Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI"

Transcription

1 Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI

2 I. Background theory. 1. Band structure of semiconductors. 2. The theory of operation of a semiconductor (diode) laser. 3. The law of refraction, law of reflection, total internal reflection of light. 4. Geometric picture of the propagation of light in optical fibre. 5. Fibre modes; numerical aperture. 6. Types of fibre: a) step ; b) gradient ; c) single-mode ; d) multi-mode. 7. Optical signal attenuation in optical fibres and its causes : a) absorption ; b) Rayleigh scattering ; c) mode coupling ; d) bending of fibre ; e) losses at optical fibre connections. II. Experimental tasks. 1. Refer to the measurement system shown in Picture 1. and procedures for the preparation of fibre-optic measurements described in Appendices A and B. Picture 1. Measuring system for investigating optical fibre properties: 1 - power supply with amplifier; 2 - laser; 3 - optical fibre; 4 - optical bench; 5 - laser mounting bracket; 6,7 adjustable brackets with lenses; 8,9 magnetic optical fibre mounting brackets; 10 photodiode mounting bracket; 11 optical fibre insulation stripper; 12 optical fibre cutting tool. Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 1.

3 2. Prepare the optical fibre for measurement according to the instructions in Appendix A. 3. Set the correct geometry of the measuring system according to the instructions in Appendix B. 4. Investigate the physical properties of the fibre, guided by Appendix C. a) Measure the transit time of light though the fibre. b) Determine the angle at which the intensity of light falling on the photodiode is at its maximum and the angle at which light intensity value is 5% of the maximum value. c) Calculate the numerical aperture and discuss errors. d) Measure the transit time of light without the fibre. 5. Prepare measurement results from 4 (a) - 4 (c): Present a chart of the light transit time without fibre and with fibre ; Determine the refractive index of the fibre, discuss errors ; Calculate the speed of light in optical fibre. 6. Determine the profile of the laser beam. 7. Present a graph with a graphical profile of the laser beam together with measurement errors. III. Apparatus. 1. Semiconductor laser with power supply. 2. Optical bench with a set of lenses. 3. Multimode fibre (length 1000 m). 4. Photodiode. 5. Oscilloscope. 6. IR converter. 7. Tools for preparing fibres : a) fibre insulation stripper ; b) optical fibre cutting tool. IV. Literature. 1. J. A. Buck Fundamentals of Optical Fibers, Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken W. S. C. Chang Principles of Lasers and Optics, Cambridge University Press, P. Halley Fiber Optic Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester PHYWE Laboratory Experiments Physics, Optics, Fibre Optics , Ch. Kittel Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8 th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 2.

4 Appendix A Preparing optical fibre for measurements Use the stripper (Picture 2 (a)) to remove the insulation from the ends of the fibre. The stripper is set exactly to the thickness of the fibre core, so you should tighten the jaws at a distance of about 30 mm from the end of the fibre and then, moving the tool, remove the insulation. a b Picture 2. Tools for the preparation of fibres : (a) fibre insulation stripper, (b) tool for cutting fibre: 1 - notch to place the fibre; 2 optical fibre restraint lever handle; 3 - blade; 4 - sliding arm. The end of the fibre with the insulation removed should be placed in the tool for cutting fibre (Picture 2(b)) in a special notch (1). Secure the fibre using the lever (2) such that the end of the insulation is between 5 mm and 10 mm on the distance scale. The blade (3) should be lightly pressed against the isolated fibre, ensuring that the fibre remains in the notch (1). If too much pressure is applied, you will cut the fibre core. In this case, repeat the procedure. After cutting, release the blade (3) so as to have returned to the starting position. Paying constant attention that the fibre remains in the notch (1), hold the device with one hand while using the thumb of the other hand to press the fibre into the notch (1) in the arm (4). Slide out the arm (4) until the moment the fibre breaks. Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 3.

5 Appendix B Ensuring proper geometry of the measuring system Place the ends of the fibre, in special notches in the magnetic mounts - (8) and (9) in Picture 1. Turn on the laser (1). To do this, turn the key to "on" and then increase the current to maximum (227 ma) using the arrows on the power supply panel ((1) in Picture 1). Take the utmost care when working with lasers! The laser emits a beam of light with a wavelength of 850 nm (invisible to the human eye) with a power of 50 mw. In order to protect your eyes, always wear protective glasses. Set the power supply to a gain of 50 and a rectangular signal modulation. Turn on the oscilloscope. The signal from the photodiode is sent through the amplifier in the power supply (1) and should be sent to channel 2 of the digital oscilloscope. A modulating signal from the amplifier (1) should be sent to channel 1 of the oscilloscope. The time base on the oscilloscope should be set to 500 μs. Set the voltage for the first channel of the oscilloscope to 200 mv/division and 50 mv/division for the second channel. The lens (6) should be placed approximately 1 mm from the laser (2) and the following lens (7) approximately 5 cm from lens (6) and about 1 cm from the end of optical fibre mounted in the bracket (8). The shape and power of the beam can be observed using a infrared converterplate covered with a layer of luminescent material excited by infrared radiation. Using the adjustment screws in the lens mounts (6) and (7), focus the beam at the tip of the fibre placed in the holder (8). Light coming from the optical fibre mounted in a holder (9) should be collected by the photodiode (10), completely flush with the end of the rotating part of the optical bench (4) - about 10 cm from the end of the fibre. After recording the signal from the photodiode with the oscilloscope (Channel 2) the set-up should be fine-tuned using the micrometer screws in each bracket (6), (7) and (8) so as to achieve maximum signal intensity (the amplitude of the second channel should be about 140 mv). Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 4.

