of TV systems), which means that the RF carrier is at maximum amplitude during the duration of the horizontal synchronizing pulse. In the PAL B/G standard, the 'residual' carrier amplitude when the picture is at peak white level is 0.1 times the maximum. Continued on next page 4 Recommended Levels of Digital (QAM) Signals Relative to Analog Video Levels Rev C

5 Calculation, Continued (Note the distinction between 'amplitude' and 'power'). Figure 2 shows the modulated signal during the horizontal blanking interval. The amplitude of the RF carrier corresponding to the blanking level is derived as follows: In the baseband signal, which has a maximum amplitude from sync-tip to peak white of 1 volt, blanking occurs at 0.3 volt (see fig. 1). If the maximum amplitude of the RF carrier is taken to be 1.0, then the amplitude can vary from 1.0 to 0.1; that is, a range of 0.9. Multiplying 0.3 and 0.9 we obtain 0.27, so that blanking represents an RF carrier level of ( ) = 0.73 of maximum. Similarly, the amplitude of the RF carrier corresponding to 50% white is derived as follows: In the baseband signal, 50% white occurs at 0.65 volt (see fig. 1). Multiplying 0.65 and 0.9 we obtain 0.585, so that 50% white represents an RF carrier level of ( ) = of maximum. Carrier amplitude 1.00 (sync tip) 0.73 (blanking) (50% white) 0.10 (white level) Figure 2: Modulated RF carrier during the H blanking interval During the horizontal synchronizing pulse, the RF carrier is at maximum amplitude, or 1.0. Now the average power of the modulated carrier is determined by examining the length of time the signal remains at each of the three levels (0.415, 0.73 and 1.0) during the total interval of one horizontal line (64 µs). Continued on next page Rev C Recommended Levels of Digital (QAM) Signals Relative to Analog Video Levels 5

6 Calculation, Continued These time periods are as follows: RF carrier level (fraction of maximum) Duration (microseconds) 1.0 (sync. tip): (blanking): (50% white): 52.0 TOTAL: 64.0 The determination of the arithmetic mean must be done on a power basis, rather than a voltage basis, so because power is proportional to the square of the voltage, we can use the following equation: ' mean square' voltage = 4.7 x ( 1.0) x ( 0.73) x ( 0.415) = To find the reduction in power from the maximum, in terms of decibels, we take 10.log (0.274), which gives 5.62 db. In other words, the average power of an RF carrier modulated by a video signal with 50% APL is 5.62 db below the peak envelope power, or the power of the unmodulated carrier. This gives us the recommended level of a digital QAM signal, and we usually round-off the figure to 6 db below peak envelope power. The same type of analysis can be used to take account of the increase in RF signal power during the vertical blanking interval. However, as stated earlier, some TV channels may have a significant amount of video and text information in the VBI, while others have very little. Taking the worst-case scenario, in which no information is conveyed during the VBII, we find that the average power of the RF signal is increased by about 0.2 db. It seems reasonable to ignore this minor adjustment, given that, in any real situation, there will certainly be some test-signal and/or other information present. 6 Recommended Levels of Digital (QAM) Signals Relative to Analog Video Levels Rev C

7 Modulation Modification for PAL I Standard As far as the calculation of average signal power is concerned, the fundamental difference between the PAL B/G and PAL I standards is the depth of modulation of the carrier: in PAL I, peak white level corresponds to a residual carrier of 0.2, rather than 0.1. The effect of this change is illustrated in Figure 3. Carrier amplitude 1.00 (sync tip) 0.76 (blanking) 0.48 (50% white) 0.20 (white level) Figure 3: Modulated RF carrier during the H blanking interval; PAL I standard The average power of the modulated carrier can be determined as before by examining the length of time the signal remains at each of the three levels (0.48, 0.76 and 1.0) during the total interval of one horizontal line (64 µs). These time periods are as shown in the following table: RF carrier level (fraction of maximum) Duration (microseconds) 1.0 (sync. tip): (blanking): (50% white): 52.0 TOTAL: 64.0 and the determination of power reduction is as follows: ' mean square' voltage = 4.7 x ( 1.0) x ( 0.76) x ( 0.48) = Continued on next page Rev C Recommended Levels of Digital (QAM) Signals Relative to Analog Video Levels 7

