POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF USING RENEWABLE BIOMASS TO PRODUCE A DROP-IN REPLACEMENT TO FOSSIL CRUDE OIL INCLUDE:

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1 1. BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK LOW COST WASTE, SUCH AS SAWDUST FROM PLANTATION PINE SAWMILLING, IS SUITABLE FEEDSTOCK FOR THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION OF HIGHLY VALUABLE BIO-CRUDE OIL. MANY READILY AVAILABLE FORMS OF BIOMASS HAVE BEEN TESTED INCLUDING TIMBER AND AGRICULTURAL WASTE RESIDUES, AS WELL AS ALGAE. Licella has developed a unique lignocellulosic Catalytic Hydrothermal Reactor (Cat-HTR) system for converting biomass into high value bio-crude oil. The biomass feedstock, in this case radiata pine dust waste collected from a sawmill, is mixed with water to create a feedstock slurry. At the Somersby Demonstration Plant, (one hour from Sydney) this slurry can be processed into a rich bio-crude oil within about half an hour of being pumped into the reactor system. At a larger and fully integrated commercial scale, the system would operate continuously and be capable of producing thousands of barrels of refinery-ready drop-in bio-crude oil, per day. Micro algae and macro algae produced through carbon capture and recycling is ideally suited for use as a feedstock slurry for bio-crude production. Photos courtesy of MBD Energy Limited. POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF USING RENEWABLE BIOMASS TO PRODUCE A DROP-IN REPLACEMENT TO FOSSIL CRUDE OIL INCLUDE: 2

2 2. PRODUCTION CONTROL PRODUCTION CONTROL IS THE NERVE-CENTRE OF THE REACTOR - PROVIDING CONSTANT ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE OF EACH STEP IN THE BIO-CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION CYCLE AND EFFORTLESS, FULL CONTROL OVER ALL VARIABLES. Every stage in the Bio-Crude production process is closely monitored via sensors linked to the Control Centre. The process control system being used at the Demonstration Plant has been designed to manage a commercial scale bio-crude oil production facility. Since the next project is planned to be of a commercial scale, Licella has used the current project as a scalable blueprint for a much larger facility capable of continuously transforming biomass feedstock into bio-crude oil, around the clock. It is essential that production staff are able to actively and efficiently monitor production status and system performance each incremental step of the way. This automated approach will also help minimise production costs. THE FULL SCHEMATICS OF THE PLANT ARE AT THE CONTROLLER S FINGER-TIPS, ENABLING EVERY STEP TO BE CLOSELY MONITORED AND PROVIDING: Proven and ready deployment at a larger commercial scale.

3 3. FEEDSTOCK PRESSURISATION THE FEEDSTOCK SLURRY BEGINS ITS RAPID JOURNEY THROUGH THE REACTOR SYSTEM. EACH STEP OF THE PROCESS ALONG THE WAY IS FOCUSED UPON SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF OXYGEN FROM THE BIOMASS WITHOUT DAMAGING THE COMBUSTIBLE FUEL CONTENT. At this early stage in the overall bio-crude production process, the biomass feedstock, that is soon to become oil, is being pressurised. The key purpose of pressurisation is to enable a constant and sustained chemical reaction to occur during subsequent feedstock super heating and catalytic reaction phases. This pressurisation of the feedstock also slurry helps regulate the bio-crude reactor. Energy efficiency is maximised at all steps in the process by both minimising the amount of energy required and by the use of energy recovery technology wherever possible. after having been recycled from waste water produced by the Catalytic Hydrothermal Reactor process. THE FEEDSTOCK SLURRY IS PRESSURISED AND FLOWS THROUGH THE SYSTEM CONTINUOUSLY, ENABLING: Proven and ready deployment at a larger commercial scale.

4 4. FEEDSTOCK HEATING THE FEEDSTOCK IS INITIALLY HEATED USING RECOVERED ENERGY FROM HEAT EXCHANGERS IN THE SUBSEQUENT COOLING PROCESS, TAKING THE PRESSURISED FEEDSTOCK SLURRY UP TO THE SPECIFIC KEY REACTION TEMPERATURE REQUIRED BY THE CATALYTIC REACTOR. Licella s process design ensures that a substantial part of the energy created process when the bio-crude is depressurised and cooled using high efficiency heat exchangers. The energy recovered is sufficient to perform most of the heating of new feed- Pre-heating the pressurised feedstock stock is achieved using heat recovered from the cooling stage of the production process, saving energy and reducing cost. HALLMARKS OF LICELLA S FEEDSTOCK HEATING PROCESS INCLUDE: Proven and ready for deployment at a larger commercial scale.

