Thermodynamics explores the connection between energy and the EXTENT of a reaction but does not give information about reaction rates (Kinetics).

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Thermodynamics explores the connection between energy and the EXTENT of a reaction but does not give information about reaction rates (Kinetics)."

Transcription

1 Thermodynamics explores the connection between energy and the EXTENT of a reaction but does not give information about reaction rates (Kinetics). Rates of chemical reactions are controlled by activation energy! lower E a, faster rate. Collision frequency;! collisions,! rate Equilibrium is reached when rate forward = rate reverse, also depends on energy (temp). 2 THERMODYNAMICS Review of Energy and Enthalpy Changes (Ch. 10) Energy Changes: Heat and Work Heat = q = energy transferred due to a difference in temperature. +q means heat is added to the system Work = w = action of force through a distance (often P!V) +w means work is done on the system Energy Changes!E = E final state " E initial state!e (kj/mol) O 2 (g) " 2 O atoms Water " ice at 25 o C "6.0 Si (s) + O 2 (g) " SiO 2 (s) "908 3

2 A STATE FUNCTION is a quantity that does not depend on the process by which the system was prepared Example: Your altitude (height above sea level) does not depend on the route you took to class this morning. State functions are written as uppercase letters (E, H, P, V, T, S#) Changes in state functions are path-independent: reactants 2 1 products!e q and w are not state functions but!e (= q + w) is a state function 4 1 st Law of Thermodynamics: the total energy of the universe is constant. "E universe = 0 "E universe = " E system + " E surroundings "E system = # " E surroundings! Heat and work:!e system = q + w and for PV work at const. pressure,!e system = q P!V 5

3 Enthalpy (H): $H = heat transferred at const. P H is a state function changes are path-independent H = E + PV (sums and products of state functions are also state functions) If "H is + : If "H is # : Classify as endo- or exo-thermic: Ice melting Water boiling Wood burning 6 Standard Enthalpy of Formation: $H o f!h for making 1 mole of a compound from its component elements in their standard states Standard state is the most stable form (pure solid, pure liquid, or gas at P = 1 atm and 298K) For solutes in solution, standard state is usually 1 M. Appendix 2 provides values of $H o f!h o rxn = $!H o f (products) $!H o f (reactants) 7

4 Metals All solids except one (which one?) Standard states of the elements The most stable form of an element at 298 K and 1 atm ( STP ) Nonmetals Atomic gases Noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn Metalloids All solids Diatomics halogens and H 2, N 2, O 2 H 2, N 2, O 2 (gas) F 2 (gas) Cl 2 (gas) Br 2 (liquid) I 2 (solid) Halogens (group 7) Other nonmetals solids C (graphite), S, P, Se 8 MAIN GROUPS 1A 1 1 H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr [223] 2A 2 4 Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra [226] 3B 3 21 Sc Y La* Ac** [227] 4B 4 22 Ti Zr Hf Rf [261] 5B 5 23 V Nb Ta Db [262] 6B 6 24 Cr Mo W Sg [266] PERIODIC TABLE of the ELEMENTS Standard States TRANSITION METALS 7B 7 25 Mn Tc [98] 75 Re Bh [264] 8B 8 26 Fe Ru Os Hs [265] 8B 9 27 Co Rh Ir Mt [268] 8B Ni Pd Pt [269] 1B Cu Ag Au [272] 2B Zn Cd Hg [277] 3A 13 5 B Al Ga In Tl A 14 6 C Si Ge Sn Pb [285] MAIN GROUPS 5A 15 7 N P As Sb Bi A 16 8 O S Se Te Po [209] 116 [289] 7A 17 9 F Cl Br I At [210] 8A 18 2 He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn [222] 118 [293] * LANTHANOIDS ** ACTINOIDS 58 Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm [145] 93 Np [237] 62 Sm Pu [244] 63 Eu Am [243] 64 Gd Cm [247] 65 Tb Bk [247] 66 Dy Cf [251] 67 Ho Es [252] 68 Er Fm [257] 69 Tm Md [258] 70 Yb No [259] 71 Lu Lr [262]

5 Spontaneous Processes: reaction that is capable of proceeding in the forward direction to a substantial extent under a given set of conditions. Processes that are spontaneous in one direction are nonspontaneous in the reverse direction. 10 Saying a reaction is spontaneous is not the same as saying it will occur if the reactants are mixed. Relationship between kinetics and thermodynamics It means the reaction can occur but may be so slow that nothing seems to happen. In the case of a slow spontaneous reaction it is worthwhile to look for a catalyst, but if we know the reaction is nonspontaneous, there is no point in even mixing the reactants, let alone searching for a catalyst. A nonspontaneous reaction cannot occur of itself without outside intervention. 11

