Production of Large Hybrid Bluegill Sunfish. Ken Semmens Extension Specialist - Aquaculture Aquaculture America 2006

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1 Production of Large Hybrid Bluegill Sunfish Ken Semmens Extension Specialist - Aquaculture Aquaculture America 2006

2 Synthesis of available information Personal Experience Literature Discussions with other growers

3 Large Hybrid Bluegill Sunfish Food Fish >2/3 lb Premium Food fish Price like LMB >1/2 lb Food fish >1/3 lb Fee fishing Compete in live market with Tilapia? How to make it pay?

4 Production Strategy Pond Culture Eastern Ohio Male BG x Female GSF Year 1 60,000/acre to 2.5 to 3 TL Year 2 20,000/acre to 100 g ea. Year 3 5,000/acre to 240 g ea 40% protein, 10% fat F/C 1.8 demand feeders work. $3/lb for ½ lb & up.

5 Production Strategy Pond Culture - Georgia Georgia Giant fingerlings 2 3 TL stocked in spring. 5000/acre Control reproduction Survival 50 to 95% F/C 1.25 or higher 38% protein diet with extra vitamin C Feed several times each day Aeration is essential. Harvest size ½ to 1 lb ea. at season s end.

6 Production Strategy Pond Culture Kentucky Hybrid Bluegill Year 1 20,000/acre 2 to 4 TL Year 2 7,000/acre to market size Low fat trout feed Preferred temperature for growth 65 to 70 F Feed conversion about 2:1 $3/lb for ½ lb & up.

7 Production as a function of Scale No. Fish/production unit. Production format Ponds Recirculating systems Cages or pens Control Reproduction? Survival Quality of seed Predation Disease Feed Conversion Feeding methods Nutrient Density Growth Rate Temperature Genetic Capacity Compensatory Gain

8 Specific Growth Rate W i = Initial Weight W t = Weight at time T Time in Days SGR= ((ln W t ln W i )/T) x 100)

9 Specific Growth Rate Trout 30 g fish (5.5 TL) 54 F (12 C) Grow to 1.25 lb in 250 days SGR = 1.18 Catfish 6 inch fingerling to 1.25 lb in one season SGR = 0.81

10 Cook and Scurlock 1998 SC C 45/ Cook and Scurlock 1998 SC C 55/ Cook and Scurlock 1998 SC C 50/ Aquaria Initial Final Time Specific Temp Protein/ Feed Author Published Species Weight Weight Growth Fat Conversion (g) (days) Rate Hoagland, R, et al 2003 BG C 32/ Hoagland, R, et al 2003 BG C 32/ Hoagland, R, et al 2003 BG C 36/ Hoagland, R, et al 2003 BG C 40/ Hoagland, R, et al 2003 BG C 44/ Hoagland, R, et al 2003 BG C 44/ Twibell, R, et al 2003 HYBG C CC Twibell, R, et al 2003 HYBG C CC Twibell, R, et al 2003 HYBG C TROUT Twibell, R, et al 2003 HYBG C TROUT Twibell, R, et al 2003 HYBG C TROUT Twibell, R, et al 2003 HYBG C CC Twibell, R, et al 2003 HYBG C CC Twibell, R, et al 2003 HYBG C TROUT Twibell, R, et al 2003 HYBG C TROUT Twibell, R, et al 2003 HYBG C TROUT

11 Webster, Tiu, Tidwe 1997 HYBG Aquaria Webster, Tiu, Tidwe 1997 HYBG Aquaria 32 Webster, Tiu, Tidwe 1997 HYBG Aquaria Webster, Tiu, Tidwe 1997 HYBG Aquaria Aquaria Initial Final Time Specific Format Temp Protein/ Feed Author Published Species Weight Weight Growth Fat Conversion (g) (days) Rate Webster et al 1997 HYBG Aquaria 25.8 C 28/ Webster et al 1997 HYBG Aquaria 25.8 C 31/ Webster et al 1997 HYBG Aquaria 25.8 C 36/ Webster et al 1997 HYBG Aquaria 25.8 C 38/ Tidwell, Webster, Cla 1992 HYBG Aquaria 24 C 26/7 2.6 Tidwell, Webster, Cla 1992 HYBG Aquaria 24 C 31/9 2.3 Tidwell, Webster, Cla 1992 HYBG Aquaria 24 C 37/ Stinefelt et al 2004 GG Aquaria C 36/ Stinefelt et al 2004 GG Aquaria C 35/ Stinefelt et al 2004 GG Aquaria C 38/ Stinefelt et al 2004 GG Aquaria C 44/ Stinefelt et al 2004 GG Aquaria C 45/ Stinefelt et al 2004 HYBG Aquaria C 36/ Stinefelt et al 2004 HYBG Aquaria C 35/ Stinefelt et al 2004 HYBG Aquaria C 38/ Stinefelt et al 2004 HYBG Aquaria C 44/ Stinefelt et al 2004 HYBG Aquaria C 45/