8 Modulation, Continued References To find the reduction in power from the maximum, in terms of decibels, we take 10.log (0.3265), which gives 4.86 db. The fact that the maximum modulation depth in the PAL I standard is less than that in the PAL B/G standard results in a higher average power of the modulated signal. We can conclude that, in PAL I systems, the level of the digital QAM channels can be set at 5 db below peak video envelope power in order for them to have the same power as the analog video channels. In practice, however, the broadband industry has generally opted for a universal figure of 6 db, rather than promote different recommendations for different TV standards. 1. A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes. New York: McGraw Hill, 1965 Cisco Systems, Inc Sugarloaf Parkway, Box Lawrenceville, GA Cisco and the Cisco logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Cisco and/or its affiliates in the U.S. and other countries. To view a list of Cisco trademarks, go to this URL: Third party trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (1110R) Product and service availability are subject to change without notice. 2002, 2008, 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. November 2012 Printed in USA Part Number Rev C

### Prepared by: Paul Lee ON Semiconductor http://onsemi.com

Introduction to Analog Video Prepared by: Paul Lee ON Semiconductor APPLICATION NOTE Introduction Eventually all video signals being broadcasted or transmitted will be digital, but until then analog video

### COMPOSITE VIDEO SIGNAL

COMPOSITE VIDEO SIGNAL COMPOSITE VIDEO SIGNAL Consist of : Camera signal - corresponding to the desired picture information Blanking pulses to make the retrace invisible Synchronizing pulses to synchronize

### FCC CABLE RULES. 76.605 Technical Standards

CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS TITLE 47 -- TELECOMMUNICATION CHAPTER I -- FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION SUBCHAPTER C -- BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES PART 76--CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE 76.605 Technical Standards

### A Preview of the Television Video and Audio a Ready Reference for Engineers Course

A Preview of the Television Video and Audio a Ready Reference for Engineers Course About the Author Randy Hoffner is retired from ABC Broadcast Operations and Engineering West Coast, where he held the

### Double Sideband (DSB) and Amplitude Modulation (AM)

Double Sideband (DSB) and Amplitude Modulation (AM) Modules: Audio Oscillator, Wideband True RMS Meter, Multiplier, Adder, Utilities, Phase Shifter, Tuneable LPFs (2), Quadrature Utilities, Twin Pulse

### Using CheetahNet with a GainMaker Node HMS Status Monitor Module Application Note

Using CheetahNet with a GainMaker Node HMS Status Monitor Module Application Note Overview CheetahNet is generally supported by the GainMaker node Hybrid Management System (HMS) status monitor module.

### IPTV Set-Top Embedded Diagnostics Implementation Design Guide

IPTV Set-Top Embedded Diagnostics Implementation Design Guide Overview Introduction The IPTV set-top diagnostics application lets you detect problems with the IPTV set-top. A network connection is not

### Data Communications Prof. Ajit Pal Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture # 03 Data and Signal

(Refer Slide Time: 00:01:23) Data Communications Prof. Ajit Pal Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture # 03 Data and Signal Hello viewers welcome

### RESULTS OF TESTS WITH DOMESTIC RECEIVER IC S FOR DVB-T. C.R. Nokes BBC R&D, UK ABSTRACT

RESULTS OF TESTS WITH DOMESTIC RECEIVER IC S FOR DVB-T C.R. Nokes BBC R&D, UK ABSTRACT Digital terrestrial television services using the DVB-T standard will be launched later this year in the UK, followed

### Figure 1. Front Panel of Function Generator

Equipment Introduction: Part I - Introduction to the Function Generator Overview: The function generator is used to generate a wide range of alternating-current (AC) signals. A diagram of the Leader LFG-1300S