6 Ad. Ref. II. 4. (a) Appendix C Tips for taking measurements When performing measurements, refer to the system shown in Picture 1. On the laser power supply (1), select a rectangular modulating signal (LED off). The time-base on the oscilloscope should beset to 5 μs. Measurements should be made using the rapid measurement function (Quick Meas.). Data from the oscilloscope should be recorded on a portable USB drive in the form of an ASCII file using the Save function. Ad. Ref. II. 4. (b) The rotating part of the optical bench (4) should be set to an angle Φ 1, at which the light intensity (measured by the voltage on channel 2 of the oscilloscope) incident on the photodiode is at a maximum. Determine the angle Φ 2, at which the light intensity is equal to 5 % of the maximum intensity (angle Φ 1 ). Measure the voltage on the photodiode when no light falls on it and the take this value into account when determining the appropriate angles. Ad. Ref. II. 4. (c) In order to perform measurements, modify the set-up in Picture 1. The bracket with the fibre (7) should be removed and the laser inserted at this point. The magnetic holder (9) should be lifted up and removed from the fibre. Aim the laser beam exactly perpendicularly onto the photodiode. Select a rectangular modulating signal (LED off) on the laser power supply. Set the oscilloscope time base to 5 μs. Take measurements using the rapid measurement function (Quick Meas.). Ad. Ref. II. 5 In order to perform measurements, make use of the modified system described in part Ad. Ref. II. 4. (c). Select a rectangular modulating signal (LED "off" enabled) on the laser power supply (1). Using the micrometer screws in the laser mount (5), tune the system so as to obtain an average voltage on the photodiode i.e. about 45 mv at a gain of 50 on the laser power supply (1). By adjusting the arms of the optical bench (4) on both sides between the angles of ± 14 o (in steps of 2 o ), measure the average voltage (Quick meas. on the oscilloscope) across the photodiode to obtain a profile of the laser beam. After completing the measurements, reduce the current to the power supply (1) to 0 ma and turn off the laser by turning the key to the off position. Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 5.

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI Experiment 28 : Determining the characteristics of thermistors I. Background theory. 1. Energy band structure

More information

Optical Fibres. Introduction. Safety precautions. For your safety. For the safety of the apparatus

Optical Fibres. Introduction. Safety precautions. For your safety. For the safety of the apparatus Please do not remove this manual from from the lab. It is available at www.cm.ph.bham.ac.uk/y2lab Optics Introduction Optical fibres are widely used for transmitting data at high speeds. In this experiment,

More information

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI I. Background theory. 1. Movement of nuclei in a diatomic molecule - oscillations and rotations. 2. Internal

More information

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI I. Background theory. 1. Electromagnetic waves and their properties. 2. Polarisation of light: a) unpolarised

More information

Lab 9: The Acousto-Optic Effect

Lab 9: The Acousto-Optic Effect Lab 9: The Acousto-Optic Effect Incoming Laser Beam Travelling Acoustic Wave (longitudinal wave) O A 1st order diffracted laser beam A 1 Introduction qb d O 2qb rarefractions compressions Refer to Appendix

More information

OPTICAL FIBERS INTRODUCTION

OPTICAL FIBERS INTRODUCTION OPTICAL FIBERS References: J. Hecht: Understanding Fiber Optics, Ch. 1-3, Prentice Hall N.J. 1999 D. R. Goff: Fiber Optic Reference Guide (2 nd ed.) Focal Press 1999 Projects in Fiber Optics (Applications

More information

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI I. Background theory. 1. Formation and propagation of electromagnetic waves. 2. Maxwell's equations. 3. Methods

More information

Measuring of optical output and attenuation

Measuring of optical output and attenuation Measuring of optical output and attenuation THEORY Measuring of optical output is the fundamental part of measuring in optoelectronics. The importance of an optical power meter can be compared to an ammeter

More information

Polarization of Light

Polarization of Light Polarization of Light Introduction Light, viewed classically, is a transverse electromagnetic wave. Namely, the underlying oscillation (in this case oscillating electric and magnetic fields) is along directions

More information

Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems

Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Lecture : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Attenuation (Loss)