12 Cages Initial Final Time Specific Format Protein/ Feed Survival Author Published Species Weight Weight Growth Fat Conversion (g) (days) Rate (%) Webster et al 1997 HYBG Cages 35/ Webster et al 1997 HYBG Cages 40/ Webster et al 1997 HYBG Cages 44/ Webster et al 1997 HYBG Cages 48/ Webster, Tiu, Tidwe 1997 HYBG Cages 35,40,44, Tiu Pers Comm HYBG Cages Rangen Float Tiu Pers Comm HYBG Cages Purina Slow sink

13 Ponds Stocking Initial Final Days Specific Gross Protein/ Feed Survival Author Published Species Rate Weight Weight Growth Yield Fat Conversion (no/ha) (g) Rate (kg/ha) (%) (%) Weibel et al HYBG Semmens 2005 HYBG / Semmens 2005 HYBG / Semmens 2005 HYBG / Lovshin & Mathews 2003 BG Lovshin & Mathews 2003 BG Lovshin & Mathews 2003 BG Tidwell et al HYBG Tidwell et al HYBG Tidwell et al HYBG Tidwell et al HYBG Tidwell and Webster 1993 HYBG Tidwell and Webster 1993 HYBG Tidwell and Webster 1993 HYBG Tidwell and Webster 1993 HYBG Webster et al 1992 HYBG Webster et al 1992 HYBG

14 Growth Growth rate in aquarium studies and cages was higher than in ponds. Specific growth rate in ponds over a full season is usually below 0.5 and may decrease with increasing density Gross Yield over 3000 lb/acre is possible.

15 Survival Aquarium usually 90% or more Cage 66 to 96% Pond 41 to 95%

16 Feed Conversion It is highly variable Aquaria 1.04 to 4.39 About 3.5 in ponds Cages from 1.22 to 4.0 Ponds 2.7 to 4.25 Higher Nutrient Density gives lower conversion. Trout diet converts better than catfish diet. Liver problems in recirculating systems? Feeding Methods Present over a wide area Feed frequently Compensatory Gain?

17 Some issues regarding seed quality Uniform size Age Pond fish and disease

18

19 Aeromonas can be a problem on Green Sunfish and its hybrids.

20 We should be able to develop a fish that will grow better A portion of the fish just don t grow well. Individual Variability. (Wang et al 1998) Over three fold difference among specific growth rate. Select brood stock for growth. Develop broodstock that will produce all Male populations Triploids Georgia Giants GSF x BG or something else? Genetic purity of parent stocks for making hybrids

21 Diversity among commercially available hybrid bluegill sunfish

22

23 Cost of Production Consider two greatest variable costs Feed and Fingerlings

24 Estimating Feed Cost/lb Gain Cost/ton Cost/ Cost/lb Feed Conversion (lb feed required for 1 lb gain) 50 lb bag $400 $10 $0.20 $0.20 $0.30 $0.40 $0.50 $0.60 $0.70 $0.80 $0.90 $440 $11 $0.22 $0.22 $0.33 $0.44 $0.55 $0.66 $0.77 $0.88 $0.99 $480 $12 $0.24 $0.24 $0.36 $0.48 $0.60 $0.72 $0.84 $0.96 $1.08 $520 $13 $0.26 $0.26 $0.39 $0.52 $0.65 $0.78 $0.91 $1.04 $1.17 $560 $14 $0.28 $0.28 $0.42 $0.56 $0.70 $0.84 $0.98 $1.12 $1.26 $600 $15 $0.30 $0.30 $0.45 $0.60 $0.75 $0.90 $1.05 $1.20 $1.35 $640 $16 $0.32 $0.32 $0.48 $0.64 $0.80 $0.96 $1.12 $1.28 $1.44 $680 $17 $0.34 $0.34 $0.51 $0.68 $0.85 $1.02 $1.19 $1.36 $1.53 $720 $18 $0.36 $0.36 $0.54 $0.72 $0.90 $1.08 $1.26 $1.44 $1.62 $760 $19 $0.38 $0.38 $0.57 $0.76 $0.95 $1.14 $1.33 $1.52 $1.71 $800 $20 $0.40 $0.40 $0.60 $0.80 $1.00 $1.20 $1.40 $1.60 $1.80 $840 $21 $0.42 $0.42 $0.63 $0.84 $1.05 $1.26 $1.47 $1.68 $1.89 $880 $22 $0.44 $0.44 $0.66 $0.88 $1.10 $1.32 $1.54 $1.76 $1.98 $920 $23 $0.46 $0.46 $0.69 $0.92 $1.15 $1.38 $1.61 $1.84 $2.07

