Duct and Twisted Tape Design Optimization using FEM and CFD

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1 Clarkson University Honors Program Thesis Proposal Duct and Twisted Tape Design Optimization using FEM and CFD Advisor: Brian Helenbrook Mathew Wolcott Mechanical Engineering 6/20/06 A variety of duct and twisted tape geometries will be designed, developed, modeled, and compared using computer software. Ducts will be modified by changing perimeter shape, angle of twist, and tapering exit geometries. Twisted tape inserts will be modeled in a sample circular straight duct and their angle of twist, length, spacing, and other parameters will be modified for comparison. If time permits, external pipe twisted tape geometries will also be modeled. An optimal design for ducts and twisted tape inserts that maximize heat transfer abilities will be determined for separately. Optimal designs will be combined and compared with previous designs. The goal of this thesis is to improve and increase current twisted tape designs and possibilities in vents and determine whether new configurations will be practical to implement in future heat exchanger designs. The optimal design is one in which a greater rate of heat transfer and a decreased pressure drop is present. Implementation will allow heat exchanger efficiency will increase. If this thesis does not produce a more efficient design past current configurations it will exhaust possibilities that would be considered in future research. The installation of turbulators (also known as roughness or ribs) inside of ducts between engine or boiler components is often used to enhance heat transfer. 1 There are many important industrial applications dependent on heat exchange from a fluid flow inside a duct to an outside environment, like refrigeration, food processing, and engine cooling. If the rate of heat exchange increases, engine efficiency, operating range, and operating life may increase, refrigeration efficiency, chemical process efficiency, boiler thermal efficiency, and some food and dairy processing efficiencies may increase. 2 Improved heat exchangers may also allow for a decreased fluid velocity and pressure drop, 3 a decreased exchanger size and cost, 4 or both. There are two classes of heat transfer augmentations, passive and active. 5 A passive augmentation is typically a surface modification to the inside or outside of a duct and no energy is input to the system. Examples of passive augmentation are pipe roughness, wire coils, and twisted tape inserts. Turbulators increase heat transfer by redeveloping the boundary layer in the airflow, by causing the airflow to cease being laminar (smooth) and become turbulent (agitated), creating a smaller flow stagnation zone and enhancing mixing. 6 The laminar or turbulent flow regimes are determined by the Reynolds number (Re), a dimensionless property of all flow based on fluid velocity, length of travel, and dynamic viscosity. A turbulent regime makes the flow behave more similar to an inviscid flow which has no stagnation zone or recirculation. Lowered levels of drag may be generated by the ribs depending on the Reynolds number. Since the boundary layer is smaller a higher rate of convection from the air to the duct surface is present. As the duct surface is now at an increased temperature, heat transfer from the

2 duct to the outside environment occurs at a higher rate. Twisted tapes are a popular method to increase heat transfer. They are typically simple and cheap, and can sometimes be placed inside existing ductwork. Twisted tape inserts swirl the flow and mix it through the entire pipe diameter. They reduce hot spots in ducts and can mix the full flow of the duct as opposed to simple roughness which may allow a flow to fully develop in the center of a duct. 7 An example of a benefit to increasing current duct heat exchange is the gas turbine engine. Air is normally taken from the compressor of a gas engine turbine, cooled while in transit through a duct, and transferred into the turbine. If heat exchange increases, that air is cooler, allowing for a greater starting temperature in the turbine. This increases overall efficiency and operating range of the engine. Decreasing the operating temperature also extends performance lifetime and helps reduce creep in turbine blades. 8 Potential problems with turbulator use are that they also create a pressure drop in the airflow and depending on other factors it is possible that higher drag may be generated than a smooth duct, both of which reduces efficiency. A variety of duct and turbulator geometries will be modeled and compared using ANSYS, Fluent, GAMBIT, and FABL. This will allow flow characteristics and heat transfer coefficients to be recorded and compared. ANSYS is a Finite Element Modeling (FEM) program that can perform structural, thermal, and fluid modeling analysis, and will primarily be used for its ability with thermal modeling. This will be self-taught. Competence will be achieved while on a co-op with Pratt and Whitney during the summer and fall of 2006, and assistance in programming may be received while there. Preliminary Fluent and GAMBIT were taught through the Clarkson Intermediate Fluids class and competence in 3D modeling will be reached through use while at Pratt and Whitney. They are Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and FEM programs that are used to model fluid flow through user designed structure geometries and fluid flow parameters. FABL is a program developed and used by Pratt and Whitney to model fluid flow in gas engine turbines, typically in 2D. While at Pratt and Whitney I will be working with the Air Systems Design and Integration (ASDI) group to model secondary flow and so I will receive training and experience with FABL. The benefit to using CFD and FEM is that they can model systems that cannot be economically or physically tested or modeled. It also can be quicker, cheaper, and more precise than working with a scale model. 9 Ducts will be modeled first in 2D to become accustomed to the software and determine if each program will be capable of modeling twisted tape duct flow. A variety of configurations will then be modeled in 3D to find an optimal perimeter design. Twisted tape inserts would then be modeled in 3D on simple duct designs such as straight circle perimeter duct. A variety of twisted tape geometries would be tested. An optimal insert configuration would be chosen based on flow characteristics and heat transfer capability. Optimal duct and turbulator designs will then be combined to find an optimal overall design. Mass flow rate, initial temperature values, and duct materials will be kept constant throughout the simulations to lend some relativity to the data. Pratt and Whitney may also lend normalized data to add relevancy to duct conditions. Normalized data compares temperatures, pressures, and flows to specific points in the engine, the temperature and pressure just before the combustor, and the flow rate after the low compressor (%T3, %P3, and %W25, respectively). This allows individual points to be