### Top. Width. Retrace. Trace. Bottom

1 INTRODUCTION TO TELEVISION INTRODUCTION The aim of a television system is to extend the sense of sight beyond its natural limits and to transmit sound associated with the scene. The picture signal is

### MSB MODULATION DOUBLES CABLE TV CAPACITY Harold R. Walker and Bohdan Stryzak Pegasus Data Systems ( 5/12/06) pegasusdat@aol.com

MSB MODULATION DOUBLES CABLE TV CAPACITY Harold R. Walker and Bohdan Stryzak Pegasus Data Systems ( 5/12/06) pegasusdat@aol.com Abstract: Ultra Narrow Band Modulation ( Minimum Sideband Modulation ) makes

### 4 Digital Video Signal According to ITU-BT.R.601 (CCIR 601) 43

Table of Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Analog Television 7 3 The MPEG Data Stream 11 3.1 The Packetized Elementary Stream (PES) 13 3.2 The MPEG-2 Transport Stream Packet.. 17 3.3 Information for the Receiver

### ASK - AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING

ASK - AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING PREPARATION... 5 generation... 5 bandwidth modification... 51 demodulation methods... 52 bandwidth estimation... 53 EXPERIMENT... 53 T1. generation... 53 T1.1 modelling with

### AN1200.04. Application Note: FCC Regulations for ISM Band Devices: 902-928 MHz. FCC Regulations for ISM Band Devices: 902-928 MHz

Benha Faculty of Engineering Electrical Engineering Department 5 th Year Telecommunication Final Exam: 26 May 2012 Examiner: Dr. Hatem ZAKARIA Time allowed: 3 Hours Radio and Television (E522) Answer All

### Advanced 3G and 4G Wireless Communication Prof. Aditya K. Jagannatham Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

Advanced 3G and 4G Wireless Communication Prof. Aditya K. Jagannatham Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Lecture - 3 Rayleigh Fading and BER of Wired Communication

### 1 Multi-channel frequency division multiplex frequency modulation (FDM-FM) emissions

Rec. ITU-R SM.853-1 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R SM.853-1 NECESSARY BANDWIDTH (Question ITU-R 77/1) Rec. ITU-R SM.853-1 (1992-1997) The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly, considering a) that the concept of necessary

### DVR Hard Disk Drive Diagnostic Tool Technical Reference

[ DVR Hard Disk Drive Diagnostic Tool Technical Reference Overview Introduction Explorer set-tops with DVR capability* contain a hard disk drive (HDD). The DVR set-top firmware contains a comprehensive

### Advantages of High Resolution in High Bandwidth Digitizers

Advantages of High Resolution in High Bandwidth Digitizers Two of the key specifications of digitizers are bandwidth and amplitude resolution. These specifications are not independent - with increasing

### QUADRATURE AMPLIDUDE MODULATION. Prepared by Deepa.T, Asst.Prof. /TCE

QUADRATURE AMPLIDUDE MODULATION Prepared by Deepa.T, Asst.Prof. /TCE INTRODUCTION QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation or QAM is a form of modulation which is widely used for modulating data signals onto

### Upgrading a GainMaker Line Extender from a Line-Powered Source to a 120 V AC-Powered Source Installation Instructions

Upgrading a GainMaker Line Extender from a Line-Powered Source to a 120 V AC-Powered Source Installation Instructions Overview Audience These installation instructions are intended for all cable system

### Experiment 03: Amplitude Modulation With Noise

ECE363, Experiment 03, 2015 Communications Lab, University of Toronto Experiment 03: Amplitude Modulation With Noise Bruno Korst - bkf@comm.utoronto.ca Abstract In this third laboratory experiment, you

### RF Measurements Using a Modular Digitizer

RF Measurements Using a Modular Digitizer Modern modular digitizers, like the Spectrum M4i series PCIe digitizers, offer greater bandwidth and higher resolution at any given bandwidth than ever before.

