Systems Analysis & Design 7 th Edition

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1 Systems Analysis & Design 7 th Edition Chapter 9 System Architecture Prof. David Gadish California State University Los Angeles BUS 405B

2 Chapter Objectives Provide a checklist of issues to consider when selecting a system architecture Describe servers, server based processing, clients, and client based processing Explain client/server architecture, including tiers, cost benefit issues, and performance Compare in house e commerce development to packaged solutions 2

3 Chapter Objectives Explain the difference between online and batch processing Define network topology, and provide examples of hierarchical, star, bus, and ring network models Describe wireless network standards, advantages, and disadvantages 3

4 Chapter Objectives Explain network protocols and licensing issues Explain performance measurement, fault management, backup, and disaster recovery Describe the systems design specification 4

5 Introduction An effective system combines elements into an architecture, or design, that is flexible, cost effective, technically sound, and able to support the information needs of the business System architecture translates the logical design of an information system into a physical structure that includes hardware, software, network support, and processing methods 5

6 System Architecture Checklist The analyst must consider seven specific issues that will affect the architecture choice Enterprise resource planning (ERP) Initial and total cost of ownership (TCO) Scalability Web integration Legacy system interface requirements Processing options System security 6

7 System Architecture Checklist Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) The objective of ERP is to establish a company wide strategy for using IT resources Describes environment platform Supply chain management 7

8 System Architecture Checklist Initial Cost and TCO Ask questions like the following If in house development was selected as the best alternative initially, is it still the best choice? If a specific package was chosen initially, is it still the best choice? Answers might affect the initial cost and TCO for the proposed system 8

9 System Architecture Checklist Scalability Scalability, also called extensibility, refers to a system s ability to expand, change or downsize easily to meet the changing need of a business enterprise Especially important in implementing systems that are volume rated, such as transaction processing systems 9

10 System Architecture Checklist Web Integration An information system includes applications Web centric architecture Avoids many of the connectivity and compatibility problems that typically arise E marketplaces 10

11 System Architecture Checklist Legacy System Interface Requirements The new system might have to interface with one or more legacy systems Interfacing a new system with legacy systems involves analysis of data formats and compatibility The analyst must know if the new application eventually will replace the legacy system 11

12 System Architecture Checklist Processing Options In planning the architecture, designers also must consider how the system will process data online or in batches Provision must be made for backup and speedy recovery in the event of system failure 12

13 System Architecture Checklist Security Issues Security is a concern at every stage of system development Web based systems introduce additional security concerns 13

14 Planning the Architecture Servers Server Clients The term mainframe architecture typically describes a multiuser environment where the server is significantly more powerful than the clients 14

15 Planning the Architecture Servers Server based processing In a centralized design, the remote user s keystrokes are transmitted to the mainframe, which responds by sending screen output back 15

16 Planning the Architecture Clients Stand Alone Computing Stand alone computing was inefficient and expensive Maintaining data on individual workstations raised major concerns about data security, integrity, and consistency It was impossible to protect and back up valuable business data, and companies were exposed to enormous risks This led to data inconsistency and unreliability 16

17 Planning the Architecture Clients Local and wide area networks A wide area network (WAN) spans long distances and can connect LANs that are continents apart The network is transparent Compared to mainframe architecture, distributed systems increase concerns about data security and integrity 17

18 Planning the Architecture Clients Client based processing 18

19 Client/Server Architecture Overview Client/server architecture Many companies had an installed base of mainframe data, called legacy data, which was difficult to access and transport to a client/server environment The client/server concept continues to expand to include clients and servers outside the organization 19

20 Client/Server Architecture Client/Server Design Styles C:\renger\fall06\proj\sad7e\chapter9\CHA P09StudyTool_files\proj9\43F09 14.gif 20

21 Client/Server Architecture Types of Clients: Fat and Thin 21

22 Client/Server Architecture Client/Server Tiers Two tier designs Three tier design n tier designs Think of the middle layer as an application server, because it provides the application logic, or business logic The middle layer is more efficient and costeffective in large scale systems 22

23 Client/Server Architecture Middleware Enables the tiers to communicate and pass data back and forth Provides a transparent interface that enables system designers to integrate dissimilar software and hardware Can integrate legacy systems and Web based applications 23

24 Client/Server Architecture Cost Benefit Issues Client/server systems enable the firm to scale the system in a rapidly changing environment Client/server computing also allows companies to transfer applications from expensive mainframes to less expensive client platforms Client/server systems reduce network load and improve response times 24

25 Client/Server Architecture Client/Server Performance Issues Client/server architecture does involve performance issues that relate to the separation of server based data and networked clients In contrast to the centralized system, a client/server design separates applications and data Client/server systems must be designed so the client contacts the server only when necessary 25

26 Client/Server Architecture Client/Server Performance Issues Distributed database management system (DDBMS) Data stored closer to users can reduce network traffic The system is scalable, so new data sites can be added without reworking the system design The system is less likely to experience catastrophic failure 26