More information

An Overview of Fiber Optic Technology

An Overview of Fiber Optic Technology Fiber Optic Technology Overview - 1/6 An Overview of Fiber Optic Technology The use of fiber optics in telecommunications and wide area networking has been common for many years, but more recently fiber

More information

Lab 7: Fabry-Perot Interferometer

Lab 7: Fabry-Perot Interferometer Lab 7: Fabry-Perot Interferometer 1 Introduction Refer to Appendix D for photos of the apparatus A Fabry-Perot interferometer is a device that uses multiple beam interference of light for high resolution

More information

Imatronic Laser Diode Modules

Imatronic Laser Diode Modules Imatronic Laser Diode Modules Features Wide range of industry standard package sizes Off the shelf immediate delivery Wide range of output powers and wavelengths Dots, lines & crosses output projections

More information

Transmission Media After this lecture, you will be able to

Transmission Media After this lecture, you will be able to Transmission Media After this lecture, you will be able to describe the physical and transmission characteristics of various transmission media their limitations and current applications guided media twisted

More information

Physics Assessment Unit AS 2

Physics Assessment Unit AS 2 Centre Number 71 Candidate Number ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY General Certificate of Education January 2011 Physics Assessment Unit AS 2 assessing Module 2: Waves, Photons and Medical Physics AY121 [AY121] MONDAY

More information

Turnbull High School Physics Department. CfE. National 4 /National. Physics. Unit 1: Waves and Radiation. Section 3: Light

Turnbull High School Physics Department. CfE. National 4 /National. Physics. Unit 1: Waves and Radiation. Section 3: Light Turnbull High School Physics Department CfE National 4 /National 5 Physics Unit 1: Waves and Radiation Section 3: Light Name: Class: 1 National 5 Unit 1: Section 3 I can state the law of reflection and

More information

4.3.5: High Temperature Test 3

4.3.5: High Temperature Test 3 temperature and 800 degrees Celsius is made by matching the optical path lengths of the measurement and sensing arms at both temperatures. By marking the relative distance between the GRIN lens and mirror

More information

Design of a measurement stand with DAQ card and semiconductor laser for recording acoustic signals

Design of a measurement stand with DAQ card and semiconductor laser for recording acoustic signals Computer Applications in Electrical Engineering Vol. 12 2014 Design of a measurement stand with DAQ card and semiconductor laser for recording acoustic signals Zbigniew Krawiecki, Dariusz Gloger Poznań

More information

Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics

Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics Photonics Technical Note # 21 Fiber Optics Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics Optical fibers are circular dielectric wave-guides that can transport optical energy and information. They have a central core surrounded

More information

Development of Optical Wave Microphone Measuring Sound Waves with No Diaphragm

Development of Optical Wave Microphone Measuring Sound Waves with No Diaphragm Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Taipei, March 5 8, 3 359 Development of Optical Wave Microphone Measuring Sound Waves with No Diaphragm Yoshito Sonoda, Takashi Samatsu, and

More information

Sensor Accessories. EasySense Laser module with Optical slides. DS 058 No 3. (Product No. 3285)

Sensor Accessories. EasySense Laser module with Optical slides. DS 058 No 3. (Product No. 3285) Sensor Accessories EasySense Laser module with Optical slides (Product No. 3285) Data Harvest Group Ltd. 1 Eden Court, Leighton Buzzard, Beds, LU7 4FY Tel: 01525 373666 Fax: 01525 851638 e-mail: sales@data-harvest.co.uk

More information

Optical Fibers Fiber Optic Cables Indoor/Outdoor

Optical Fibers Fiber Optic Cables Indoor/Outdoor presents Optical Fibers Fiber Optic Cables Indoor/Outdoor Content Optical fiber function, types optical effects applications production of optical fibre Cable - general types Indoor Indoor / outdoor Outdoor

More information

INTRODUCTION FIGURE 1 1. Cosmic Rays. Gamma Rays. X-Rays. Ultraviolet Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Infrared. Ultraviolet.

INTRODUCTION FIGURE 1 1. Cosmic Rays. Gamma Rays. X-Rays. Ultraviolet Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Infrared. Ultraviolet. INTRODUCTION Fibre optics behave quite different to metal cables. The concept of information transmission is the same though. We need to take a "carrier" signal, identify a signal parameter we can modulate,

More information

EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab

EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab EXPERIMENT O-6 Michelson Interferometer Abstract A Michelson interferometer, constructed by the student, is used to measure the wavelength of He-Ne laser light and the index of refraction of a flat transparent

More information

Lecture 2 Fibre Basics

Lecture 2 Fibre Basics Optical Fibres and Telecommunications Lecture 2 Fibre Basics Dr Tom Brown Room 284, x3129 ctab@st-and.ac.uk Last Time Why are we doing this course? What s in the course? How will the course be assessed?

