Organizational Behavior and Workplace Safety: Changing Safety Culture. Sue Ann Sarpy, Ph.D. April 14, 2008

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1 Organizational Behavior and Workplace Safety: Changing Safety Culture Sue Ann Sarpy, Ph.D. April 14, 2008

2 Learning Objectives Discuss organizational behavior and its influence on workplace safety Define organizational culture and distinguish between safety culture and safety climate Describe organizational change including resistance to change and techniques for reducing resistance to change Review guidelines for executing a successful organizational culture change Participate in case-study study exercise examining safety culture change

3 What is Organizational Behavior?

4 Psychology The Study of Organizational Behavior Sociology Social Psychology Anthropology Political Science

5 Major Goals of Organizational Behavior Prediction Explanation Control

6 Why is Organizational Behavior Important?

7 The Hawthorne Studies Study of the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company Conducted with researchers from Harvard University Examined relationship between lighting and productivity

8 Intervention Experimental Group - light was systematically altered Control Group

9 Actual Versus Expected Results for the Experiment and Control Groups Productivity High Experimental Group (Actual) Control Group (Actual) Experimental Group (Expected) Control Group (Expected) Low High Amount of Light Low

10 Hawthorne Effect Hawthorne Effect: : performance improved regardless of working conditions Why did the results occur? Why is this important to the study of behavior in the workplace (e.g., safety behavior)?

11 Reciprocal Model of Safety Person Knowledge, skills, abilities, Motives, Perceptions, Attitudes Context Environment Equipment, Tools, Machines, Heat/Cold, Engineering Behavior Complying, Coaching, Recognizing, Communicating, Donning PPE

12 What is Organizational Culture?

13 Organizational Culture a cognitive framework consisting of attitudes, values, behavioral norms and expectations shared by organizational members a system of shared meaning relatively stable and exerts strong influence

14 Company Founders Formation of Culture Experience with External Environment Internal Interaction

15 Stories Rituals Learning About Organizational Culture Language Material Symbols

16 Why is Organizational Culture Important?

17 Culture s s Role in Organizations Sense of Identity Commitment to the Mission Standards of Behavior

18 Effects of Organizational Culture Organizational Performance Length of Employment Person/ Organization Fit

19 Culture versus Climate

20 Organizational Climate versus Organizational Culture Climate: : shared perceptions of objective characteristics by organizational members tell us what happens in an organization Culture: : values, customs, and beliefs of an organization tells us why things happen in a certain way in an organization

21 Culture, Climate, and Behavior Culture Assumptions about human nature Climate Practices Behavioral Connection Assumptions about how the world works Procedures Safe Behavior Assumptions about the role of work in life (Culture) Rewarded Behaviors (Climate) (Behavior)

22 Safety Climate Perceived relevance of safety to job behavior Safety training programs: : taken seriously by employees and are viewed as important prerequisites for successful job performance Safety and work pace: : higher work pace is viewed as potentially hazardous Level of risk: : risk perception at the workplace

23 Safety Climate Perceived management attitude toward safety behavior Safety committee: accorded high status Safety officer: accorded high status Safety behavior: used in promotional decisions and has a positive impact on social status

24 Positive Safety Culture Internally not externally driven Proactive rather than Reactive Integration of safety into all workplace practices Employee s well-being is given priority over production Openness in communication (i.e. responsible learning) Causes for incidents and opportunities for improvements sought as interaction of many causal factors

25 Can Organizational Culture be Changed?

26 Dramatic Crisis Leadership Turnover Changing Organizational Culture Mergers and Acquisitions Planned Organizational Change

27 Change Models

28 Organizational Change Unfreezing Changing Refreezing Lewin s s Three-Step Process

29 Resistance to Change Individual Level Habits Fear of the Unknown Security Economic Factors Selective Information Processing

30 Resistance to Change Group/Organizational Level Group inertia Structural inertia Threat to existing relationships Threat to existing allocations Threat to expertise Prior unsuccessful change efforts

31 How do we Reduce Resistance?

32 Self-initiated (+) vs. Imposed (-)( change Evolutionary (+) vs. Revolutionary (-)( change Self Psychological ownership of the organization Organization Individual s disposition toward change of organization Additive (+) vs. Subtractive (-)( change SOURCE: From Psychological Ownership in Organizations: Conditions Under Which Individuals Promote and Resist Change by K.T. Dirks, L.L.Cummings and J.L.Pierce, 1996, in Research in Organizational Change and Development, Vol. 9 (pp. 1-24), 1 edited by R..W. Woodman and W.A. Pasmore, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

33 Techniques for Reducing Resistance Education and Communication Participation and Involvement Building Support and Commitment Reward Constructive Behaviors Selecting People who Accept Change Manipulation and Coercion

34 What are the Steps to Creating a Winning Culture?

35 Creating and Sustaining a Winning Culture 1. Perform a culture audit and set up new expectations 2. Align the team 3. Focus on results and build accountability 4. Manage the drivers of culture 5. Communicate and celebrate

36 A1 Elements of Successful Organizational Culture Change Strong Leader Clear Vision of What Needs to be Done Communicate the Vision Development of New Work Practices Organization that is Open to Learn Consistency in Practices, Procedures and Reward Behaviors: institutionalize new approaches

37 Slide 36 A1 Administrator, 4/14/2008

38 Guidelines for Creating Positive Safety Culture Make employees believe in safety: Start at the top Strong leader Commitment from management Feedback to employees Communicate safety clearly and effectively: Send signals that safety matters Avoid routine safety violations Get employees involved

39 Guidelines for Creating Positive Safety Culture (cont.) Encourage discussion and documentation Good information flow (open discussions of safety-related issues) Reporting systems Search for solutions Examine safety at all levels Promote different methods Establish cross-level safety committee

40 Guidelines for Creating Positive Safety Culture (cont.) Prepare through training Promote safe behaviors and attitudes Endorse importance of safety for effective on- the-job behavior Visibly reward safety acts and positive changes Behavior-based evaluation and reward system Establish budget for safety

41 Workplace Safety at ALCOA: A Case Study

42 Questions

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