# PHY411. PROBLEM SET 3

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1 PHY411. PROBLEM SET 3 1. Conserved Quantities; the Runge-Lenz Vector The Hamiltonian for the Kepler system is H(r, p) = p2 2 GM r where p is momentum, L is angular momentum per unit mass, and r is the coordinate of a massless particle in motion about a massive body of mass M. The Runge-Lenz vector is A = p L GMˆr (a) Using a Poisson bracket, show that A is a conserved quantity. (b) Show that A 2 = (GM) 2 + 2EL 2. (Hint: Use vector identities and recall that p 2 can be subdivided into a sum of components parallel to r and parallel to L.) Remarks The seven scalar quantities E, L, A actually only contribute 5 independent conserved quantities. Because L A = 0 there are only 5 degrees of freedom among L, A. Furthermore the length of A depends on the energy and angular momentum (as shown above) reducing the number of conserved quantities to 5. An orbit is specified by six initial conditions (three positions and three velocities). For Hamiltonian system in six dimensional phase space, if we can find 3 independent conserved quantities, then the system is said to be integrable and the Hamiltonian can be transformed to H(p). This gives 3 conserved components of p. As H is determined by these three conserved quantities it is not an additional conserved quantity. The three associated angles (or coordinates) are not conserved but advance in time with q = ω = H(p) For the Kepler problem, we have 5 conserved quantities which is two extra than needed to make the system integrable. This means that we can find a 1

2 2 PHY411. PROBLEM SET 3 coordinate system such that H(Λ) only depends on a single momentum. In this coordinate system two associated coordinates or angles are conserved, as well as three momenta. The system is said to be super-integrable. The conservation of L implies that the Lie group of symmetries contains SO(3). Including the Runge-Lenz vector, the Lie algebra is equivalent to that of SO(4). The additional symmetry is related to a continuous transformation that maps an orbit to one with a different angular momentum while preserving energy. The Lie algebra is the Poisson algebra obeyed by the Poisson brackets and is comprised of infinitesimal transformations. The Lie group is the entire continuous symmetry group. It is possible to have different Lie groups that have the same algebra for their infinitesimal transformations. 2. Periodically forced pendulum We will integrate the equations of motion for the time dependent system, H(p, φ, t) = p2 2 ɛ cos φ µ cos(φ νt) (1) to make a map g T from phase space φ, p to itself at a time T later We will use φ(t), p(t) g T φ(t + T ), p(t + T ) T = 2π/ν the period of the time dependent perturbation in the Hamiltonian, to create the map. Starting with an initial condition x 0 = (p 0, φ 0 ) we can iteratively apply this map. The orbit of an initial condition is the collection of points g T (x 0 ), g 2T (x 0 ), g 3T (x 0 )... The orbits of the map are curves, points or area filling regions. Our map is a function of parameters ν, ɛ, µ. The Hamiltonian has two resonances, one at p = 0 and the other at p = ν. The two resonances are separated by a frequency ν. The peaks of the separatrices for one resonance are at p = ±2 ɛ and the other at p = ±2 µ. Thus the resonances are overlapped if 2 ɛ + 2 µ < ν (2)

3 PHY411. PROBLEM SET 3 3 There is a sample python code perio.py illustrating how to to use the python routine odeint to integrate the Hamiltonian, make the map and apply it iteratively. aquillen/phy411/pylab/perio.py By using different initial conditions (shown in different colors) a picture of the types of different orbits can be constructed; see Figure 1 Figure 1. Mapping at a period for the Hamiltonian in equation 1 with ν = 2, ɛ = 0.4, µ = (a) Chose µ, ɛ, ν so that the resonances do not overlap (check condition 2). Integrate the map and plot some orbits. When the resonances do not overlap, show that most initial conditions give orbits that are curves. (b) Chose µ, ɛ, ν so that the resonances do overlap. Integrate the map and plot some orbits. When the resonances overlap, show that some initial conditions give orbits that are area filling. These orbits are likely to be in regions near the separatrix of one of the resonances. (c) Explore different parameters to see if you can find periodic orbits (three resonant islands corresponding to period three orbits). If you look closely

