Towards Zero Emission

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1 Towards Zero Emission Sustainable Mobility Project CNG HCNG H 2 in transport EHA session at Sustainable Energy Week Brussels, 01/02/2007

2 Economic incentives Italy Finanziaria 2007 Innovative Industrial Projects mio. Kyoto Protocol mio. : 1. micro-cogeneration 2. renewables for generation of electricity 3. pilot projects low or zero emission energy & technology Sustainable mobility fund mio. EU DG "Energy and Transport" (DG-TREN) 7th RTD Framework Programme ( ) Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP) Joint Technology Initiative (JTI)

3 new Eni format: multienergy station Agip multienergy service station projects: Collesalvetti / Italy Frankfurt / Germany Mantova / Italy

4 multienergy station Agip multienergy service station Agip technology platform multifuel offer: conventional liquid fuel: gasoline, diesel conventional gaseous fuel: LPG, CNG ecofuel: HCNG*, H 2, biodiesel*, electric recharge on site H 2 production via electrolyzer or catalytic reformer power generation: from renewables: photovoltaics, mini-wind energy, solar thermal cogeneration: via microturbine powered by CNG/LPG or stationary fuel cell *experimental

5 multienergy service station Agip platform replicable: 4 new stations/year from modular: a station contains some or all of the innovative items eco-efficient: electrical and termal requirements of the station are generated on site, energy in excess is used for electrolytic H 2 production or delivered to the grid

6 ecofuel - opportunities in Italy Italy at present has a competitive advantage: 600 CNG service stations units CNG vehicle fleet HCNG bridges the gap to future pure hydrogen technology (2020)

7 HCNG project for Italy A public/private partnership project is working at regional level in Italy to develop HCNG technology and deploy a series of HCNG service stations. The cars are Fiat Panda Bifuel (H 2 and HCNG), used during start up phase in public service.

8 Eni s H 2 roadmap H 2 and fuel cell technologies present technological and economical hurdles: HCNG is ready now HCNG reduce local pollution in urban centers HCNG is cleaner than CNG and well suited for internal combustion engines HCNG paves the way for transition to H 2 technologies Eni Div. R&M started moving to H2 in 2006 with the Collesalvetti service station (ready for HCNG now)

9 Eni s H 2 roadmap H 2 Transportation HCNG (experimental) FC and Internal Combustion Vehicle (operative) Power Station/ Cogeneration FC Station (experimental) *experimental

10 Eni H 2 technologies for transport Soda H 2 pipeline Reforming Frankfurt Fossil Methane Carbon Reforming Gassification Gassificazione Mantova Nuclear Thermochemical Processi processes termochimici IDROGENO H 2 Trasporto Transport Wind Eolico, energy PV Electrolyzer Elettrolisi Renewable Solar Solare Biomasse Thermochemical Processi processes termochimici Gassification Gassificazione Collesalvetti

11 multienergy service station open issues National permits, authorizations and standards: Maximum fueling pressure is limited to 220 bar and cannot be exceeded even in experimental stations. This limits the use of H 2 in transportation due to autonomy issues. Under security aspects the treatment of H 2 in Italy is similar to methane, not allowing for exceptions Complex procedures to comply with weight & measures and fiscal standards Large minimum distances for gaseous fuels (due to Fire Department standards) require large and expensive sites, which are not easily available in suitable, especially urban, position Self service of gaseous fuels is not allowed, adding costs and reducing fuel availability to station opening hours

12 multienergy service station solutions National permits, authorizations and standards: HyApproval may give the necessary support Hydrogen car homologation standards required Management: Simplify and standardize the technology Reduce maintenance by engineering (air lubrication vs. oil) Speed drives down cost

13 multienergy service station example Wind Energy Cogeneration Solar Energy Gasoline Diesel Electrical recharge Gaseous fuels: H2, HCNG, CNG, LPG

14 Collesalvetti Station open for the public since July 2006 Project in cooperation between ENI Div. R&M Toscana Region H2 generation via electrolyzer on site from renewables Energy from renewables: - Photovoltaic (20 kwp) -Wind( 60kWp) Energy from CNG via cogeneration: - 30 kwe Peak Ready for HCNG

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18 Collesalvetti: H 2 system Electrolyzer Fuel Cell vehicle/ 10 Ncm/h 4 bar Internal combustion engine Compressor 200 bar Fuel dispenser Storage: 30 cylinder 50 litres each Power consumption for 1 Ncm Consumption of demineralized water 6,3 kwh 7,8 lt/h