### CYGNUS PAL B/G Television Modulator

Headend Systems CYGNUS PAL B/G Television Modulator The CYGNUS PAL B/G television modulator is a fixed frequency adjacent channel modulator designed for use in mid- and large-sized broadband networks.

### Digital Data Transmission Notes

1 Digital Communication Systems The input to a digital communication system is a sequence of digits. The input could be sourced by a data set, computer, or quantized and digitized analog signal. Such digital

### Module 2. Data Communication Fundamentals. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 2 Data Communication Fundamentals Lesson 6 Digital Data, Analog Signals Specific Instructional Objective On completion, the students will be able to: Explain the basic concepts of Digital data to

### Composite Video Separation Techniques

TM Composite Video Separation Techniques Application Note October 1996 AN9644 Author: Stephen G. LaJeunesse Introduction The most fundamental job of a video decoder is to separate the color from the black

### Chap#5 (Data communication)

Chap#5 (Data communication) Q#1: Define analog transmission. Normally, analog transmission refers to the transmission of analog signals using a band-pass channel. Baseband digital or analog signals are

### Amplitude Modulation Fundamentals

3 chapter Amplitude Modulation Fundamentals In the modulation process, the baseband voice, video, or digital signal modifies another, higher-frequency signal called the carrier, which is usually a sine

### Media Data Types & Operations Images. Image Formats. Spring 2003 Lecture Note 2 (April 3)

CSE 126 Multimedia Systems Spring 2003 Lecture Note 2 (April 3) P. Venkat Rangan Media Data Types & Operations Images Images are defined as matrices where each element represents a pixel (picture element).

### DVB-T BER MEASUREMENTS IN THE PRESENCE OF ADJACENT CHANNEL AND CO-CHANNEL ANALOGUE TELEVISION INTERFERENCE

DVB-T MEASUREMENTS IN THE PRESENCE OF ADJACENT CHANNEL AND CO-CHANNEL ANALOGUE TELEVISION INTERFERENCE M. Mª Vélez (jtpveelm@bi.ehu.es), P. Angueira, D. de la Vega, A. Arrinda, J. L. Ordiales UNIVERSITY

### Adding Analog Noises to the DOCSIS 3.0 Cable Network

Application Note Adding Analog Noises to the DOCSIS 3.0 Cable Network James Lim Applications Engineer, Noisecom Abstract Injecting Additive White Gaussian Noise (Gaussian Noise) of varying power from Noisecom

AM Receiver Prelab In this experiment you will use what you learned in your previous lab sessions to make an AM receiver circuit. You will construct an envelope detector AM receiver. P1) Introduction One

### Composite Video Separation Techniques

TM Composite Video Separation Techniques Application Note October 1996 AN9644 Author: Stephen G. LaJeunesse Introduction The most fundamental job of a video decoder is to separate the color from the black

### INDEX 1. TELEVISION SIGNALS BROADCASTING IN U.S.A. 2. MODULATION AND DEMODULATION SCHEMES. 3. BROADCASTING OF INTENSITY, SOUND AND COLOR

1 INDEX 1. TELEVISION SIGNALS BROADCASTING IN U.S.A. 2. MODULATION AND DEMODULATION SCHEMES. 3. BROADCASTING OF INTENSITY, SOUND AND COLOR 4. ERRORS IN TRANSMISSION. 5. MOVING PICTURE EXPERT GROUP (MPEG).