6 A spontaneous reaction (process) can do WORK. Water falling over a dam: Is this process spontaneous? Can this process do work? What is the reverse of this process? Which process can do work? Is the reverse process spontaneous? 2 H 2 + O 2! 2 H 2 O 2 H 2 O! 2 H 2 + O 2 12 Processes that are spontaneous at one temperature may be nonspontaneous at other temperatures. Above 0 C ice melts spontaneously Below 0 C the reverse process is spontaneous. What happens at 0 C? 13

7 Spontaneous processes are irreversible. reversible process: Irreversible processes: 14 Can we predict the spontaneity of a reaction? %H (+ or ") Spontaneous Y or N H 2 O(!)! H 2 O(s) At #10 C 2NaCl(s)! 2Na(s) + Cl 2 (g) 4Fe(s) + 3O 2 (g)! 2 Fe 2 O 3 (s) N 2 (g)! 2N(g) 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g)! 2H 2 O(g) Hypothesis: 15

8 Test the hypothesis: If "H is negative, is the reaction spontaneous? Demonstrations Ba(OH) 2 8H 2 O(s) + 2NH 4 SCN(s)! Ba(SCN) 2 (aq) + 2NH 3 (aq) + 10H 2 O(!) %H =? H 2 O(s)! H 2 O(!) At +10 C %H =? NH 4 Cl(s) + H 2 O(!)! NH 4 Cl(aq) % H =? 16 "H is not the only factor that determines spontaneity There is another factor that also influences spontaneity:! Nature tends to move spontaneously from a state of lower probability to one of higher probability» G.N. Lewis (Nobel Laureate) 17

9 ENTROPY a thermodynamic parameter (S) that is a measure of the disorder or randomness in a system. The more disordered a system, the greater it s entropy. It is related to the various modes of motion in molecules. Like enthalpy, H, entropy S is a state function. It s value depends ONLY on the state of the system (not how it got there!) 18 Second Law of Thermodynamics: the entropy of the universe is increasing. For reversible processes:!s univ =!S system +!S surroundings = 0 For irreversible processes:!s univ =!S system +!S surroundings > 0 19

10 Which processes have "S > 0? Unopened deck of cards! Cards spread out on a table %S Unassembled car parts! Assembled car Seed + CO 2 + H 2 O + Minerals! Tree 20 Which processes have "S > 0? Can we predict "S for molecular level processes? 1 mole of gas confined in % of the container REMOVE the barrier 1 mole of gas has 2x more space. NH 4 Cl(s) " NH 4+ (aq) + Cl # (aq) 21

11 The three LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS 1st Law: The total energy in the universe is constant. "E universe = 0 "E universe = "E system + "E surroundings "E system = # "E surroundings 2nd Law: The total entropy in the universe is increasing. " S universe > 0 "S universe = "S system + "S surroundings > 0 3rd Law: The entropy of every pure substance at 0 K (absolute zero temperature) is zero. S = 0 at 0 K. 22 Third Law says ABSOLUTE ENTROPY (S) = 0 at T = 0 K. This means we can measure absolute entropy S (not just $S)! At T=0 K the third Law says that there is perfect order in the system (no entropy). Entropy is a state function (its value depends only on the system's initial and final states). $S can then be defined relative to this initial state (where S = 0) Tabulated values are absolute entropies. 23

12 Entropy increases with the number of microstates of the system Entropy on the Molecular Scale Molecules exhibit several types of motion: Translational: Vibrational: Rotational: 24 If the number of possible microstates increases the entropy increases The number of microstates and, therefore, the entropy tends to increase with increases in: Temperature Volume # of molecules (independently moving particles) 25

13 Increasing Temperature increases Entropy 1.. S (1 mole N 2 (g)) at 300K S (1 mole N 2 (g)) at 200K S of Au(s) at 298K S of Au(s) at 1000K solid liquid gas 2. Entropy depends on the STATE. Trends: sol " gas; sol " liq; liq " gas %S = Entropy (S) melting boiling gas " liq; gas " sol; liq " sol %S = "S (+ or #?) H 2 O (l, 25 o C) " H 2 O(g) CaCO 3 (s) " CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) Ag + (aq) + Cl # (aq) " AgCl(s) Temperature (K)! 26 Entropy increases a molecular complexity increases. 3.. E.g. S Ar < S HCl < S H2O There are more possible vibrational modes as the number of atoms increases. Compare F 2 and O 3. 27