More information

P R E A M B L E. Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (1.5 hours)

P R E A M B L E. Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (1.5 hours) INSURANCE SCAM OPTICS - LABORATORY INVESTIGATION P R E A M B L E The original form of the problem is an Experimental Group Research Project, undertaken by students organised into small groups working as

More information

!!!!! Optical Fibres

!!!!! Optical Fibres Optical Fibres 12 Optical Fibres In its most simple form an optical fibre is composed of two concentric layers, termed the core and the cladding, which, for protection, are frequently encased by a plastic

More information

Polarization of Light

Polarization of Light Polarization of Light References Halliday/Resnick/Walker Fundamentals of Physics, Chapter 33, 7 th ed. Wiley 005 PASCO EX997A and EX999 guide sheets (written by Ann Hanks) weight Exercises and weights

More information

THE FIBRE-OPTICS TRAINER MANUAL

THE FIBRE-OPTICS TRAINER MANUAL THE FIBRE-OPTICS TRAINER MANUAL THE FIBRE-OPTICS TRAINER MANUAL THE FIBRE-OPTICS TRAINER CONTAINS: TRANSMITTER UNIT RECEIVER UNIT 5m. LENGTH OF TERMINATED OPTICAL CABLE INSTRUCTION MANUAL (THIS BOOK) CARRYING

More information

Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure

Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure Northeastern University, PHYS5318 Spring 2014, 1 1. Introduction Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure The laser is a very important optical tool that has found widespread use in science and industry,

More information

BACKGROUND ON FIBER OPTICS

BACKGROUND ON FIBER OPTICS CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND ON FIBER OPTICS LEARNING OBJECTIVES Learning objectives are stated at the beginning of each chapter. These learning objectives serve as a preview of the information you are expected

More information

A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators

A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators D. J. McCarron December 7, 2007 1 Introduction Acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) are useful devices which allow the frequency, intensity and direction of a laser beam

More information

Laboratory #3 Guide: Optical and Electrical Properties of Transparent Conductors -- September 23, 2014

Laboratory #3 Guide: Optical and Electrical Properties of Transparent Conductors -- September 23, 2014 Laboratory #3 Guide: Optical and Electrical Properties of Transparent Conductors -- September 23, 2014 Introduction Following our previous lab exercises, you now have the skills and understanding to control

More information

Chapter 4 Transmission Media

Chapter 4 Transmission Media Chapter 4 Transmission Media Overview transmission medium is the physical path between transmitter and receiver guided media guided along a solid medium unguided media atmosphere, space, water characteristics

More information

LASER OPTICAL DISK SET

LASER OPTICAL DISK SET LASER OPTICAL DISK SET LODS01 5 6 7 4 8 3 9 2 10 1 11 1. Description The laser Optical Disk Set includes a Laser Ray Box powered by a low voltage wall-mount power supply, a set of eight ray optics elements

More information

PHILIPS Broadband Fiber Optic System

PHILIPS Broadband Fiber Optic System PHILIPS Broadband Fiber Optic System FOP 0435/011 FOP 0435/011 FOP 0435/011 FOP 0435/011 FOP 0510/011 15V DC LINE 230V~ 40W FUSE T 2A H / 250V Return Path RX Return Path RX Return Path RX Return Path RX

More information

Raman Spectroscopy. 1. Introduction. 2. More on Raman Scattering. " scattered. " incident

Raman Spectroscopy. 1. Introduction. 2. More on Raman Scattering.  scattered.  incident February 15, 2006 Advanced Physics Laboratory Raman Spectroscopy 1. Introduction When light is scattered from a molecule or crystal, most photons are elastically scattered. The scattered photons have the

More information

What are Fibre Optics?

What are Fibre Optics? Fibre Optics Fibre Optics? Fibre optics (optical fibres) are the guiding channels through which light energy propagates. These are long, thin strands of very pure glass about the diameter of a human hair

More information

3.8W 445nm Laser Diode Component

3.8W 445nm Laser Diode Component 1 3.8W 445nm Laser Diode Component This multi-mode laser diode component is pressed fit mounted in an aluminum housing and has an aluminum mountable heat-sink. The laser is set in the heat sink with thermally

More information

Cs 6S 1/2 4 F = 4= 7/2+1/2 F = 3 =7/2-1/2

Cs 6S 1/2 4 F = 4= 7/2+1/2 F = 3 =7/2-1/2 . 3. 1,2,. 1. 1,2,. 1,. 1,2,.,. 3 1, 2, 3 ( ) ( ) Cs 6S 1/2 4 F = 4= 7/2+1/2-4 0 4 = 181860 9,2 =52 (0,52 ), -3 0 3 F = 3 =7/2-1/2 3 = 182440 34 = 580 F g =3,4 : h -1 E 4 = 4 B (2m 4 1)GB 2 h -1 E 3 =

More information

MAIN MENU PRODUCTS APPLICATIONS INDEX SELECTION GUIDE

MAIN MENU PRODUCTS APPLICATIONS INDEX SELECTION GUIDE Digital Display Laser Thrubeam Sensors LX-V Series Features Ultra high repeatability from µm Mil Parallel laser beam High sampling speed of 8 µs Built-in comparator and analog output Built-in digital display

More information

To determine the wavelength of diffracted light by means of a transmission grating and slit separation distance of this diffraction grating.

