New York University Cogeneration Upgrade Project

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1 New York University Cogeneration Upgrade Project Greening a Village Cleaner Energy, Greener Campus IDEA Conference 2011 John Bradley (NYU), Martin Kushner (NYU) and Michael Thornton (Vanderweil)

2 2 Project Background Cogen and Central Heating Plant before Upgrade Cogen served portion of campus with Con Edison serving remainder Existing cogen will be shut down in Spring 2008 due to environmental requirements Cogen plant must be re-powered or all buildings must revert back to Con Edison Boiler plant at end of useful life and must be re-built 43 Buildings served by High Temp Hot Water 21 Buildings served by Chilled Water 12 Buildings served by Cogen Existing Equipment includes: 7 Diesel Generators Steam Turbine 4 Boilers (3 Hot Water, 1 Steam) Plant operates in Island Mode with backup from Con Ed

3 Project Objectives Improve overall reliability Energy security Maintain price stability Increase operating savings Improve environmental performance to current regulatory standards Expand benefits to additional buildings Collateral Benefit Objectives: Optimize environmental benefits including CO2 Minimize construction risk

4 Terms and Definitions Cogen Base Load: Buildings continuously powered by existing cogen plant. Cogen Seasonal: Buildings that are put on Con Ed or cogen power depending on the load of the system and capabilities of the existing cogen plant. Cogen Life Safety: Buildings that have cogen power provided for life safety purposes by means of an Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS). Cogen Backup: Buildings that have critical functions backed up by the cogen plant through an ATS or manual transfer switch. Existing Cogen: This includes all cogen mentioned above. Expanded Cogen: This includes all existing cogen with additional buildings added currently served only by Con Ed. Re-powered Cogen: This includes replacing existing generator capacity without increase in loads served. HTHW : High Temperature Hot Water (existing distribution which serves 40 Bldgs)

5 Screening Analysis Methodology Perform due diligence on existing plant Performance is adequate due to effort of operating staff Physical condition is poor Current savings vs. Con Edison in excess of $1M/year Environmental regulations require shutdown in 2008 Baseline current plant operations, - Review the following: Energy consumption & production Equipment condition, space limitations Capital budget requirements Collect & review O&M costs Define energy requirements of NYU buildings Create hourly load profiles Select optimal buildings to supply Cost benefit analysis for adding new buildings

6 Island Mode vs. Parallel Mode Options Island Mode (NYU Current Configuration): Plant runs independently of utility grid All power from generators (Can receive back-up from the utility at the low tension service ) This back up is only a break before make scenario. Large spinning reserve capacity is required to provide reliable power to connected campus loads. Parallel Mode: Plant runs connected with utility Power supply from plant & utility simultaneously no need to inefficient spinning reserve capacity and seamless back up if cogeneration equipment has a forced outage.

7 Benefits of CHP to University Environmental benefits of CHP Increased Electrical Generation Efficiency Reduction of Green house gases by decreasing total energy consumed Emission rates equal to or better than Utility Power Operations benefits of CHP Decrease dependence on Utility Power Reduce Exposure to Utility distribution outages / long term outages Greater Control of power quality NOx Offsets Available from permitting and upgrading

8 Pg 2

9 Cogen Vault New Cogen Vault adjacent to Existing Boiler Plant Existing Boiler Plant and 2.4 MW Backpressure Steam Generator Existing 6.3 MW Cogen (7) 900 kw reciprocating diesel generators Pg 7

10 26 16,400 13,400 3,000 Pg 11

11 kw mmbtu/hr Expanded Campus Electrical & Thermal Load Duration Curve 18, ,000 14,000 12,000 10, MW 10.2 MW ,000 6,000 Thermal Electric 7.2 MW ,000 2,000 2/3 of the total annual hours Hours Electric Load for Expanded Cogen Load Thermal Demand Load

