1 4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Flow of Energy and Matter Lesson 1: How does energy flow?
3 Ecosystem is the living and nonliving things and the way they interact in an environment.
4 All living things in an ecosystem need water, nutrients, growing space, and temperatures that allow them to grow and reproduce. Oral Response Task Explain the meaning of an ecosystem.
6 Photosynthesis is the process of plants using sunlight to make their own food.
7 During the process of photosynthesis, green plants use energy from sunlight to change carbon dioxide and water into food and energy. Oral Response Task Evaluate the importance of photosynthesis for human beings.
9 A producer is a living thing that makes its own food.
10 In almost all ecosystems, green plants are the only producers. Oral Response Task Illustrate what a producer is.
12 A consumer is a living thing that eats other living things for food.
13 Animals get energy by eating, or consuming, plants or other animals. Oral Response Task Analyze the effects of a consumer.
15 An herbivore is an animal that eats plants.
16 Each herbivore uses some energy to live and grow. Some energy is released as heat. But some energy is stored in its body. Oral Response Task An herbivore is defined as.
18 A carnivore is an animal that eats other animals.
19 All living things in an ecosystem need water, nutrients, growing space, and temperatures that allow them to grow and reproduce. Oral Response Task Recall the characteristics of a carnivore.
21 An omnivore is an animal that eats both plants and animals.
22 Some animals, called omnivores, eat plants and other animals. Oral Response Task In your opinion, an omnivore is.
24 A decomposer is an organism that breaks down wastes and remains of other organisms.
25 In this way, energy flows from the Sun, to producers, to consumers, and to decomposers. Oral Response Task Formulate the characteristics of decomposers.
26 4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Flow of Energy and Matter Lesson 2: How does matter flow?
27 food chain
28 A food chain is the transfer of energy and matter from one living thing to another by eating and being eaten.
29 A producer is always the first link in a food chain. Oral Response Task Describe the different steps in a food chain.
31 A predator is a consumer that hunts other animals for food.
32 The golden eagle is a predator of mice. Oral Response Task Calculate the effects of a predator in its immediate living environment.
34 A prey is an animal hunted by others for food.
35 The golden eagle gets its energy and matter from eating mice and other prey. Oral Response Task Compare the effects in the environment of a predator and its prey.
36 food web
37 A food web is a system of overlapping food chains in which energy and matter flow through many branches.
38 In a food web, energy and matter can flow through many branches. Oral Response Task Evaluate how a food web works.
39 4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Flow of Energy and Matter Lesson 3: What are decomposers?
41 Bacteria are simple one-celled living things.
42 Fungi, bacteria, and insects help decompose matter. Oral Response Task Define the word bacteria.
44 An organism is a living thing with parts that work together to carry on the processes of life.
45 If nothing is decayed, dead organisms and wastes would pile up and interfere with the habitats of living things. Oral Response Task Explain the characteristics of an organism.
47 A microorganism is a living thing too small to be seen without a microscope.
48 Bacteria and some fungi are microorganisms. Oral Response Task Describe a microorganism.
49 4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Flow of Energy and Matter Lesson 4: What is the role of microorganisms?
51 A protist is a one-celled living thing with a nucleus and other cell part.
52 Protists such as euglena are producers. Oral Response Task Define the word protist.
54 Diatoms are a kind of alga that have a hard cell wall.
55 Diatoms are producers. Oral Response Task Diatoms are a of that have a.
56 4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 4: Ecosystems Lesson 1: What are the parts of an ecosystem?
58 A system is made of many parts that work together for a purpose.
59 A system can have living and nonliving parts. Oral Response Task Explain what a system is.
61 A climate is the average weather conditions in an area over a long time.
62 The nonliving parts of an ecosystem include air, water, soil, light, temperature, landforms, and climate. Oral Response Task Describe what climate is.