14 Entropy increases a molecular complexity increases. There are also more rotational modes as the number of atoms increases Entropy is an extensive property. E.g. 5 molecule " 7 molecules. S(2 moles HCl(g)) S(1 mole HCl(g)) N 2 O 4 (g)! 2 NO 2 (g) 1 moles! 2 moles 29

15 Summary of Molecular Basis of Entropy 1. Adding heat increases entropy. 2. Entropy depends on the state. Entropy (S) solid liquid gas melting boiling Temperature (K)! 3. Entropy increases as # of atoms in a molecule increases. 4. Entropy is an extensive property: more moles, more entropy Entropy is a state function - its value depends only on the system's initial and final states. Absolute Entropy: S = 0 at T = 0 K (Third Law) 30 The Entropy of a substance in its standard state can be defined. S (Standard Molar Entropy): Unit for S o is: S is always positive (>0) for pure substances! These are molar entropy values of substances in their standard states. Standard entropies tend to increase with increasing molar mass. Substance S J/mol-K Gases H 2 (g) N 2 (g) O 2 (g) F 2 (g) H 2 O(g) NH 3 (g) CH 3 OH(g) Liquids H 2 O(!) 69.9 CH 3 OH(!) Solids Li(s) 29.1 Na(s) 51.4 K(s) 64.7 NaCl(s)

16 The entropy change for a reaction ("S rxn ) can be calculated using tabulated values of absolute entropy. "S o FOR REACTIONS "S (rxn) = & S (products) # & S (reactants) What is %S (rxn) for N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) " 2 NH 3 (g) "S > 0 when: Gases form from either liquids or solids Liquids or solutions form from solids The number of molecules of gas increase during a chemical reaction. 32 Take Home Message Reaction The spontaneity of a reaction depends on: Temperature, "H and "S Next we ll combine these to get a new thermodynamic parameter, Gibbs Free Energy ("G) to predict reaction spontaneity. What you should know: How to calculate the "S of a reaction Predict what molecules/reactions will have a greater or smaller entropy according to the factors that affect entropy. 33

B I N G O B I N G O. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. I Fl Fr Mo Si. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Md Co P Pa Tc. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Bh Cm H Bi Es. Mo Uus Lu P F.

B I N G O B I N G O. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. I Fl Fr Mo Si. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Md Co P Pa Tc. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Bh Cm H Bi Es. Mo Uus Lu P F. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr Ho Bi Ce u Ac I Fl Fr Mo i Md Co P Pa Tc Uut Rh K N Dy Cl N Am b At Md H Y Bh Cm H Bi s Mo Uus Lu P F Cu Ar Ag Mg K Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of cience ducation

More information

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Why? Chemists are concerned with mass relationships in chemical reactions, usually run on a macroscopic scale (grams, kilograms, etc.). To deal with

More information

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers Key Questions & Exercises Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers 1. The atomic weight of carbon is 12.0107 u, so a mole of carbon has a mass of 12.0107 g. Why doesn t a mole of

More information

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change CLASS TEST GRADE PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change MARKS: 45 TIME: hour INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION. Answer ALL the questions. 2. You may use non-programmable calculators. 3. You may

More information

All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units!

All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units! CHEM 10113, Quiz 2 September 7, 2011 Name (please print) All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units! IA Periodic Table of the Elements VIIIA (1) (18) 1 2 1 H IIA

More information

The Periodic Table and Periodic Law

The Periodic Table and Periodic Law The Periodic Table and Periodic Law Section 6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table In your textbook, reads about the history of the periodic table s development. Use each of the terms below just

More information

From Quantum to Matter 2006

From Quantum to Matter 2006 From Quantum to Matter 006 Why such a course? Ronald Griessen Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam AMOLF, May 4, 004 vrije Universiteit amsterdam Why study quantum mechanics? From Quantum to Matter: The main

More information

Chemistry 5 Test 1. You must show your work to receive credit PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS. 5 B 10.81 13 Al 26.98

Chemistry 5 Test 1. You must show your work to receive credit PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS. 5 B 10.81 13 Al 26.98 Chemistry 5 Test 1 Name: You must show your work to receive credit PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 1A 1 H 1.008 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 3 Li 6.941 11 Na 22.99 19 K 39.10 37 Rb 85.47 55 Cs 132.9 87 Fr (223) 4

More information

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION (SHORT FORM) # of electrons in the subshell. valence electrons Valence electrons have the largest value for "n"!