### 1. (Ungraded) A noiseless 2-kHz channel is sampled every 5 ms. What is the maximum data rate?

Homework 2 Solution Guidelines CSC 401, Fall, 2011 1. (Ungraded) A noiseless 2-kHz channel is sampled every 5 ms. What is the maximum data rate? 1. In this problem, the channel being sampled gives us the

### Implementation of Digital Signal Processing: Some Background on GFSK Modulation

Implementation of Digital Signal Processing: Some Background on GFSK Modulation Sabih H. Gerez University of Twente, Department of Electrical Engineering s.h.gerez@utwente.nl Version 4 (February 7, 2013)

### Wireless Mics and Digital Television

Wireless Mics and Digital Television By Jim Brown Audio Systems Group, Inc. http://audiosystemsgroup.com The advent of digital television (DTV) has made wireless mic operation much more complicated. The

### MODULATION Systems (part 1)

Technologies and Services on Digital Broadcasting (8) MODULATION Systems (part ) "Technologies and Services of Digital Broadcasting" (in Japanese, ISBN4-339-62-2) is published by CORONA publishing co.,

### CRP718 RF and Microwave Measurements Laboratory

CRP718 RF and Microwave Measurements Laboratory Experiment- MW2 Handout. Updated Jan 13, 2011 SPECTRUM ANALYZER BASED MEASUREMENTS (groups of 2 may omit part 2.1, but are advised to study the procedures

### IPTV Set-Top Bandwidth Utilization Configuration Guide

[ IPTV Set-Top Bandwidth Utilization Configuration Guide Overview Introduction During the installation and operation of set-tops, the amount of network bandwidth that is used and the number of multicasts

### Sampling Theorem Notes. Recall: That a time sampled signal is like taking a snap shot or picture of signal periodically.

Sampling Theorem We will show that a band limited signal can be reconstructed exactly from its discrete time samples. Recall: That a time sampled signal is like taking a snap shot or picture of signal

### Gateway 42-inch Plasma TV Specifications

Gateway 42-inch Plasma TV Specifications Specifications are subject to change without notice or obligation. Display Panel Screen size Aspect ratio Number of pixels Pixel Pitch Luminance Diagonal 42-inch

### RECOMMENDATION ITU-R BO.786 *

Rec. ITU-R BO.786 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R BO.786 * MUSE ** system for HDTV broadcasting-satellite services (Question ITU-R /) (992) The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly, considering a) that the MUSE system

### Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor

Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor INTRODUCTION Capacitors 1 are devices that can store electric charge and energy. Capacitors have several uses, such as filters in DC power supplies and as energy storage

### Chapter 3: Amplitude Modulation

Chapter 3: Amplitude Modulation MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. AM stands for: a. Audio Modulation c. Angle Modulation b. Amplitude Modulation d. Antenna Modulation B 2. The "envelope" of an AM signal is due to: a.

### HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. F August 24, 2011

HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. F August 24, 2011 SY_SSS_1026s TRADEMARKS HD Radio and the HD, HD Radio, and Arc logos are proprietary trademarks of ibiquity Digital Corporation. ibiquity,

### RANDOM VIBRATION AN OVERVIEW by Barry Controls, Hopkinton, MA

RANDOM VIBRATION AN OVERVIEW by Barry Controls, Hopkinton, MA ABSTRACT Random vibration is becoming increasingly recognized as the most realistic method of simulating the dynamic environment of military

### Overview of Modulated and Pulsed Diode Laser Systems

1 Overview of Modulated and Pulsed Diode Laser Systems Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Pulsed Lasers 2 2.1 Peak Power................................................... 2 2.2 Average Power..................................................

### Lab 3 - Using the Agilent 54621A Digital Oscilloscope as a Spectrum Analyzer Electronics Fundamentals using the Agilent 54621A Oscilloscope

Lab 3 - Using the Agilent 54621A Digital Oscilloscope as a Spectrum Analyzer Electronics Fundamentals using the Agilent 54621A Oscilloscope By: Walter Banzhaf University of Hartford Ward College of Technology

### HFAN Rev.1; 04/08

Application Note: HFAN-9.1.0 Rev.1; 04/08 Impact of Transmitter RIN on Optical Link Performance AVAILABLE Impact of Transmitter RIN on Optical Link Performance 1 Overview Semiconductor laser relative intensity