5 5. CATALYTIC REACTOR PHASE THE FEEDSTOCK HAS BEEN BROUGHT TO A CHANGE-CRITICAL REACTION PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE. IT S NOW TIME FOR THE ULTIMATE TRANSFORMATION OF THE FEEDSTOCK INTO CRUDE OIL TO OCCUR IN WHAT WE CALL THE CATALYTIC HYDRO-THERMAL REACTOR (Cat-HTR) PHASE. A low cost reaction catalyst is now added to the pressurised and heated feedstock which is then injected at the base of the catalytic reactor, triggering a rapid reaction process within the reactor. It s here that the main chemical transformation takes world. In order to protect this valuable Australian intellectual property, the internal details of these sophisticated reaction chambers cannot be shown. Conventional pyrolysis systems typically necessitate heating feedstock to higher temperatures and leave too much oxygen be- Cat-HTR IS A BREAK-THROUGH AUSTRALIAN TECHNOLOGY THAT ENABLES: 2

6 6. PRODUCT DEPRESSURISATION THE BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK HAS NOW BEEN TRANSFORMED INTO AN OIL EMULSION CONTAINING BIO-CRUDE OIL, WATER AND PARTICULAR ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. SYSTEM DEPRESSURISATION AND COOLING ENABLES THESE PRODUCTS TO EASILY BE SEPARATED AND RECOVERED. sure and is still hot. Licella s system is designed for maximum energy recovery. atmospheric pressure, collecting steam that is recycled via heat exchanges to pre-heat fresh feedstock slurry now entering the system, enabling large-scale continuous energy-efficient production to be maintained. BENEFITS OF ENERGY RECOVERY INCLUDE: A further foundation stone of much larger commercial sized plant. the efficient recovery and recycling of up to 70% of heat energy.

7 7. BIO-CRUDE OIL RECOVERY HAVING UNDERGONE DEPRESSURISATION, THE PRODUCT IS NOW AT NORMAL ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AND AMBIENT TEMPERATURE. TRANSFER OF THE LIQUID (STILL CONTAINING OIL, WATER AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS) THROUGH TWO SETTLING TANKS. THESE TANKS ENABLE SEPARATION OF THE OIL AND WATER, WITH THE BIO-CRUDE SIMPLY SINKING TO THE BOTTOM OF THE TANKS AND THE WATER RISING TO THE TOP WHERE IT IS RUN OFF FOR FILTRATION TO REMOVE VALUABLE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. THE BIO-CRUDE OIL IS PURGED FROM BELOW AND PUMPED AWAY FOR FINAL DEWATERING THROUGH A CENTRIFUGE AND STORAGE FOR SALE TO AN OIL REFINERY. Though quite cool and relieved of any pressure, the turbid liquid entering the product settling tanks is a thick oily emulsion made up of mainly bio-crude and water. The mixture also contains valuable organic compounds such as fulvates and humates which are naturally occuring chemicals already extensively used in the commercial production of agricultural and domestic fertilisers. The bio-crude is a viscous, dark and pungent liquid with a low oxygen content Initially an oil and water emulsion also containing organic compounds, the products are now quickly separated into three key comodity streams (listed below). RECOVERED PRODUCTS INCLUDE: such as fulvates and humates which are easily recovered for use as fertiliser nutrients. The water is recycled.

8 8. BIO-CRUDE OIL REFINING LIKE FOSSIL CRUDE OIL, BIO-CRUDE REQUIRES SOME FINAL STAGE UPGRADING AT AN OIL REFINERY BEFORE BEING TRANSFORMED INTO MARKET-READY TRANSPORT FUEL. UPON COMMERCIALISATION, LICELLA S BIO-CRUDE WILL BE SOLD TO OIL REFINERIES AS A PRICE COMPETITIVE DROP-IN SUPPLEMENT TO CONVENTIONAL CRUDE OIL. not carbon or hydrogen, and try to replace it with hydrogen. In the process they ll remove lots of sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorous. remaining oxygen and replacing it with hydrogen and will therefore be able to of fossil crude oil. ing transport fuels. BENEFITS TO AN OIL REFINERY MAY INCLUDE: Protection of asset value and long-term jobs security.

9 9. BIO-CRUDE FUEL APPLICATIONS MOST TRANSPORT AND AGRICULTURAL FUEL IS DERIVED FROM FOSSIL CRUDE OIL - ALL OF WHICH BEGAN LIFE LONG AGO AS BIOMASS. USING LICELLA S NEW BIOMASS TO CRUDE Cat-HTR PRODUCTION SYSTEM, IT S NOW POSSIBLE TO REDUCE THE TIME REQUIRED TO PRODUCE CRUDE OIL BY SOME MILLIONS OF YEARS TO LESS THAN AN HOUR OR SO. Having dropped in Licella s bio-crude to their regular production cycles, oil re- petroleum crude oil and those derived from bio-crude - it s all the same. 2 emissions and security of supply. Despite huge volumes of petroleum crude oil through-put, conventional crude oil is becoming increasingly costly due to extraction and geo-political constraints. Licella s bio-crude will have potentially limitless supply when its Cat-HTR and related systems are licensed to bio-crude production partners around the world. LICELLA S PATHWAY TO COMMERCIALISATION

10 REGIONAL EMPLOYMENT Project Construction DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE BIO-CRUDE OIL REACTOR DISPLAY PLANT HAS BEEN ENABLED BY THE PROJECT TEAM S READY ONSITE ACCESS TO A VERSATILE ENGINEERING AND METALS FABRICATION SHOP. Having direct onsite access to a well-equipped engineering shop has increased performance latitude through more flexible design and construction parameters, ultimately saving time and money, but most importantly, delivering custom-designed and fabricated systems that perform to expectations. Sydney), the company will recruit locally and utilise local products and services, wherever possible, when constructing commercial-scale plants - thus boosting regional development. A diverse range of highly specialised equipment prototypes used in the Licella Bio-Crude Oil Reactor have been constructed in our on-site facility. WE HAVE A LARGE JOBBING WORKSHOP EMPLOYING FOUR HIGHLY SKILLED AND CERTIFIED SPECIALISTS WHO FABRICATE AND ASSEMBLE OUR EQUIPMENT.

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