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION (SHORT FORM) # of electrons in the subshell. valence electrons Valence electrons have the largest value for n! 179 ELECTRON CONFIGURATION (SHORT FORM) - We can represent the electron configuration without drawing a diagram or writing down pages of quantum numbers every time. We write the "electron configuration".

More information

100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals.

100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals. 2.21 Ionic Bonding 100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals. Forming ions Metal atoms lose electrons to form +ve ions. Non-metal

More information

Electronegativity and Polarity

Electronegativity and Polarity and Polarity N Goalby Chemrevise.org Definition: is the relative tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons in a covalent bond to itself. is measured on the Pauling scale (ranges from 0 to

More information

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal 1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

More information

The Lewis structure is a model that gives a description of where the atoms, charges, bonds, and lone pairs of electrons, may be found.

The Lewis structure is a model that gives a description of where the atoms, charges, bonds, and lone pairs of electrons, may be found. CEM110 Week 12 Notes (Chemical Bonding) Page 1 of 8 To help understand molecules (or radicals or ions), VSEPR shapes, and properties (such as polarity and bond length), we will draw the Lewis (or electron

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1314 3:30 pm Section Exam II ohn II. Gelder October 16, 2002 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 8 different pages. The last three pages include a periodic

More information

12B The Periodic Table

12B The Periodic Table The Periodic Table Investigation 12B 12B The Periodic Table How is the periodic table organized? Virtually all the matter you see is made up of combinations of elements. Scientists know of 118 different

More information

It takes four quantum numbers to describe an electron. Additionally, every electron has a unique set of quantum numbers.

It takes four quantum numbers to describe an electron. Additionally, every electron has a unique set of quantum numbers. So, quantum mechanics does not define the path that the electron follows; rather, quantum mechanics works by determining the energy of the electron. Once the energy of an electron is known, the probability

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes.

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. 1 PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. Metal Nonmetal Scheme (based on physical properties) Metals - most elements are metals - elements on left

More information

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements INTRODUCTION Primary substances, called elements, build all the materials around you. There are more than 109 different elements known today. The elements

More information

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions 8-1 Describing Chemical Reactions I. Introduction A. Reactants 1. Original substances entering into a chemical rxn B. Products 1. The resulting substances from

More information

Chapter 20. Thermodynamics p. 811 842. Spontaneity. What have we learned about spontaneity during this course?

Chapter 20. Thermodynamics p. 811 842. Spontaneity. What have we learned about spontaneity during this course? Chapter 20 p. 811 842 Spontaneous process: Ex. Nonspontaneous process: Ex. Spontaneity What have we learned about spontaneity during this course? 1) Q vs. K? 2) So.. Spontaneous process occurs when a system

More information

MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 10 MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Wavelength is defined as the distance between consecutive peaks in a wave. It is generally symbolized by the Greek

More information

Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics 1

Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics Some Important Topics First Law of Thermodynamics Internal Energy U ( or E) Enthalpy H Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy S Third law of Thermodynamics Absolute Entropy

More information

Chem 111 Evening Exam #3

Chem 111 Evening Exam #3 * Enter your answers on the bubble sheet. Turn in all sheets. * This exam is composed of 25 questions on 7 pages total. Go initially through the exam and answer the questions you can answer quickly. Then

More information

The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work. Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work.

The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work. Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work. The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work. Compare fuel value of different compounds. What drives these reactions to proceed

More information

1 Arranging the Elements

1 Arranging the Elements CHAPTER 12 1 Arranging the Elements SECTION The Periodic Table BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How are elements arranged on the periodic table?

More information

Test Review # 9. Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A

Test Review # 9. Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A TEST 9 REVIEW Name Date Period Test Review # 9 Collision theory. In order for a reaction to occur, particles of the reactant must collide. Not all collisions cause reactions.

More information

Chapter 2 Lecture Notes: Atoms

Chapter 2 Lecture Notes: Atoms Educational Goals Chapter 2 Lecture Notes: Atoms 1. Describe the subatomic structure of an atom. 2. Define the terms element and atomic symbol. 3. Understand how elements are arranged in the periodic table

More information

Chemical Thermodynamics

Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Thermodynamics David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College Tucson, AZ 85709, USA First Law of Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics was expressed in the study of thermochemistry.