### T = 1 f. Phase. Measure of relative position in time within a single period of a signal For a periodic signal f(t), phase is fractional part t p

Data Transmission Concepts and terminology Transmission terminology Transmission from transmitter to receiver goes over some transmission medium using electromagnetic waves Guided media. Waves are guided

### DVB-T. The echo performance of. receivers. Theory of echo tolerance. Ranulph Poole BBC Research and Development

The echo performance of DVB-T Ranulph Poole BBC Research and Development receivers This article introduces a model to describe the way in which a single echo gives rise to an equivalent noise floor (ENF)

### EXPERIMENT NO. 4 PSK Modulation

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING ECOM 4101 COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING LAB II SEMESTER 1, 2016/2017 EXPERIMENT NO. 4 PSK Modulation NAME: MATRIC NO: DATE: SECTION: PSK MODULATION Objectives

### HFTA-010.0: Physical Layer Performance: Testing the Bit Error Ratio (BER)

HFTA-010.0: Physical Layer Performance: Testing the Bit Error Ratio (BER) This technical article first appeared in Lightwave Magazine, September, 2004, Explaining those BER testing mysteries. The ultimate

### Conditioning and Correction of Arbitrary Waveforms Part 2: Other Impairments

From September 2005 High Frequency Electronics Copyright 2005 Summit Technical Media Conditioning and Correction of Arbitrary Waveforms Part 2: Other Impairments By Mike Griffin and John Hansen Agilent

### Video Signals and Circuits Part 1

Video Signals and Circuits Part 1 Bill Sheets K2MQJ Rudy Graf KA2CWL The transmission of video signals over a carrier wave for broadcasting purposes requires that some format be chosen so as to include

### Probability of error in transmission

Probability of error in transmission In a binary PCM system, binary digits may be represented by two pulse levels. If these levels are chosen to be and A, the signal is termed an on-off binary signal.

### Signal Encoding Techniques

CSE 3461/5461: Introduction to Computer Networking & Internet Technologies Signal Encoding Techniques Presentation C Study: 5.1, 5.2 (pages 151-155 only), 5.3, 5.4 (Figure 5.24 only) Gojko Babić 09-04-2012

### Digital Communication Fundamentals

Chapter 2 Digital Communication Fundamentals 2.1 Introduction As we said at the end of Chapter 1, CDMA is applicable to digital (as opposed to analog) communication. This chapter is therefore devoted to

### Filters & Wave Shaping

Module 8 AC Theory Filters & Wave Shaping Passive Filters & Wave Shaping What you'll learn in Module 8. Module 8 Introduction Recognise passive filters with reference to their response curves. High pass,

### Cisco RF Gateway 1 Remote Provisioning Utility (RPU) Software Version 2.1.0 Release Note

Cisco RF Gateway 1 Remote Provisioning Utility (RPU) Software Version 2.1.0 Release Note Overview Introduction The Cisco RF Gateway 1 (RFGW-1) Remote Provisioning Utility (RPU) software Version 2.1.0 is

### Amplitude modulation and demodulation

Page 1 of 7 Amplitude modulation and demodulation Aim :- 1) To superimpose the audio signal on to the carrier wave to get modulated wave. 2) To calculate the modulation index from the in put wave and out

### Outlines. LECTURE 3: Wireless Transmission Technologies. Wireless Transmission on Unguided Media

LECTURE 3: Wireless Transmission Technologies CIS 472 Wireless Communications and Networks Winter 2016 Instructor: Dr. Song Xing Outlines Wireless Data Transmission Modulation Spread Spectrum Department

### Prepared By: Prepare For: Telecommunication Laboratory

Prepared By: Prepare For: Telecommunication Laboratory 1. Objective, Theory - AM signal & Modulation Index 1 - Trapezium Method - AM Detection. Character 3 3. Equipment 4 4. Procedure 4 5. Result 5 6.

