Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change

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1 Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Section A: Climate 1. (a) Explain what each of the following means: (4 marks) (i) climate (ii) maritime (iii) temperate (iv) tropical (b) Match the description with the climate types from the list given: (5 marks) Hot, wet and humid all year Warm/hot summers, cold (often snowy) winters Hot and dry, may be several months without rain Very cold temperatures below or only just above freezing all year Warm summers and cool winters, rain throughout the year. Climate types: Dry Polar Maritime Continental Tropical Pearson Education Ltd

2 (c) Study the photo below (5 marks): (i) Name the climate type (ii) Give two named locations which experience this type of climate (iii) Explain why this climate type experiences very cold temperatures 2. (a) Study the climate graphs below. (5 marks) Pearson Education Ltd

3 (i) What is the range of temperatures? (1 mark) (ii) When is the wettest month? (1 mark) (iii) What type of climate is this? (1 mark) (iv) Explain why: (2 marks) (b) Study the climate graph below. (i) What type of climate is it? (1 mark) (ii) Explain why (2 marks) (c) Compare the two climate graphs. Describe the similarities and differences of the two climates shown by the graphs. Use data from both graphs in your answer. (4 marks) Pearson Education Ltd

4 3. (a) (i) What type of climate does the Netherlands experience? (1 mark) (ii) Explain why it is called this. (2 marks) (b) Study the map below. (i) Describe the path taken by the Gulf Stream. (2 marks) (ii) What effect does it have on the climate of the Netherlands? Explain why. (2 marks) (c) There are small variations in climate in the Netherlands. Describe these, giving examples. (6 marks) Pearson Education Ltd

5 (i) Temperature: (ii) Precipitation: 4. (a) Biomes and ecosystems are made from both living and non living parts. Name these six parts. For each one indicate if it is living (L) or non living (NL). (3 marks) (b) The parts of a biome or ecosystem are interdependent. Explain what this means using examples. (3 marks) Pearson Education Ltd

6 (c) Study the photo below. (i) What type of forest biome does it show? (1 mark) (ii) What does the photo show about the type of climate it can grow in? (1 mark) (d) This type of forest has quite a low biodiversity. (i) Explain what this means. (1 mark) (ii) Why do you think it has low biodiversity? (2 marks) (Total = 50 marks) Pearson Education Ltd

7 Section B: Climate Change 1. (a) Study the photo below showing tree rings. It is a reliable method of identifying climate change over hundreds of years. (i) Describe and explain how tree rings show climate change. (2 marks) (ii) Describe and explain a second accurate method of identifying past changes in climate. (2 marks) (b) Explain how the following natural causes can cause changes in the Earth s climate. (4 marks) (i) solar activity: (ii) volcanic eruptions: Pearson Education Ltd

8 (c) What essential role do forests play in balancing emissions which contribute to climate change? (2 marks) (d) Describe and explain how the following human activities are contributing to recent climate change. (6 marks) (i) Population growth (from 1 billion in 1800 to 7 billion today): (ii) Industrialisation (Industrial Revolution to today): 2. (a) Name three major greenhouse gases. For each one, give one main source. (6 marks) (i) (ii) Pearson Education Ltd

9 (iii) (b) What would happen to temperatures on the Earth s surface if there were no greenhouse gases in the atmosphere? (2 marks) (c) Draw an annotated diagram to show how the greenhouse effect works. Include the words: greenhouse gases, atmosphere and radiation. (4 marks) Pearson Education Ltd

10 (d) What are the four main human causes of CO 2 emissions today? (2 marks: 4 x 1/2 mark) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (e) Why is it difficult to reduce CO 2 emissions? (3 marks) 3. (a) Describe and explain how climate change may have a bad effect on: (6 marks) (i) glaciers and tourism (ii) some animal species (iii) extreme weather events (b) (i) Give two reasons why the melting of ice and ice sheets benefit us in the future. Use named examples in your answers. (4 marks) Pearson Education Ltd

11 (ii) Describe and explain one other benefit from increased temperatures. (2 marks) (c) Describe four ways in which climate change could affect the Netherlands in the future. (4 marks) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 4. (a) What is the difference between mitigation and adaption in terms of managing climate change? Give specific examples in your answers. (4 marks) Mitigation: Adaption: (b) (i) When and where was the world s first Earth Summit held? (1 mark) (ii) What were the two main topics discussed? (2 marks) Pearson Education Ltd

12 (iii) What important group was set up as a result of the summit? What is its main role? (2 marks) (c) Explain why the Kyoto Treaty was so important. (2 marks) (d) What do you think is more important for the Netherlands in managing future climate change mitigation or adaption? (6 marks) (Total = 50 marks) Section A = 50 marks Section B = 50 marks Total = 100 marks Pearson Education Ltd

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