12 Proposed Cases Evaluated Equipment Configuration Operating Mode Operating Mode 1 Two 5.5 MW Gas Turbines w/hp HRSG and STG (13.4 MW) 2 Two 5.5 MW Gas Turbines w/ HTHW HRSG (11 MW) A B C D Existing Cogen load Island Mode Existing Cogen load Parallel Mode 3 Three 2.4 MW Recp Engines (7.2 MW) 3B 4 Five 2.4 MW Recp Engines (12 MW) 4A 5 Six 2.4 MW Recp Engines (14.4 MW) 6 Eight 2.4 MW Recp Engines (16.8 MW) Expanded Cogen load Island Mode Expanded Cogen load Parallel Mode 7 Eight 1.1 MW Recp. Gas Engines (8.8MW) 7A 7B 7D 6C 1D 2D 5D

13 Qualitative Analysis (1-5 with 1 as highest rank) Qualitative Ranking Scoring 1) Energy security - The ability to provide the University with the most back-up power. 2) Back - up power responsiveness - the ability to put the most amount of power online in the fastest time. 3) Power redundancy - Largest amount of power remaining with one unit out of service. 4) Energy flexibility - The greatest balance between fuel and electrical purchases. 5) ConEd disturbance - Ability to provide power in the event of a ConEd fault. 6) Infrastructure renewal - The ranking on the largest amount of infrastructure renewal paid for through savings. 7) Phasing and implementation- The level of difficulty involved with implementation of Option ranking is from the least to most difficult. Qualitative Rank total Rank 0B A D D B A D C A B D

14 LAI Electric Energy Price Forecast MarketSym chronological dispatch simulation model Incorporates ICAP prices with plant entry / exit Considers power flows into / out of surrounding markets Hourly prices for NY-Zone J recognizing transmission constraints and bidder behavior Based on NYISO load growth forecast Utilizes NYU fuel price forecast

15 $/mmbtu NYU Delivered Fuel Costs Historical Forecast #2 Distillate Oil ($15/mmBtu = $2.10/gallon) 2.2% Resid ($10/mmBtu = $1.50/gallon) Natural Gas 0.00

16 $/MWh NY - Zone J Electric Price (monthly averages) Historical Forecast

17 Better performing Option Financial and Qualitative Matrix Analysis Better performing Option Qualitative Ranking Financial Ranking A 2 1D 3 2D 4A 4 6C 7B 5 5D 3B 7A 6 7D 7 0B

18 Final Options Evaluated Option 1 Abandon CHP Plant (Case OA) NO CHP Option Retire existing CHP plant, purchase all electricity from Con Edison. NYU produce all steam and chilled water in refurbished plant. Refurbish boilers, cooling towers and complete deferred maintenance projects. Install life safety generators & distribution systems as required Option 2 Repowered CHP Plant (Case 3B) Recip. Engine Option Rebuild existing CHP plant, install (3) 2.4 MW reciprocating engines and purchase supplemental electricity from Con Edison. NYU produce all steam, HTHW and chilled water in refurbished plant. Supply all standby and normal loads with minor work to electrical. Refurbish boilers, cooling towers and complete deferred maintenance projects associated with existing Boiler 4 and Steam Turbine. Install new High tension 13.2Kv parallel electrical utility interconnection. Option 3 - Expand CHP Plant (Case 1D) Gas Turbine Option Build vault on Mercer Street, Install (2) 5500 kw gas turbines with heat recovery, connect an additional 22 buildings to existing NYU electrical distribution system. Install new High tension 13.2Kv parallel electrical utility interconnection.