4 4 PHY411. PROBLEM SET 3 at Figure 1 there are some period 7 orbits at the edge of the lower stable resonant island. (d) Explore how the width (in p) of the area filling region depends on the values of ν/ ɛ and µ/ɛ. (e) Consider a phase shift caused by a constant φ 0 H(p, φ, t) = p2 2 ɛ cos φ µ cos(φ νt φ 0) How does this change the map? 3. On the restricted 3-body problem The dynamics of a massless particle in orbit near two massive bodies is given by Hamiltonian H(x, y; p x, p y ) = 1 2 (p2 x + p 2 y) 1 µ (x µ)2 + y 2 µ (x + (1 µ))2 + y 2 (xp y yp x ) where we have restricted the dynamics to the plane containing the two massive bodies and we have assumed that the two massive bodies are circular orbits about the center of mass. The above Hamiltonian is in the center of mass coordinate system that is rotating with the two massive bodies, so they remain in fixed positions. Here µ m 2 m 1 +m 2 where m 1, m 2 are the masses of the two bodies. We are working in units of distance between m 1 and m 2 and in units of time and mass so that G(m 1 + m 2 ) = 1. The above Hamiltonian is independent of time so energy is conserved. The conserved quantity is known as the Jacobi integral of motion, E J. In polar coordinates the system is equivalent to H(r, θ; p r, L) = p2 r 2 + L2 2r 2 L 1 µ µ2 + r 2 2rµ cos θ µ (1 µ)2 + r 2 + 2(1 µ)r cos θ (a) Suppose that we take into account the z degree of freedom. What is the Hamiltonian H(x, y, z; p x, p y, p z )? (b) Consider an orbit that is nearly circular with radius r c. What is its value of L? What is its value of energy E J ( (the value of H)? In other words what is L(r c ) and E J (r c )? You can assume that µ is very small to do this estimate so that the second potential term can be neglected and the first can be approximated as 1/r.

5 PHY411. PROBLEM SET 3 5 Hint: To solve for L(r c ) use Hamilton s equation ṗ r = H = 0. To check r your answer, consider how angular momentum depends on radius for circular orbits in a Keplerian system. If you are making a surface of section, it useful to know where to expect nearly circular orbits. You can choose E J so that you will see nearly circular orbits near a desired radius. When µ is not small, then one can manipulate the average value of the potential using a function g(α) 2π ( ) dθ 2α 2 g(α) = 1 α2 cos θ = 4K (1 + α 2 ) 1/2 (3) α where the complete elliptic integral of the first kind K(k) is defined as K(k) = π/2 0 dθ 1 k2 sin 2 θ For the nearly circular orbit case we can take r to be constant and replace 1 µ V (r, θ) = µ2 + r 2 2rµ cos θ µ (1 µ)2 + r 2 + 2(1 µ)r cos θ with V 0 (r) = 1 [ ] 2π 1 µ dθ 2π 0 µ2 + r 2 2rµ cos θ µ (1 µ)2 + r 2 + 2(1 µ)r cos θ ( ) ( ) (1 µ) 2rµ = µ2 + r g µ 2r(µ 1) 2 µ 2 + r 2 (1 µ)2 + r g 2 (1 µ) 2 + r 2 4. On Periodic Orbits Consider orbits described by three angles. The azimuthal angle θ, radial oscillation angle θ r and vertical oscillation angle θ z. The radius and vertical height are related to action variables J r and J z with r = r c + 2J r /κ cos θ r z = 2J z /ν cos θ z where the epicyclic frequency is κ = θ r and the vertical oscillation frequency is ν = θ z. (a) Draw a closed or periodic orbit with φ = θ r 2θ = 0 and with φ = θ z 2θ = 0. What does look orbit look like in the xy plane, xz plane and in the yz plane?

6 6 PHY411. PROBLEM SET 3 (b) Draw a closed or periodic orbit with φ = θ r 2θ = π and with φ = θ z 2θ = 0. One of these types of orbits is called banana shaped. 5. On Creating a Map for a separable Hamiltonian with the Dirac Comb Suppose we have a separable Hamiltonian The equations of motion H(p, q) = P (p) + Q(q) ṗ = H q = Q q q = H p = P p Over a small time τ p = ṗτ = Q q τ We can approximate the equations of motion using the Hamiltonian where D τ is the Dirac comb or H(p, q, t) = P (p) + Q(q)τD τ (t) (4) D τ = n= Denote p n, q n as p, q at times t = nτ. δ(t + nτ) (a) Create a map for p n+1 and q n+1 as a function of p n, q n that is consistent with the equations of motion for the approximate Hamiltonian in equation 4. (b) Show that your map is area preserving. Hint: Because H is independent of q between delta functions, p is conserved and only changes at times t = nτ. The Hamiltonian implies that q is constant at times other than t = nτ.

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