To determine the wavelength of diffracted light by means of a transmission grating and slit separation distance of this diffraction grating. Chapter 10 DIFFRACTION GRADING SAFETY NOTES Do not look directly into the laser cavity, or at any reflections of the laser caused by shiny surfaces. Keep beam at bench level so as not to accidentally shine

More information

Limiting factors in fiber optic transmissions

Limiting factors in fiber optic transmissions Limiting factors in fiber optic transmissions Sergiusz Patela, Dr Sc Room I/48, Th. 13:00-16:20, Fri. 9:20-10:50 sergiusz.patela@pwr.wroc.pl eportal.pwr.wroc.pl Copying and processing permitted for noncommercial

More information

Verdet Constant Measurement of Olive Oil for Magnetic Field Sensor

Verdet Constant Measurement of Olive Oil for Magnetic Field Sensor International Journal of Advances in Electrical and Electronics Engineering 362 Available online at www.ijaeee.com& www.sestindia.org/volume-ijaeee ISSN: 2319-1112 Verdet Constant Measurement of Olive

More information

Fiber Optics Basics. A little introduction to the technology of fiber Optics. by Steffen Diehl. Berufsakademie Mannheim TIM 01 AGR.

Fiber Optics Basics. A little introduction to the technology of fiber Optics. by Steffen Diehl. Berufsakademie Mannheim TIM 01 AGR. Fiber Optics Basics A little introduction to the technology of fiber Optics by Steffen Diehl Berufsakademie Mannheim TIM 01 AGR diehl@crp.de Introduction Our current "age of technology" is the result of

More information

Principles of Optical Fibers

Principles of Optical Fibers Principles of Optical Fibers Simon Kwan In partial fulfillment of course requirement for MatE 115, Fall 2002 Instructor: Prof. G. Selvaduray San Jose State University TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Introduction.

More information

PHYS 2212L - Principles of Physics Laboratory II

PHYS 2212L - Principles of Physics Laboratory II PHYS 2212L - Principles of Physics Laboratory II Laboratory Advanced Sheet Diffraction 1. Objectives. The objectives of this laboratory are a. To be able use a diffraction grating to measure the wavelength

More information

Introduction to Telecommunications and Computer Engineering Unit 6: Fibre Optic Communication

Introduction to Telecommunications and Computer Engineering Unit 6: Fibre Optic Communication Introduction to Telecommunications and Computer Engineering Unit 6: Fibre Optic Communication Syedur Rahman Lecturer, CSE Department North South University syedur.rahman@wolfson.oxon.org Acknowledgements

More information

Lab 8: Polarization of Light

Lab 8: Polarization of Light Lab 8: Polarization of Light 1 Introduction Refer to Appendix D for photos of the apparatus Polarization is a fundamental property of light and a very important concept of physical optics. Not all sources

More information

Lecture 18: Multiple beam interference, Introduction to Fabry-Perot spectroscopy

Lecture 18: Multiple beam interference, Introduction to Fabry-Perot spectroscopy Lecture 18: Multiple beam interference, Introduction to Fabry-Perot spectroscopy Lecture aims to explain: 1. Interference from a plane parallel plate: multiple beam interference. Experimental set-up for

More information

Survival Laser SL-001BB Laser Parts Bundle Assembly & Operation Instructions

Survival Laser SL-001BB Laser Parts Bundle Assembly & Operation Instructions Survival Laser SL-001BB Laser Parts Bundle Assembly & Operation Instructions WARNING: READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS AND THE ENCLOSED SAFETY PRECAUTIONS BEFORE ASSEMBLY AND USE Assemble and use these parts ONLY

More information

Diffraction and Interference of Light

Diffraction and Interference of Light Diffraction and Interference of Light Theory: When light encounters an opaque barrier with an opening that is not too large relative to the wavelength, it will bend around the edges to illuminate the space

More information

Laserlyte-Flex Alignment System

Laserlyte-Flex Alignment System Laserlyte-Flex Alignment System LaserLyte-Flex The LaserLyte-Flex Alignment System is a unique, interchangeable, low cost plug and play laser system. Designed specifically for aligning and positioning

More information

Derek Schmidlkofer PH 464. Project: IR Sensors

Derek Schmidlkofer PH 464. Project: IR Sensors Derek Schmidlkofer PH 464 Project: IR Sensors Robots need devices that allow them to interpret and interact with the world around them. Infrared sensors are an effective method of accomplishing this task.

More information

Optics. LD Physics Leaflets. Diffraction Gratings P Photonic experiments Optical Applications. Objects of the experiment.