More information

chemrevise.org 19/08/2013 Periodicity N Goalby chemrevise.org

chemrevise.org 19/08/2013 Periodicity N Goalby chemrevise.org chemrevise.org 19/8/213 eriodicity Goalby chemrevise.org locks An s-block element will always have an electronic structure where the outer electron is filling a s-sublevel. kewise the outer electron of

More information

The Role of Triads in the Evolution of the Periodic Table: Past and Present

The Role of Triads in the Evolution of the Periodic Table: Past and Present The Role of Triads in the Evolution of the Periodic Table: Past and Present Eric Scerri Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095; scerri@chem.ucla.edu

More information

Role of Hydrogen Bonding on Protein Secondary Structure Introduction

Role of Hydrogen Bonding on Protein Secondary Structure Introduction Role of Hydrogen Bonding on Protein Secondary Structure Introduction The function and chemical properties of proteins are determined by its three-dimensional structure. The final architecture of the protein

More information

ATOMIC THEORY. Name Symbol Mass (approx.; kg) Charge

ATOMIC THEORY. Name Symbol Mass (approx.; kg) Charge ATOMIC THEORY The smallest component of an element that uniquely defines the identity of that element is called an atom. Individual atoms are extremely small. It would take about fifty million atoms in

More information

Unit 2 Matter and Chemical Change. Unit Test

Unit 2 Matter and Chemical Change. Unit Test Unit Test Student Name Class Section 1 Properties of Matter 1. Aluminum foam is used to create lighter, safer cars. The reason that a lighter car is a safer car is because aluminum foam is A. less rigid

More information

Standard Free Energies of Formation at 298 K. Average Bond Dissociation Energies at 298 K

Standard Free Energies of Formation at 298 K. Average Bond Dissociation Energies at 298 K 1 Thermodynamics There always seems to be at least one free response question that involves thermodynamics. These types of question also show up in the multiple choice questions. G, S, and H. Know what

More information

Mr. Bracken. Multiple Choice Review: Thermochemistry

Mr. Bracken. Multiple Choice Review: Thermochemistry Mr. Bracken AP Chemistry Name Period Multiple Choice Review: Thermochemistry 1. If this has a negative value for a process, then the process occurs spontaneously. 2. This is a measure of how the disorder

More information

Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson

Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson Thermochemistry r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc Ron Robertson I. What is Energy? A. Energy is a property of matter that allows work to be done B. Potential and Kinetic Potential energy

More information

ORTEC DET-SW-UPG. Latest Software Features. Ease of Use. Source Location with the Detective V3 Software

ORTEC DET-SW-UPG. Latest Software Features. Ease of Use. Source Location with the Detective V3 Software ORTEC DET-SW-UPG Latest Software Features Three Search Modes: Gamma/Neutron total count rate. SNM search mode. Sliding average "monitor" mode. (NEW) User choice of identification schemes: Classify mode

More information

Unit 19 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Unit 19 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Unit 19 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The first law of thermodynamics can be given as. A) E = q + w B) =

More information

CHEM 107 (Spring-2005) Final Exam (100 pts)

CHEM 107 (Spring-2005) Final Exam (100 pts) CHEM 107 (Spring-2005) Final Exam (100 pts) Name: ------------------------------------------------------------------------, Clid # ------------------------------ LAST NAME, First (Circle the alphabet segment

More information

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s)

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) BONDING MIDTERM REVIEW 7546-1 - Page 1 1) Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) 2) The bond between hydrogen and oxygen in

More information

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: States of Matter In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. The kinetic-molecular

More information

Bonding Practice Problems

Bonding Practice Problems NAME 1. When compared to H 2 S, H 2 O has a higher 8. Given the Lewis electron-dot diagram: boiling point because H 2 O contains stronger metallic bonds covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrogen bonds 2. Which

More information

Find a pair of elements in the periodic table with atomic numbers less than 20 that are an exception to the original periodic law.

Find a pair of elements in the periodic table with atomic numbers less than 20 that are an exception to the original periodic law. Example Exercise 6.1 Periodic Law Find the two elements in the fifth row of the periodic table that violate the original periodic law proposed by Mendeleev. Mendeleev proposed that elements be arranged

More information

Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems

Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems 1. At 0.967 atm, the height of mercury in a barometer is 0.735 m. If the mercury were replaced with water, what height of water (in meters) would be supported at this pressure?