27 Internet Based Architecture Developing E Commerce Solutions In House 27

28 Internet Based Architecture Packaged Solutions and E commerce Service Providers Many vendors offer turnkey systems for companies Another alternative is to use an application service provider (ASP) Must consider whether the advantage of lower initial cost outweighs the disadvantage of reduced flexibility later on 28

29 Internet Based Architecture Corporate Portals A corporate portal can provide access for customers, employees, suppliers, and the public 29

30 Processing Methods Online Processing Online processing systems have four typical characteristics: 1. The system processes transactions completely when and where they occur 2. Users interact directly with the information system 3. Users can access data randomly 4. The information system must be available whenever necessary to support business functions 30

31 Processing Methods Batch Processing In a batch processing system, data is collected and processed in groups, or batches The IT operations group can run batch programs on a predetermined schedule without user involvement; and Batch programs require significantly fewer network resources than online systems 31

32 Processing Methods Combined Online and Batch Processing Online processing offers an inherent advantage because data is entered and validated as it occurs Online processing is more expensive Backup and recovery for online processing is more difficult In many situations, batch processing is costeffective, less vulnerable to system disruption, and less intrusive 32

33 Network Models The OSI Reference Model The OSI model consists of seven layers Application layer: provides network services requested by local workstation Presentation layer: assures that data is uniformly structured and formatted for network transmission Session layer: defines control structures that manage the communications link between computers Transport layer: provides reliable data flow and error recovery 33

34 Network Models The OSI Reference Model The OSI model consists of seven layers Network layer: defines network addresses and determines how data is routed over the network Data link layer: defines specific methods of transmitting data over the physical layer, such as defining the start and end of a data block Physical layer: contains physical components that carry data, such as cabling and connecters 34

35 Network Models Network Topology Hierarchical network Star network Bus network Ring network 35

36 Network Models Network Protocols and Licensing Issues The network must use a protocol A popular network protocol is Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) A familiar example of a TCP/IP protocol is the file transfer protocol (FTP) 36

37 Network Models Wireless Networks A wireless local area network, or WLAN Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Wi Fi wireless fidelity Although they have many advantages, wireless networks pose special concerns with regard to system security 37

38 Network Models Wireless Networks BlueTooth On addition to protocols for LANs, IEEE is working on standards MANs (metropolitan area networks) WirelessMAN WiMAX 38

39 System Management and Support Performance Management Performance management tools are designed to collect information about system resources and activity levels Firms such as NetScout Systems offer comprehensive performance management packages The NetScout Web site mentions studies that show network delays cost the industry more revenue than actual stoppages 39

40 System Management and Support Fault Management, Backup, and Disaster Recovery Fault management Includes monitoring the system for signs of trouble, logging all system failures, diagnosing the problem, and applying corrective action 40

41 System Management and Support Fault Management, Backup, and Disaster Recovery Backup and disaster recovery Backup Recovery Disaster recovery plan Backup and recovery planning depends on the type of system involved 41

42 System Management and Support Fault Management, Backup, and Disaster Recovery Backup and disaster recovery Another common strategy is to use a RAID (redundant array of independent disks) system RAID systems are called fault tolerant Experienced IT professionals often note that the three most important system security tools are backup, backup, and more backup 42

43 System Management and Support Fault Management, Backup, and Disaster Recovery Backup and disaster recovery Log file or journal file Business insurance can help offset expenditures File retention laws and regulations apply to company data If a government rule specifies that a record of all payments to the company must be kept for three years, then your design must retain the data for that period 43

44 Systems Design Completion System Design Specification A typical system design specification uses a structure similar to the following: 1. Executive summary 2. System components 3. System environment 4. Implementation requirements 5. Time and cost estimates 6. Appendices 44

45 Systems Design Completion User Approval Users must review and approve the interface design, report and menu designs, data entry screens, source documents, and other areas of the system that affect them When the system design specification is complete, you distribute the document to a target group of users, IT department personnel, and company management 45

46 Systems Design Completion Presentations The presentations give you an opportunity to explain the system, answer questions, consider comments, and secure final approval The first presentation is to the systems analysts, programmers, and technical support staff members Your next presentation is to department managers and users from departments affected by the system 46

47 Systems Design Completion Presentations The final presentation is for company management Key objective: to obtain management s approval and support for the next development step Management might reach one of three decisions: proceed with systems development, perform additional work on the systems design phase, or terminate the project 47

48 Chapter Summary An information system combines hardware, software, data, procedures, and people into a system architecture The analyst must consider enterprise resource planning, initial cost and TCO, scalability, Web integration, legacy interface requirements, security, and processing options System security is an important concern An architecture requires servers and clients 48

49 Chapter Summary Compared to file server designs, client/server systems are more scalable and flexible In implementing a design, an analyst should consider e commerce strategies, the availability of packaged solutions, and corporate portals, which are entrances to a multifunction Web site The primary processing methods are online and batch processing 49

50 Chapter Summary Networks allow the sharing of hardware, software, and data resources in order to reduce expenses and provide more capability to users The way a network is configured is called the network topology The system design specification presents the complete systems design for an information system Chapter 9 complete 50

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