64 A grassland is an ecosystem that is covered with grasses but has few trees.
65 Grasslands receive a medium amount of rain. Oral Response Task Analyze the characteristics of a grassland.
67 A tundra is a cold and dry ecosystem where the ground is frozen all year long.
68 Some grasses and other plants can grow in a tundra, but trees cannot grow. Oral Response Task Discuss the climate characteristics and conditions in the tundra.
70 A swamp is a type of wetland where trees can grow.
71 Different kinds of animals, such as insects, water birds, and alligators live in swamps. Oral Response Task Evaluate why trees grow quickly in a swamp.
72 4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 4: Ecosystems Lesson 2: What are some ecosystems?
74 A desert is an ecosystem that receives very little precipitation.
75 Many deserts are hot, but they can be much cooler at night. Some can be quite cold much of the time. Oral Response Task Illustrate the characteristics of a desert.
76 low desert
77 A low desert is less than 915 meters above sea level.
78 Landforms in the low desert include flat, sandy area, salt flats, and low mountains. Oral Response Task Formulate the reasons why this is called a low desert.
80 A landform is a natural feature of Earth.
81 Landforms in the low desert include flat, sandy area, salt flats, and low mountains. Oral Response Task Relate what a landform is.
83 A shrub is a woody plant that does not have a single trunk like a tree.
84 Ocotillo and creosote shrubs grow in the low desert, along with cholla cactus. Oral Response Task A shrub is a that does not have a like a.
85 high desert
86 A high desert is 915 to 3353 meters above sea level.
87 Plants in the high desert include Joshua trees, sagebrush, giant juniper bushes, pinyon pines, and Mojave creosote. Oral Response Task Evaluate the criteria to define a high desert.
88 rain forest
89 A rain forest is an ecosystem that has large amounts of precipitation and thick plant growth.
90 Most rain forests are tropical. Oral Response Task Predict what would happen if the climate conditions would change in a rain forest.
92 A canopy is the top level of a rain forest, formed by tree branches, leaves, and vines tangled together.
93 Most rain forest animals, including kinkajous, brightly colored butterflies and birds such as the toucan, live in the canopy. Oral Response Task Describe the characteristics of a canopy.
95 An understory is the area of a rain forest below the canopy.
96 Small trees, vines, orchids, and ferns grow in the understory. Oral Response Task Demonstrate why the area of rain forest below the canopy is called understory.
97 coral reef
98 A coral reef is a ridge or mound in warm, shallow ocean waters formed by the skeletons of tiny sea animals called coral polyps.
99 What ocean animals can you name? Many of them probably live in warm, shallow waters around coral reefs. Oral Response Task Analyze the characteristics of a coral reef.
101 Symbiosis is a relationship between two organisms that helps one or both of the organisms.
102 This kind of relationship between two animals is called symbiosis. Oral Response Task Compare the benefits of a symbiosis for both organisms.
103 4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 5: Interactions in Ecosystems Lesson 1: What determines survival?
105 Population is all of the same kind of living things that live in one place.
106 All of these owls make up a population. Oral Response Task Define the word population.
108 A community is all of the different populations in one place.
109 All of the different populations in that place make up a community. Oral Response Task Formulate the conditions that must occur to build a community.
111 Competition means that two or more living things are using the same limited resources.
112 Plants also compete for resources. Oral Response Task Debate the meaning of the word competition.
114 Diet is the food and drink considered in terms of its quantities, composition, and its effect of health.
115 A Varied Diet Black bears, for example, eat a variety of foods, depending on what is easy to find. Oral Response Task Design a balanced diet for the animal in the picture.
117 A meadow is a type of grassland used for pasture or serving as a hayfield.
118 In the spring, bears eat grasses and meadow plants. Oral Response Task Differentiate the different uses of a meadow.
120 The territory is an area where an animal lives and in which it defends from others.
121 Many animals compete for territory. Oral Response Task Summarize the characteristics of a territory.
123 Mammals are animals that bear live young and have fur or hair.
124 Mammals also claim and defend territories. Oral Response Task Mammals are animals that.
126 A marsh is a type of woodland where trees cannot grow.
127 A marsh wren claims its territory by singing loudly day and night. Oral Response Task Estimate why trees cannot grow in a marsh.