19 Option MW Cogen Plant (Case 3B) Build new vault on Mercer Street Install (3) 2.4 MW reciprocating engines Install new boilers and plant auxiliaries Purchase backup power from ConEd Supply power to 12 buildings Reciprocating Engine Option 3B Existing Cogeneration electrical loads Parallel operation with ConEd

20 Option MW Cogen Plant (Case 1D) Build new vault on Mercer Street Install (2) 5.5 MW Gas Turbine Engines with HRSGs Keep existing 2400 kw back pressure steam turbine Purchase backup power from Con Ed Expand electrical service to a total of 26 buildings and three load centers Central boiler plant ( 251 Mercer st) Central chiller plant (Tisch Hall) Satellite chiller plant (Silver Bldg)

21 Qualitative Analysis of Final Options Qualitative Rank total Rank Option 1 - All Con Ed (Case OB) Option 2 -Rebuild Existing Plant (Case 3B) Option 3 - Expand Existing plant (Case 1D) Rankings 1-4 with 4 being best 1) Energy security - The ability to provide the University with the most back-up power 2) Back up power responsiveness - the ability to put the most amount of power online in the fastest time. 3) Energy Pricing Stability - Long term budget certainty. 4) Environmental Performance - The ability to achieve the Universities goals with the least impact on the community. 5) Coned disturbance - Ability to provide power in the event of a ConEd fault 6) Construction Risk - The level of difficulty involved with implementation of Option ranking is from the least to most difficult. Risk includes cost and community inconvenience issues

22 Risk factors associated with Expanded Cogen Construction Risk Material risk equipment and materials used in construction of plant and distribution, pricing has been stable, relatively short time frame for purchasing- Low risk Trade risk Contractor and union issues, coordination of trades, weather delays Moderate risk Undefined design- Obstructions in street, further equipment needed, risk will decline as design continues - Moderate risk Permitting Risk Meetings have been held with regulators, no permitting issues anticipated Low risk Potential for Client Changes NYU staff heavily involved in preliminary design, do not anticipate other stakeholders to emerge Low risk Schedule Risk Coordination issues, funding delays Moderate risk Operating Risk Can be mitigated with good design, training of operators and purchasing Long Term Service Agreements (LTSA s) - Low risk Commodity Risk- Gas and electric pricing linked in NYC area, increases in commodity pricing have minimal impact on pro-forma Low risk

23 Risk Analysis of Final Options Risk Ranking total Rank Option 1 - All Coned (Case OB) Option 2 - Rebuild Existing Plant (Case 3B) Option 3 - Expand Existing plant (Case 1D) Rankings 1-4 with 4 being best 1) Development - The ability of the University to control project 2) Financial the amount of capital involved and the potential payback. 3) Construction - Material, trades, land issues. 4) University operations during construction - Outages, disturbances 5) Leadership reputation Local and national impacts of Universities actions 6) Schedule - Ability to hold schedule during construction 7) Stake holder changes Ability of outside influences to impact project

24 Required Emergency / Critical Load Generators Buildings Generator Size Cost East Building Education Building Pless Building Goddard Hall Shimkin Hall MEC Building 1,000 kw $2,034, kw $1,540, Washington Place 350 kw $1,540,000 Mercer Street Residence 350 kw $1,540,000 Main Block 1,000 kw $2,034,000 Bobst Library 500 kw $1,540,000 Warren Weaver Hall Tisch Hall Central Plant 1000 kw $2,034, Waverly Place 150 kw $700,000 Coles Sports Center 500 kw $1,540,000 Total 5,950 kw $14,502,000

25 Collateral Economic Benefits of CHP to NYU Deferred Maintenance Projects $13,133,193 Provide New Standby Power $14,502,000 Total Project Cost Infrastructure Avoidance $27,635,193 Debt service (30 years) $1,797,000 / year

26 Total Projected Annual Costs Option Comparison - Project life

27 Annual Operating Cost Breakdown

28 Annual Operating Costs Option MW Cogen

29 Annual Operating Costs Option MW Cogen

30

31

32

33

34

35 Final Options Presented All ConEd Option (Case OB) Retire existing CHP plant, purchase all electricity and steam from Con Edison. NYU pay ConEd to install two new steam connections to the universities existing heating plant. Install life safety generators & distribution systems as required NYU Boilers Retire Cogen (Option 1 Case OA) Retire existing CHP plant, purchase all electricity from Con Edison. NYU produce all steam and chilled water in refurbished plant. Refurbish boilers, cooling towers and complete deferred maintenance projects. Install life safety generators & distribution systems as required Expanded Cogen- Expand CHP Plant (Option 3 - Case 1D) Build vault on Mercer Street, Install (2) 5500 kw gas turbines with heat recovery, connect an additional 22 buildings to existing NYU electrical distribution system. Install new High tension 13.2Kv parallel electrical utility interconnection.