More information

Exam 4 Practice Problems false false

Exam 4 Practice Problems false false Exam 4 Practice Problems 1 1. Which of the following statements is false? a. Condensed states have much higher densities than gases. b. Molecules are very far apart in gases and closer together in liquids

More information

4. Using the data from Handout 5, what is the standard enthalpy of formation of BaO (s)? What does this mean?

4. Using the data from Handout 5, what is the standard enthalpy of formation of BaO (s)? What does this mean? HOMEWORK 3A 1. In each of the following pairs, tell which has the higher entropy. (a) One mole of liquid water or one mole of water vapor (b) One mole of dry ice or one mole of carbon dioxide at 1 atm

More information

Periodic Table Questions

Periodic Table Questions Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is

More information

Chapter 11. Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Chapter 11. Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Chapter 11 Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions An oxidation and reduction reaction occurs in both aqueous solutions and in reactions where substances are burned

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

More information

Exam 1. Spring 2012/13 CHE 140 Section: 5701 & 5702 100 total points Date: Mon. Feb. 11 & Tue. Feb. 12, 2013

Exam 1. Spring 2012/13 CHE 140 Section: 5701 & 5702 100 total points Date: Mon. Feb. 11 & Tue. Feb. 12, 2013 + 80 points Exam 1 Spring 2012/13 Name: CHE 140 Section: 5701 & 5702 100 total points Date: Mon. Feb. 11 & Tue. Feb. 12, 2013 Directions: Answer the following questions completely. For multiple choice

More information

WASTE STREAM 2Y51 Analytical Services Process Facilities - North Labs

WASTE STREAM 2Y51 Analytical Services Process Facilities - North Labs WASTE STREAM 2Y51 Analytical Services Process Facilities North Labs SITE SITE OWNER WASTE CUSTODIAN WASTE TYPE Sellafield Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Sellafield Limited LLW WASTE VOLUMES Stocks:

More information

Paper 3 and Paper 4. CC4 The Periodic Table. The learning journey

Paper 3 and Paper 4. CC4 The Periodic Table. The learning journey Paper 3 and Paper 4 CC4 The Periodic Table There are over 100 known elements. The modern periodic table is a chart that arranges these elements in a way that is useful to chemists. Thanks to the periodic

More information

ENTHALPY CHANGES FOR A CHEMICAL REACTION scaling a rxn up or down (proportionality) quantity 1 from rxn heat 1 from Δ r H. = 32.

ENTHALPY CHANGES FOR A CHEMICAL REACTION scaling a rxn up or down (proportionality) quantity 1 from rxn heat 1 from Δ r H. = 32. CHEMISTRY 103 Help Sheet #10 Chapter 4 (Part II); Sections 4.6-4.10 Do the topics appropriate for your lecture Prepared by Dr. Tony Jacob http://www.chem.wisc.edu/areas/clc (Resource page) Nuggets: Enthalpy

More information

Test 5 Review questions. 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will

Test 5 Review questions. 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will Name: Thursday, December 13, 2007 Test 5 Review questions 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will 1. decrease 2. increase 3. remain the same 2. The graph below

More information

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 1. Figure 1 The graph represents the relationship between temperature and time as heat was added uniformly to a substance starting at a solid

More information

Standard Solutions (Traceable to NIST)

Standard Solutions (Traceable to NIST) Standard Solutions (Traceable to NIST) - Multi Element ICP Standard Solutions (Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy) - Single Element ICP Standard Solutions (Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy)

More information

3. What would you predict for the intensity and binding energy for the 3p orbital for that of sulfur?

3. What would you predict for the intensity and binding energy for the 3p orbital for that of sulfur? PSI AP Chemistry Periodic Trends MC Review Name Periodic Law and the Quantum Model Use the PES spectrum of Phosphorus below to answer questions 1-3. 1. Which peak corresponds to the 1s orbital? (A) 1.06

More information

Questions on Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Questions on Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Questions on Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Circle the Correct Answer: 1) Which ion below has a noble gas electron configuration? A) Li 2+ B) Be 2+ C) B2+ D) C2+ E) N 2-2) Of the ions below,

More information

Chemistry 151 Final Exam

Chemistry 151 Final Exam Chemistry 151 Final Exam Name: SSN: Exam Rules & Guidelines Show your work. No credit will be given for an answer unless your work is shown. Indicate your answer with a box or a circle. All paperwork must