Optics. LD Physics Leaflets. Diffraction Gratings P Photonic experiments Optical Applications. Objects of the experiment. PJD 2014-12 Optics Photonic experiments Optical Applications LD Physics Leaflets Diffraction Gratings Objects of the experiment Investigation the principle of gratings Measuring wavelength and grating

More information

DIRECTIONAL FIBER OPTIC POWER MONITORS (TAPS/PHOTODIODES)

DIRECTIONAL FIBER OPTIC POWER MONITORS (TAPS/PHOTODIODES) Features: DIRECTIONAL FIBER OPTIC POWER MONITORS (TAPS/PHOTODIODES) PATENT NUMBERS: CANADA 2,494,133, USA 7095931, 7295731 AND CHINA 1672073 Telcordia GR-468 qualified Available in versions for any wavelength

More information

CHAPTER 8 OBJECT REGISTERING SENSORS

CHAPTER 8 OBJECT REGISTERING SENSORS CHAPTER 8 OBJECT REGISTERING SENSORS 8.1. Contact sensors for object registering Mechanical switches can be used as contact sensors for object registering. They generate signals of the on/off type as a

More information

Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications Saulius Marcinkevičius Optics, ICT, KTH 1 Outline Optical near field. Principle of scanning near field optical microscope

More information

10Spec TM 10 Degree Specular Reflectance Accessory

10Spec TM 10 Degree Specular Reflectance Accessory Installation and User Guide 10Spec TM 10 Degree Specular Reflectance Accessory The information in this publication is provided for reference only. All information contained in this publication is believed

More information

Robert G. Hunsperger. Integrated Optics. Theory and Technology. Fourth Edition. With 195 Figures and 17 Tables. Springer

Robert G. Hunsperger. Integrated Optics. Theory and Technology. Fourth Edition. With 195 Figures and 17 Tables. Springer Robert G. Hunsperger Integrated Optics Theory and Technology Fourth Edition With 195 Figures and 17 Tables Springer Contents 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Advantages of Integrated Optics 2 1.1.1 Comparison of

More information

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS. Lens Prism Mirror

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS. Lens Prism Mirror GEOMETRICAL OPTICS Geometrical optics is the treatment of the passage of light through lenses, prisms, etc. by representing the light as rays. A light ray from a source goes in a straight line through

More information

Biophotonics. Basic Microscopy. NPTEL Biophotonics 1

Biophotonics. Basic Microscopy. NPTEL Biophotonics 1 Biophotonics Basic Microscopy NPTEL Biophotonics 1 Overview In this lecture you will learn Elements of a basic microscope Some imaging techniques Keywords: optical microscopy, microscope construction,

More information

Spectrophotometry. Theory

Spectrophotometry. Theory is any technique that uses light to measure chemical concentrations. Theory When a sample absorbs electromagnetic radiation it undergoes a change in energy. The interaction happens between the sample and

More information

The Diode. Diode Operation

The Diode. Diode Operation The Diode The diode is a two terminal semiconductor device that allows current to flow in only one direction. It is constructed of a P and an N junction connected together. Diode Operation No current flows

More information

Three Channel Optical Incremental Encoder Modules Technical Data

Three Channel Optical Incremental Encoder Modules Technical Data Three Channel Optical Incremental Encoder Modules Technical Data HEDS-9040 HEDS-9140 Features Two Channel Quadrature Output with Index Pulse Resolution Up to 2000 CPR Counts Per Revolution Low Cost Easy

More information

UNIT III FIBER OPTICS AND APPLICATIONS PART-A 2 MARK QUESTION AND ANSWERS

UNIT III FIBER OPTICS AND APPLICATIONS PART-A 2 MARK QUESTION AND ANSWERS UNIT III FIBER OPTICS AND APPLICATIONS PART-A MARK QUESTION AND ANSWERS 1. What is optical fiber? Optical fiber is a wave guide made up of transparent dielectric like glass or plastics in cylindrical form

More information

Experimental Competition May 15, hrs Experiment Problem STUDENT CODE There are 14 pages including the cover page.

Experimental Competition May 15, hrs Experiment Problem STUDENT CODE There are 14 pages including the cover page. Experimental Competition May 15, 2014 0830-1330 hrs Experiment Problem STUDENT CODE There are 14 pages including the cover page. May 15, 2014 (Thursday) Please first read the following instructions carefully:

More information

Near-field scanning optical microscopy (SNOM)

Near-field scanning optical microscopy (SNOM) Adviser: dr. Maja Remškar Institut Jožef Stefan January 2010 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fluorescence Raman and surface enhanced Raman 7 Conventional optical microscopy-limited resolution Two broad classes of techniques

More information

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI 12 Experiment 12 : Examination of the heart using ECG and PCG I. Background theory. 1. Construction and functioning

More information

Contents. Sommaire. pren 3745-301:2012 (E) Page

Contents. Sommaire. pren 3745-301:2012 (E) Page Contents Page Sommaire 1 Scope... 4 2 Normative references... 4 3 Preparation of specimens... 4 4 Apparatus... 4 5 Methods... 5 5.1 Method A (Cut-back technique)... 5 5.2 Method B (Insertion loss)... 7