128 4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 5: Interactions in Ecosystems Lesson 2: How do environmental changes affect living things?
130 Adaptation is a trait that helps an organism survive in its environment.
131 Living things that survive well have adaptations to their environment. Oral Response Task Explain the meaning of the word adaptation.
133 To survive means to stay alive.
134 Many plants and animals survive better in one environment than in another. Oral Response Task Express the meaning of the word survive.
136 Pollination is the movement of pollen from a male part of a flower to a female part.
137 Birds, bats, and insects pollinate plants when they use the plants for food. Oral Response Task Predict what would happen in the process of pollination if the bees would disappear?
138 4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 5: Interactions in Ecosystems Lesson 3: How do animals depend on plants?
140 A substance is a physical matter or material.
141 Some animals get other substances they need from the plants they eat. Oral Response Task Compare and contrast the three types of substances.
143 To starve is to die or perish from lack of food.
144 Without plants, the caterpillar and all other animals would starve. Oral Response Task Starve is to or from of.
146 A chemical is a substance produced by or used in a chemical process.
147 Monarch butterflies take in a chemical from the milkweed plants. Oral Response Task Define the word chemical.
149 A milkweed is a plant that secretes a milky juice or latex.
150 Monarch butterflies take in a chemical from the milkweed plants. Oral Response Task Question why the milkweed secretes a milky juice?
152 Monarchs are a type of butterfly whose caterpillar eats the milkweed plant.
153 Many monarch butterflies spend the winter in parts of California where different kinds of milkweed are easy to find. Oral Response Task Formulate why monarchs are different from the rest of the butterflies.
155 Oxygen is a gas animals need to live.
156 Plants release oxygen into the air. Oral Response Task Explain why oxygen is an important gas.
157 carbon dioxide
158 Carbon dioxide is a gas made of carbon and oxygen particles.
159 Plants use energy from sunlight to make their own food from water and carbon dioxide. Oral Response Task Evaluate the environmental importance of the carbon dioxide.
161 Shelter is protection from adverse conditions.
162 Many animals find shelter among plants. Oral Response Task Evaluate the uses of a shelter.
164 A fiber is a fine, threadlike piece of a plant.
165 The cotton plant provides fibers for cotton cloth. Oral Response Task Illustrate the different uses of a fiber.
166 4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 5: Interactions in Ecosystems Lesson 4: How do plants depend on animals?
168 Pollen is the fertilizing element of flowering plants.
169 Pollen is made in a flower s male parts, called stamens. Oral Response Task Predict the importance of the pollen for plant reproduction.
171 Fertilization is the process by which an egg cell and a sperm cell combine.
172 After fertilization, the flower goes through many changes. Oral Response Task Describe the process of fertilization.
174 A stamen is the male structure in a plant.
175 Pollen is made in a flower s male parts, called stamens. Oral Response Task A stamen is.
177 A pistil is the female structure in a plant.
178 The pollen has to get from the stamens to the female parts, called pistils. Oral Response Task Define the word pistil.
179 egg cell
180 Egg cells are the eggs that are fertilized by pollen in a plant.
181 Sperm cells from the pollen move down the pollen tube and combine with egg cells. Oral Response Task Evaluate the importance of the egg cells for the plants.
183 A petal is the colored segment of the corolla of a flower.
184 The plant does not need the petals or stamens any longer, so they dry up and fall off. Oral Response Task Estimate why the petals are so colorful.
185 seed dispersal
186 Seed dispersal is the process of scattering plant seeds.
187 Some plants simply drop their seeds, and the seeds sprout. Scattering seeds, or seed dispersal, is not always that easy though. Oral Response Task Evaluate the importance of seed dispersal.