More information

Inorganic Chemistry review sheet Exam #1

Inorganic Chemistry review sheet Exam #1 Inorganic hemistry review sheet Exam #1 h. 1 General hemistry review reaction types: A/B, redox., single displacement, elimination, addition, rearrangement and solvolysis types of substances: elements,

More information

Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter

Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter CHAPTER 3 REVIEW Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Why is Democritus s view of matter considered only an idea, while Dalton

More information

CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS

CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS 1 CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS The Chemical Equation A chemical equation concisely shows the initial (reactants) and final (products) results of

More information

Periodic Table. inert gases. Columns: Similar Valence Structure. give up 1e - give up 2e - Oaccept 2e- accept 1e - give up 3e -

Periodic Table. inert gases. Columns: Similar Valence Structure. give up 1e - give up 2e - Oaccept 2e- accept 1e - give up 3e - Periodic Table give up 1e - give up 2e - give up 3e - H Li Be Na Mg K Ca Columns: Similar Valence Structure Sc Oaccept 2e- accept 1e - inert gases S Se F Cl Br He Ne Ar Kr Adapted from Fig. 2.6, Callister

More information

The value of a state function is independent of the history of the system.

The value of a state function is independent of the history of the system. 1 THERMODYNAMICS - The study of energy in matter - Thermodynamics allows us to predict whether a chemical reaction occurs or not. - Thermodynamics tells us nothing about how fast a reaction occurs. - i.

More information

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790. CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,

More information

Chemistry 13: States of Matter

Chemistry 13: States of Matter Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties

More information

Electronegativity and Polarity MAIN Idea A chemical bond s character is related to each atom s

Electronegativity and Polarity MAIN Idea A chemical bond s character is related to each atom s Section 8.5 Objectives Describe how electronegativity is used to determine bond type. Compare and contrast polar and nonpolar covalent bonds and polar and nonpolar molecules. Generalize about the characteristics

More information

Worksheet # 11. 4. When heated, nickel (II) carbonate undergoes a decomposition reaction. Write a balanced equation to describe this reaction

Worksheet # 11. 4. When heated, nickel (II) carbonate undergoes a decomposition reaction. Write a balanced equation to describe this reaction Worksheet # 11 1. A solution of sodium chloride is mixed with a solution of lead (II) nitrate. A precipitate of lead (II) chloride results, leaving a solution of sodium nitrated. Determine the class of

More information

Chem 1721 Brief Notes: Chapter 19

Chem 1721 Brief Notes: Chapter 19 Chem 1721 Brief Notes: Chapter 19 Chapter 19: Electrochemistry Consider the same redox reaction set up 2 different ways: Cu metal in a solution of AgNO 3 Cu Cu salt bridge electrically conducting wire

More information

Rules of Nomenclature for Binary Compounds

Rules of Nomenclature for Binary Compounds NAME: DATE: Rules of Nomenclature for Binary Compounds There are three types of binary compounds: Type I. A metal of fixed charge and a nonmetal; Type II. A metal of variable charge and a nonmetal; and

More information

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is:

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NET IONIC EQUATIONS A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO 3 In this case, the simple formulas of the various reactants

More information

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements

47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25. 4 Atoms and Elements 47374_04_p25-32.qxd 2/9/07 7:50 AM Page 25 4 Atoms and Elements 4.1 a. Cu b. Si c. K d. N e. Fe f. Ba g. Pb h. Sr 4.2 a. O b. Li c. S d. Al e. H f. Ne g. Sn h. Au 4.3 a. carbon b. chlorine c. iodine d.

More information

Nuclear ZPE Tapping. Horace Heffner May 2007

Nuclear ZPE Tapping. Horace Heffner May 2007 ENERGY FROM UNCERTAINTY The uncertainty of momentum for a particle constrained by distance Δx is given, according to Heisenberg, by: Δmv = h/(2 π Δx) but since KE = (1/2) m v 2 = (1/(2 m) ) (Δmv) 2 ΔKE

More information

Periodicity. The Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev. and the Periodic Table. Periods. Metals vs. Non-Metals. Groups

Periodicity. The Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev. and the Periodic Table. Periods. Metals vs. Non-Metals. Groups Periodicity and the Periodic Table the result Dmitri Mendeleev arranged elements in order of their atomic numbers, such that elements with similar properties fell into the same column or group. The Periodic

More information

Assignments in Science Class X (Term II) IMPORTANT NOTES ANIL TUTORIALS

Assignments in Science Class X (Term II) IMPORTANT NOTES ANIL TUTORIALS Assignments in Science Class X (Term II) Periodic Classification of Elements 1. Early chemists classified elements as metals and non-metals on the basis of a set of physical and chemical properties. 2.