### FOUR FACTORS THAT CONTROL HIGH RESOLUTION CCTV PICTURE IMAGE

FOUR FACTORS THAT CONTROL HIGH RESOLUTION CCTV PICTURE IMAGE When designing a CCTV system there are four factors that control the maximum image quality that can be obtained. One or more of these factors

### PULSE WIDTH AND PULSE POSITION MODULATION

AIM: Date Expt No. PULSE WIDTH AND PULSE POSITION MODULATION To design and study the working of i) Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and ii) Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) with the help of suitable circuits.

### 6: Video Basics. Analog TV: Inside a CRT. Mark Handley

6: Video Basics Mark Handley Analog TV: Inside a CRT A: Cathode B: Conductive Coating C: Anode D: Phosphor Coated Screen E: Electron Beams F: Shadow Mask From: howstuffworks.com 1 Basic Analog TV Vertical

Chapter 9: Spread Spectrum CS420/520 Axel Krings Page 1 Spread Spectrum Important encoding method for wireless communications Spread data over wide bandwidth Makes jamming and interception harder Frequency

### Moving Average Filters

CHAPTER 15 Moving Average Filters The moving average is the most common filter in DSP, mainly because it is the easiest digital filter to understand and use. In spite of its simplicity, the moving average

### Wave Fundamentals and Modulation Demonstration Board

Wave Fundamentals and Modulation Demonstration Board Purpose: The purpose of this board is to give the instructor a ready instructional resource to support lesson presentations in wave fundamentals and

### Optical Fibres. Introduction. Safety precautions. For your safety. For the safety of the apparatus

Please do not remove this manual from from the lab. It is available at www.cm.ph.bham.ac.uk/y2lab Optics Introduction Optical fibres are widely used for transmitting data at high speeds. In this experiment,

### TRAINING COURSE FOR TELEVISION BROADCASTING

THE INTERNATIONAL TV STANDARDS Ten international TV standard exist at present, all based on the same principles: - Physiology of vision. - Line scanning. - Field repetition. - Colour transmission as separate

### APPLICATION NOTE. RF System Architecture Considerations ATAN0014. Description

APPLICATION NOTE RF System Architecture Considerations ATAN0014 Description Highly integrated and advanced radio designs available today, such as the Atmel ATA5830 transceiver and Atmel ATA5780 receiver,

### Analog and Digital Signals, Time and Frequency Representation of Signals

1 Analog and Digital Signals, Time and Frequency Representation of Signals Required reading: Garcia 3.1, 3.2 CSE 3213, Fall 2010 Instructor: N. Vlajic 2 Data vs. Signal Analog vs. Digital Analog Signals

### Multi-Stream CableCARD 1.5.2.1401 Software Release Notes

Multi-Stream CableCARD 1.5.2.1401 Software Release Notes Overview Introduction Cisco introduces software release 1.5.2.1401 for the Multi-Stream CableCARD (M-Card ) module. The M-Card module complies with

### Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems

Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Lecture : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Attenuation (Loss)

### Video Feedthrough. A common source of RF distortion in pulse-modulated RF sources

Video Feedthrough El Toro 68C/69B Microwave Synthesizers Application Note A common source of RF distortion in pulse-modulated RF sources Introduction Video feedthrough is a very misunderstood term, which

### Diode Applications. by Kenneth A. Kuhn Sept. 1, 2008. This note illustrates some common applications of diodes.

by Kenneth A. Kuhn Sept. 1, 2008 This note illustrates some common applications of diodes. Power supply applications A common application for diodes is converting AC to DC. Although half-wave rectification

### CTX1910_Vx.1.1 TV-Tuner Card

Description: The CTX1910 is a low-cost PCI multimedia receiver and capture card for general purpose, Multimedia and Media Center Edition (MCE) PCs. To complete the MCE functionality the CTX1910 includes

### Chapter 6. Single Sideband Transmitter Tests and Measurements

Chapter 6 Single Sideband Transmitter Tests and Measurements This chapter deals with the basic tests and measurements that can be used to evaluate the performance of single sideband suppressed carrier