19 H 2 equipment: Technical details Annual service station energy surplus kwh Annual Hydrogen Production (81 mwh : 6,3 kwh/nmc) Nmc Annual uptime hydrogen plant (13 knmc : 10 Nmc/h) h Total vehicle kilometers on H 2 (2.9Nmc x 10km ) Km

20 Vehicle park Fiat Multipla e Doblò Fiat Hydrogen* Horsepower (kw) Max speed (km/h) Range (km) Tank capacity H Ncm Gasoline l *Fiat Multipla CNG modified by a local research company with test plates.

21 Collesalvetti: photovoltaic equipment Estimated annual production (kw/h) Peak power (kw) Module Dimension (m 2 ) Module Number ,

22 Collesalvetti: mini-wind energy Estimated annual production (kw/h) Peak power (kw) Number of generators Wind speed range (m/sec) Average local wind speed (m/sec) Rotor diameter Generator height above ground ,0 3 3,5 37,5 4,1 8 18

23 Collesalvetti: micro-cogeneration plant Savings in electrical energy by using thermal energy for heating and air condition: kwh/a Electric energy produced kwh/a Heat exchanger Exhaust gas Water GAS AIR Generator Combustion Chamber Electric Energy Compressor Turbine Boiler Thermic energy

24 Collesalvetti: energy balance Enel power line to Public grid Bidirectional Counter Production kwh/a kwh/a kwh/a kwh/a kwh/a Station consumption kwh/anno AC/DC/AC CNG INVERTER DC/AC O2 MODULO IDROGENO ELETTROLIZZATORE H2 (200 bar) Nm 3 h 60 kwp Heat 30 kwe 20 kw/p * kwh/a used for heating and air condition Gasoline LPG CNG H 2

25 Collesalvetti: environmental impact Renewables Energy Savings (tep) 24 CO2 emission reduction (t) 78 Cogeneration Hydrogen Total

26 Zero Regio Project H 2 -Motor-Fuel Goal: Develop & demonstrate road transport systems for European cities based on H 2 as an alternative motor fuel. H2 Production / Sources Frankfurt:Byproduct of the Hoechst chemical plant Mantova: Onsite reform of methane Refuelling dispenser Frankfurt: liquid and gaseous hydrogen (350 and 700 bar) Mantova: gaseous hydrogen (220 bar) Fuel cell car fleet A-Class (Daimler-Chrysler) Panda (Fiat)

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29 Agip service station Frankfurt / Germany Station open for the public since 17/11/2006 H 2 Multifuel offer: - gaseous at 350 bar and 700 bar -liquid Part of Zero Regio, EU RP6, Project-Coordinator: Infraserv Höchst Renewables: Photovoltaic (8 kwp) H2 supplied from nearby Höchst Chemical Plant via High Pressure Pipeline (1000 bar)

30 opening Agip Frankfurt Novembre 2006

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33 1100 bar Linde ionic compressor

34 Agip service station Mantova / Italy Station will open in the first half of 2007 H 2, produced by Eni, will be compressed and supplied via SAPIO storage systems to three Fiat Panda Fuel Cell Vehicles, which will be used by the traffic police of Mantova Renewables: photovoltaic (20 kwp) Coordinator for Italy: Region Lombardia

35 Mantova: station layout Multifuel: Liquid fuel CNG H2

36 Mantova: H 2 generation

37 Mantova: H 2 vehicle Range: 200 km People: 4 HP: 60 kw Speed: >130 km/h Fuelling: < 5 min. Weight: 1100 kg H2: 2 kg/350 bar

38 multienergy Agip innovative concepts The service station as showroom for technological innovation in the automotive sector Multipurpose platform for new H2 technologies (reformer, electrolyzer, etc.) or electrical energy generation from renewables (photovoltaic, mini-wind energy) Adds value to existing natural gas infrastructure through distributed electrical energy generation (micro-turbine and/or stationary fuel cell) Modeling of a new energy mix offer optimized for better service to the customer Development and promotion of services and products for emission reduction e distributed energy generation communication focal point for local companies specialized in the field AdBlue service point for heavy traffic emission reduction (PM)

39 Thank You! Eni Div. R&M Multienergy Project S. Carbonaro

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