25 Estimating fingerling cost for 1 lb of harvestable fish. 0.5 lb live fish at harvest. Survival Cost of fingerlings at stocking to Harvest $0.13 $0.15 $0.20 $0.25 $0.30 $0.35 $0.40 $0.45 $ % $0.260 $0.300 $0.400 $0.500 $0.600 $0.700 $0.800 $0.900 $ % $0.274 $0.316 $0.421 $0.526 $0.632 $0.737 $0.842 $0.947 $ % $0.289 $0.333 $0.444 $0.556 $0.667 $0.778 $0.889 $1.000 $ % $0.306 $0.353 $0.471 $0.588 $0.706 $0.824 $0.941 $1.059 $ % $0.325 $0.375 $0.500 $0.625 $0.750 $0.875 $1.000 $1.125 $ % $0.347 $0.400 $0.533 $0.667 $0.800 $0.933 $1.067 $1.200 $ % $0.371 $0.429 $0.571 $0.714 $0.857 $1.000 $1.143 $1.286 $ % $0.400 $0.462 $0.615 $0.769 $0.923 $1.077 $1.231 $1.385 $ % $0.433 $0.500 $0.667 $0.833 $1.000 $1.167 $1.333 $1.500 $ % $0.473 $0.545 $0.727 $0.909 $1.091 $1.273 $1.455 $1.636 $ % $0.520 $0.600 $0.800 $1.000 $1.200 $1.400 $1.600 $1.800 $2.000

26 Estimating fingerling cost for 1 lb of harvestable fish lb live fish at harvest or 200 grams each Survival Cost of fingerlings at stocking to Harvest $0.13 $0.15 $0.20 $0.25 $0.30 $0.35 $0.40 $0.45 $ % $0.295 $0.341 $0.454 $0.568 $0.681 $0.795 $0.908 $1.022 $ % $0.311 $0.358 $0.478 $0.597 $0.717 $0.836 $0.956 $1.075 $ % $0.328 $0.378 $0.504 $0.631 $0.757 $0.883 $1.009 $1.135 $ % $0.347 $0.401 $0.534 $0.668 $0.801 $0.935 $1.068 $1.202 $ % $0.369 $0.426 $0.568 $0.709 $0.851 $0.993 $1.135 $1.277 $ % $0.393 $0.454 $0.605 $0.757 $0.908 $1.059 $1.211 $1.362 $ % $0.422 $0.486 $0.649 $0.811 $0.973 $1.135 $1.297 $1.459 $ % $0.454 $0.524 $0.698 $0.873 $1.048 $1.222 $1.397 $1.572 $ % $0.492 $0.568 $0.757 $0.946 $1.135 $1.324 $1.513 $1.703 $ % $0.537 $0.619 $0.825 $1.032 $1.238 $1.445 $1.651 $1.857 $ % $0.590 $0.681 $0.908 $1.135 $1.362 $1.589 $1.816 $2.043 $2.270

27 Good Outcome Purchase 30 gram fish for $0.30 each After 1 year average weight is 200 g SGR = 0.52 Survival of 85% For each lb of harvestable fish, fingerling cost is $0.71 Feed Conversion of 2.0 Feed cost $0.36/lb 1 lb of gain will require $0.72 for feed. In this case feed and fingerlings alone will require $ 1.73/lb harvestable fish.

28 Another Outcome Purchase 30 gram fish for $0.30 each After 1 year average weight is 200 g SGR = 0.52 Survival of 60% For each lb of harvestable fish, fingerling cost is $1.13/lb Feed Conversion of 3.5 Feed cost $0.36/lb 1 lb of gain will require $1.44 for feed. In this case feed and fingerlings alone will require $ 2.57/lb harvestable fish.

29 Conclusion Dedicated food fish production, not an extension of sport fish production. Improvement of fingerling quality is needed Cost of production will be higher than catfish, trout and tilapia.

30 Questions / Discussion?

31 Thank you.

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