36 Final Options - Financial Summary Financial Summary Electricity (MWh/yr) All Coned (Case OB) Option 1 NYU New Boilers Retire Cogen (Case OA) Option 3 NYU Cogeneration Expanded (Case 1D) Con Ed Steam and Coned Elec NYU Steam and Con Ed Elec NYU Steam and NYU Elec Capital $ 88.0 million Capital $ 35.6 million Capital $ million Cost Cost Cost Units Cost Units Cost Units Cost ($ 1000) ($ 1000) ($ 1000) Generated ,514 Purchased 101,454 $ 16, ,454 $ 16,459 17,940 $ 4,328 Sub-total 101,454 $ 16, ,454 $ 16, ,454 $ 4,328 Natural Gas (mmbtu HHV) - $ - 599,131 $ 5,833 1,246,876 $ 11,759 Net Electricity Cost ($/kwh) $ $ $ Steam (Mlb/yr) 529,464 $ 11,151 - $ - - $ - Operations & Maintenance $ 5,352 $ 5,086 $ 5,586 Total Operating Cost $ 32,962 $ 27,379 $ 21,674 $ 5,705 Debt Service + Fee $ 6,063 $ 2,453 $ 8,612 Total Op Cost + DS First Year $ 39,025 $ 29,832 $ 30,286 $ (454) Total Life Cycle Costs $674,412 $508,071 $ 478,841 $ 29,230 (Present Value) Savingsv.0B Total LC savings N/A Base $ 29,230 Savings over Base % N/A Base 6.1% Payback Period N/A Base 12.9

37 Operating Expense Trend Analysis Total Annual Operating Expenses ($000) including Debt Service 37 $70,000 $65,000 $60,000 Retirement (boilers + Con Ed elec) $55,000 Expansion (2 x 5.5 MW GTGs) $50,000 $45,000 $40,000 $35,000 $30,000 $25,000 $20,

38 38 Environmental Benefits Greenhouse Gases 1600 Regulated Pollutants Tons Option 1 Option 3 Option 1 Option 3 All Purchased Electric / NYU Produced Steam 13.4 MW CHP Plant All Purchased Electric / NYU Produced Steam 13.4 MW CHP Plant

39 3D Plant Design Exist 3D Plant Design New

40

41

42 Existing lot adjacent to boiler plant

43 Construction of new cogen vault

44 Installation of equipment (Gas Turbine)

45 Topping off of new cogen vault

46 New Coned 6 feeder13.2kv 15MW service

47 New 4160V ring buss campus distribution

48 Rebuilt 2.4 MW Steam turbine generator

49 The new green space for community

50 50 Buildings Served by Expanded Cogen Heating 6.7 million sqft Cooling 3.5 million sqft Cogen Electrical 4.5 million sqft

51 51 Project Team Project Development and Screening Phase Vanderweil Engineers Screening Analysis Levitan Associates, inc. Owners Energy and Economic Model Consultant SourceOne Owners Representative Design and Construction Phase Vanderweil Engineers Prime Design Consultant MEP/Power Engineer Robert Silman Associates Structural Engineer Lagan Engineering Geotechnical BL Companies Architect Cerami & Associates, Inc. Sound consultant SourceOne Owners Representative Sebesta Blomberg Commissioning Agent Skanska USA Construction Manager Start up and Commissioning Phase Vanderweil Engineers Start up Engineer Sebesta Blomberg Commissioning Agent Skanska USA Construction Manager

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