3 compared between engines and standardizes measurements. Taking these properties will also provide a direct application of the research. There are potential problems that may arise during this study. One of these would be the limits that the FEM programs have due to computing power and complication of flows. They may not be able to calculate such small differences. If this is so, then this research will show that FEM software is currently not strong enough for intense CFD. If a finer mesh is used for calculations, simulations take increasingly longer to run. The boundary layer of the fluid flow is likely to be very small and the flow will be turbulent behind the ribs, increasing simulation run time. Heat transfer is expected to be greatest in square ducts. Square ducts have a higher surface area to volume ratio than circular ducts and the corners of the duct will promote mixing, although they also may shed vortices increasing pressure drop. 10 Divergent ducts will likely yield the greatest amount of heat exchange. They promote mixing and are accompanied by an increase in surface area. 11 A full length tape with a moderate twist will likely yield the greatest benefit to increased heat transfer since our working fluid of air has a low viscosity. 12 Although all of these techniques will increase heat transfer, they may be difficult to manufacture and may also create a pressure drop that is too exorbitant. It remains to be seen whether or not a recommendation for their use would be frugal as their implementation may accompany decreased efficiency even if heat transfer efficiency through these particular ducts is optimized. An expected timeline is presented below. June 2006 Finish Preliminary Literature Search Finalize proposal July 2006 Familiarize self with possible programs/ procedures ANSYS, Fluent, GAMBIT, FABL -Investigate 3D FEM with fluid flow and heat transfer August/September 2006 Perform Documented research -comparison of structures -finalize procedure and selection of geometries to be modeled Begin testing of various types of duct geometries October/November 2006 Test types of twisted tape geometries and combinations Design optimization analysis January 2007 Draft Thesis February 2007 Finalize thesis

4 March 2007 Finish thesis and presentations May 2007 Graduation Sources: 1 Jia, Sunden, Faghri, Computational analysis of heat transfer enhancement in square ducts with v-shaped ribs: turbine blade cooling, Journal of Heat Transfer, pp. 425, Vol 127, April Naphon, P., Sriromruln, P., Single-phase heat transfer and pressure drop in the micro-fin tubes with coiled wire insert, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 33, 2006, pp Wang, L., Sunden, B., Performance comparison of some tube inserts, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 29, No. 1., 2002, pp Zimparov, V., Prediction of friction factors and heat transfer coefficients for turbulent flow in corrugated tubes combined with twisted tape inserts. Part 1: friction factors, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 47, 2004, pp Zimparov, V., Prediction of friction factors and heat transfer coefficients for turbulent flow in corrugated tubes combined with twisted tape inserts. Part 2: heat transfer coefficients, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 47, 2004, pp White, Frank M., Fluid Mechanics, 5 th Edition, McGraw Hill, Boston, MA, Ray, S., Date, A., Friction and heat transfer of flow through square duct with twisted tape insert, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 46, 2003, pp Cravero, Glusto, Massardo, Fluid Flow and surface heat transfer analysis in a three-pass trapezoidal blade cooling channel, Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Volume 72 Number 2 pp , Peltier, CFD tackles the tough design problems, Power, Vol. 149, Iss. 3, pg.22 New York, Ray, S., Date, A., Laminar flow and heat transfer through square duct with twisted tape insert, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 22, 2001, pp

5 11 Wang, Liang-Bi, Tao, Wen-Quan, Wang, Qiu-Wang, He, Ya-Ling, Experimental and numerical study of turbulent heat transfer in twisted square ducts, Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 123, October 2001, pp Saha, Mallick, Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of laminar flow in rectangular and square plain ducts and ducts with twisted-tape inserts, Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 127, September 2005, pp

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