More information

1. What is included with your RL200

1. What is included with your RL200 1. What is included with your RL200 1 2. Find your way around the RL200 Plumb Up Beam Light House Rotating Head Optical Glass Control Panel Handle 4 Base 2.1 Control Panel Direction Scan Left Spin Right

More information

Design and Use of a Novel Flat Field Illumination Light Source

Design and Use of a Novel Flat Field Illumination Light Source Design and Use of a Novel Flat Field Illumination Light Source TECHNICAL NOTE 108. Simon Tulloch. 6th Nov 1996 1 1. Introduction. Flat field exposures are essential for highlighting cosmetic defects on

More information

Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water

Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water Experiment (8) Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water The aim of work: The goals of this experiment are to confirm the relationship between angular frequency and wave vector

More information

Physics 1051 Laboratory #6 Diffraction. CD Diffraction

Physics 1051 Laboratory #6 Diffraction. CD Diffraction CD Diffraction Contents Part I: Setup Part II: The Diffraction Grating Part III: CD Groove Spacing Part I: Introduction One of the goals in this lab is to use a diffraction grating to determine the wavelength

More information

Purpose of the experiment

Purpose of the experiment Modern Physics Lab Spectroscopy Purpose of the experiment Familiarize you with advanced experimental techniques and equipment. Learn how to identify various elements by their emission spectrum. Background

More information

Laser Pointer Series Operation Manual.

Laser Pointer Series Operation Manual. Laser Pointer Series Operation Manual TABLE OF CONTENTS LASER DIAGRAM Laser Diagram Technical Specifications Laser Operation Laser Safety Maintanence Limitation of Liability Warranty 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 Laser

More information

Tube Control Measurement, Sorting Modular System for Glass Tube

Tube Control Measurement, Sorting Modular System for Glass Tube Tube Control Measurement, Sorting Modular System for Glass Tube Tube Control is a modular designed system of settled instruments and modules. It comprises measuring instruments for the tube dimensions,

More information

Inspection and Cleaning Procedures for Fiber Optic Connections

Inspection and Cleaning Procedures for Fiber Optic Connections Inspection and Cleaning Procedures for Fiber Optic Connections Document ID: 51834 Contents Introduction Inspection and Cleaning are Critical General Reminders and Warnings Reminders Warnings Best Practices

More information

Fast Optical Communication Components

Fast Optical Communication Components Fast Optical Communication Components Fiber optics In optical communications, fiber replaces copper coaxial cables used in wired networks Fiber optics Fiber optic telephone communication system Optical

More information

Optical Communications

Optical Communications Optical Communications Telecommunication Engineering School of Engineering University of Rome La Sapienza Rome, Italy 2005-2006 Lecture #2, May 2 2006 The Optical Communication System BLOCK DIAGRAM OF

More information

Beta-TX Laser Diode Module. T he Beta-TX is a complete self contained laser diode system

Beta-TX Laser Diode Module. T he Beta-TX is a complete self contained laser diode system Laser Diode Module A HIGH SPEED MODULATABLE LASER WITH SPEEDS UP TO 50 MHZ Features Modulation speeds up to 50 MHz Visible and Infra red versions Powers from 1mW to 100 mw Flexible design accommodating

More information

HB Spectroscopy Lab 3 1. Spectroscopy Lab 3. Reading Your text books. Look under spectra, spectrometer, diffraction.

HB Spectroscopy Lab 3 1. Spectroscopy Lab 3. Reading Your text books. Look under spectra, spectrometer, diffraction. HB 12-09-08 Spectroscopy Lab 3 1 Spectroscopy Lab 3 Reading Your text books. Look under spectra, spectrometer, diffraction. Consult Sargent Welch Spectrum Charts on wall of lab. Note that only the most

More information

Fiber Optics Fundamentals

Fiber Optics Fundamentals 1/11 Fiber Optics Fundamentals Surasak Sanguanpong nguan@ku.ac.th http://www.cpe.ku.ac.th/~nguan Last updated: 11 July 2000 Fiber Optics Fundamentals - 1/11 Bending of Light Ray 2/11 n 2 of medium 2 θ

More information

Helium-Neon Laser. Figure 1: Diagram of optical and electrical components used in the HeNe laser experiment.