### Analog vs. Digital Transmission

Analog vs. Digital Transmission Compare at two levels: 1. Data continuous (audio) vs. discrete (text) 2. Signaling continuously varying electromagnetic wave vs. sequence of voltage pulses. Also Transmission

### R&S CLG Cable Load Generator Simulation of analog and digital cable TV networks with full channel loading

Broadcasting Product Brochure 01.00 R&S CLG Cable Load Generator Simulation of analog and digital cable TV networks with full channel loading R&S CLG Cable Load Generator At a glance The R&S CLG cable

### Channel Bandwidth, MHz. Symbol Rate, Msym/sec

APPENDIXB Information in the following tables is from the DOCSIS and EuroDOCSIS Radio Frequency Interface Specification, and should be considered minimum recommended performance criteria for reliable data

### Professional Wireless Products

Frequency art Page 1 of 6 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Australian MF-AM Broadcast Standards Frequency Range: annel Frequencies: Stereo Signal: Frequency Response: THD: Stereo Separation: 526.5 1605.5 KHz

### Cisco D9887B HDTV Modular Receiver

Cisco D9887B HDTV Modular Receiver The Cisco D9887B HDTV Modular Receiver is designed to receive broadcasts using MPEG-2 4:2:0 or MPEG-4 AVC 4:2:0 digital compression technology. It is ideally suited for

### The Boonton USB Peak Power Sensor, Wi-Fi ac Signals and the ETSI EN Standard

Application Note The Boonton 55006 USB Peak Power Sensor, Wi-Fi 802.11ac Signals and the ETSI EN 300 328 Standard Stephen Shaw Applications Engineer, Boonton Electronics Abstract This application note

### Log Amp Basics X = 1. Figure 1: Graph of Y = log (X)

MT077 TUTORIAL Log Amp Basics BASIC LOG AMP CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY The term "Logarithmic Amplifier" (generally abbreviated to "log amp") is something of a misnomer, and "Logarithmic Converter" would

### - T-Carrier Technologies -

1 T-Carrier Fundamentals - T-Carrier Technologies - T-Carrier systems provide digitized communication for voice or data traffic across a telephone provider s network. The T-Carrier specification defines

### Determining When an Expression Is Undefined

Determining When an Expression Is Undefined Connections Have you ever... Tried to use a calculator to divide by zero and gotten an error Tried to figure out the square root of a negative number Expressions

### Forward-Scatter Meteor Detection using Gnu Radio + RTL-SDR devices. Marcus Leech, Science Radio Laboratories

Introduction Forward-Scatter Meteor Detection using Gnu Radio + RTL-SDR devices Marcus Leech, Science Radio Laboratories The technique of forward-scatter meteor detection has been well-known for several

### Cable Television System Measurements Handbook. NTSC Systems February 1994

Cable Television System Measurements Handbook NTSC Systems February 1994 H Cable Television System Measurements Handbook NTSC Systems February 1994 Copyright Hewlett-Packard Company 1994 1400 Fountain

### Cisco Prisma II High Density Dual Reverse Optical Receivers

Cisco Prisma II High Density Dual Reverse Optical Receivers The Cisco Prisma II optical network is an advanced transmission system designed to optimize network architectures and increase reliability, scalability,

### CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks

CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Matt Welsh Lecture 2: RF Basics and Signal Encoding September 22, 2005 2005 Matt Welsh Harvard University 1 Today's Lecture Basics of wireless communications

### Experiment # 3 Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation

ECE 316 c 2005 Bruno Korst-Fagundes Fall 2005 Experiment # 3 Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation Message Signal + X AM DSB DC Carrier 1 Purpose Amplitude modulation (AM), still widely used in commercial

### Draft. Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation

Chapter 8 Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation This chapter is dedicated to Amplitude Modulation (AM) and related aspects. It is the easiest form of modulation to grasp. 8. Amplitude Modulation AM results