Helium-Neon Laser. Figure 1: Diagram of optical and electrical components used in the HeNe laser experiment. Helium-Neon Laser Experiment objectives: assemble and align a 3-mW HeNe laser from readily available optical components, record photographically the transverse mode structure of the laser output beam,

More information

Transmission Media. Dr. Indranil Sen Gupta Transmission Media Slide 1

Transmission Media. Dr. Indranil Sen Gupta Transmission Media Slide 1 Transmission Media Dr. Indranil Sen Gupta Transmission Media Slide 1 Introduction Physical path between transmitter and receiver in a data transmission system. May be classified into two types: Guided:-

More information

Agrochemical Emulsion Tester AET100

Agrochemical Emulsion Tester AET100 Rank Brothers Ltd Agrochemical Emulsion Tester AET100 Operating Manual Manufactured by: Rank Brothers Ltd 56 High Street, Bottisham, Cambridge CB25 9DA, England Tel: +44 (0)1223 811369 Fax: +44 (0)1223

More information

Finisar Presents: Optics, Optical Fibers, and Transceivers

Finisar Presents: Optics, Optical Fibers, and Transceivers Finisar Presents: Optics, Optical Fibers, and Transceivers Optics 101 March 2011 2011 Finisar Corporation Optics, Optical Fiber, & Transceivers Part 1 Optics Reflection & Refraction Index of refraction

More information

Guideline Laser Series

Guideline Laser Series Guideline Laser Series Highly visible alignment laser for visually demanding surfaces Red / Green long visible lines Equal brightness across length of the line Uniform Line (no fading at ends of the line)

More information

Q1. Both X-ray machines and CT scanners are used to produce images of the body.

Q1. Both X-ray machines and CT scanners are used to produce images of the body. Q. Both X-ray machines and CT scanners are used to produce images of the body. (a) The diagram shows an X-ray photograph of a broken leg. Before switching on the X-ray machine, the radiographer goes behind

More information

The Rainbow Light Show

The Rainbow Light Show The Rainbow Light Show Hobby Electronics Soldering Kit Instruction Guide TM For the best outcome, follow each step in order. We recommend reading this guide entirely before you get started. Tools required:

More information

PROPERTIES OF THIN LENSES. Paraxial-ray Equations

PROPERTIES OF THIN LENSES. Paraxial-ray Equations PROPERTIES OF THIN LENSES Object: To measure the focal length of lenses, to verify the thin lens equation and to observe the more common aberrations associated with lenses. Apparatus: PASCO Basic Optical

More information

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

More information

Optics. Determining the velocity of light by means of the rotating-mirror method according to Foucault and Michelson. LD Physics Leaflets P5.6.1.

Optics. Determining the velocity of light by means of the rotating-mirror method according to Foucault and Michelson. LD Physics Leaflets P5.6.1. Optics Velocity of light Measurement according to Foucault/Michelson LD Physics Leaflets P5.6.1.1 Determining the velocity of light by means of the rotating-mirror method according to Foucault and Michelson

More information

FIBRE-OPTICS POWER METER INSTRUCTION MANUAL

FIBRE-OPTICS POWER METER INSTRUCTION MANUAL FIBRE-OPTICS POWER METER INSTRUCTION MANUAL FIBRE-OPTICS POWER METER ELLMAX ELECTRONICS LTD. Unit 29, Leyton Business Centre, Etloe Road, Leyton, London E10 7BT, England Tel: 020-8539 0136 Fax: 020-8539

More information

INTERFERENCE. Physics 122 June 2, 2006

INTERFERENCE. Physics 122 June 2, 2006 Physics 122 June 2, 2006 http://www.physics.sfsu.edu/~manuals/ph122/ I. Theory INTERFERENCE This laboratory will investigate the phenomenon of interference. The interference and diffraction of light waves

More information

Fiber optic communication

Fiber optic communication Fiber optic communication Fiber optic communication Outline Introduction Properties of single- and multi-mode fiber Optical fiber manufacture Optical network concepts Robert R. McLeod, University of Colorado

More information

Helium Neon Laser. Principle

Helium Neon Laser. Principle Helium Neon Laser Principle The difference between spontaneous and stimulated emission of light is demonstrated. The beam propagation within the resonator cavity of a He-Ne laser and its divergence are

More information

BIOLOGY 163 LABORATORY USE OF THE COMPOUND LIGHT MICROSCOPE (Revised Fall 2012)

BIOLOGY 163 LABORATORY USE OF THE COMPOUND LIGHT MICROSCOPE (Revised Fall 2012) BIOLOGY 163 LABORATORY USE OF THE COMPOUND LIGHT MICROSCOPE (Revised Fall 2012) Microscopes in various forms are important tools for biologists. Two types of microscopes that you will use frequently are

More information

17.1 Reflection and Refraction

17.1 Reflection and Refraction 17.1 Reflection and Refraction How do we describe the reflection and refraction of light? Reflection and Refraction Investigation 17.1 We observe the law of reflection every day. Looking in a mirror, we

More information

RL HW / RL HW+ / RL HGW / RL HV / RL HVPW/RL HVPW-G

RL HW / RL HW+ / RL HGW / RL HV / RL HVPW/RL HVPW-G Auto-Levelling Rotary Laser Level RL HW / RL HW+ / RL HGW / RL HV / RL HVPW/RL HVPW-G 77-496 / 77-429 / 77-439 / 77-497 / 77-427/ 77-441 Please read these instructions before operating the product Auto-Levelling

More information