More information

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 6. Substances that cannot be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by chemical means are called a. pure substances. b. compounds. c. molecules. d. elements.

More information

TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE

TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE Electron configurations determine organization of the periodic table Next properties of elements and their periodic behavior Elemental properties determined

More information

REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 8

REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 8 Chemistry 101 ANSWER KEY REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 8 Use only a periodic table to answer the following questions. 1. Write complete electron configuration for each of the following elements: a) Aluminum

More information

= 11.0 g (assuming 100 washers is exact).

= 11.0 g (assuming 100 washers is exact). CHAPTER 8 1. 100 washers 0.110 g 1 washer 100. g 1 washer 0.110 g = 11.0 g (assuming 100 washers is exact). = 909 washers 2. The empirical formula is CFH from the structure given. The empirical formula

More information

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Answer these 40 multiple choice questions and then check your answers, located at the end of this document. If you correctly answered less than 25 questions, you need to

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS Periodic Table: an arrangement of elements in horizontal rows (Periods) and vertical columns (Groups) exhibits periodic repetition of properties First Periodic Table: discovered

More information

Bomb Calorimetry. Example 4. Energy and Enthalpy

Bomb Calorimetry. Example 4. Energy and Enthalpy Bomb Calorimetry constant volume often used for combustion reactions heat released by reaction is absorbed by calorimeter contents need heat capacity of calorimeter q cal = q rxn = q bomb + q water Example

More information

KEY for Unit 1 Your Chemical Toolbox: Scientific Concepts, Fundamentals of Typical Calculations, the Atom and Much More

KEY for Unit 1 Your Chemical Toolbox: Scientific Concepts, Fundamentals of Typical Calculations, the Atom and Much More KEY for Unit 1 Your Chemical Toolbox: Scientific Concepts, Fundamentals of Typical Calculations, the Atom and Much More The Modern Periodic Table The Periodic Law - when elements are arranged according

More information

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS

UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS 2.1 Elements An element is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances. Each element is represented by an abbreviation called

More information

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by

More information

A k 1. At equilibrium there is no net change in [A] or [B], namely d[a] dt

A k 1. At equilibrium there is no net change in [A] or [B], namely d[a] dt Chapter 15: Chemical Equilibrium Key topics: Equilibrium Constant Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations The Concept of Equilibrium Consider the reaction A k 1 k 1 B At equilibrium there is no net change

More information

Chapter 18 Homework Answers

Chapter 18 Homework Answers Chapter 18 Homework Answers 18.22. 18.24. 18.26. a. Since G RT lnk, as long as the temperature remains constant, the value of G also remains constant. b. In this case, G G + RT lnq. Since the reaction

More information

Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems

Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems 1. What are the SI units for a. Wavelength of light b. frequency of light c. speed of light Meter hertz (s -1 ) m s -1 (m/s) 2. T/F (correct

More information

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES BUILDING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SESSIONS APPENDIX B: EXERCISES Molecular mass, the mole, and mass percent Relative atomic and molecular mass Relative atomic mass (A r ) is a constant that expresses the ratio

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems Chapter 7 Answers and Solutions 7 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 7.1 A mole is the amount of a substance that contains 6.02 x 10 23 items. For example, one mole of water contains 6.02 10 23 molecules

More information

The Periodic Table: Periodic trends

The Periodic Table: Periodic trends Unit 1 The Periodic Table: Periodic trends There are over one hundred different chemical elements. Some of these elements are familiar to you such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Each one has

More information

Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions. Collection Terms. 5.1 The Mole. A Mole of a Compound. A Mole of Atoms.

Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions. Collection Terms. 5.1 The Mole. A Mole of a Compound. A Mole of Atoms. Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions 5.1 The Mole Collection Terms A collection term states a specific number of items. 1 dozen donuts = 12 donuts 1 ream of paper = 500 sheets 1 case = 24 cans 1

More information

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Student: 1. An atom of bromine has a mass about four times greater than that of an atom of neon. Which choice makes the correct comparison of the relative

More information

Mendeleev s s Table. Periodic Table Revisited. The Modern Periodic Table. Section 14.1 Classification of the Elements. Chapter 14 Chemical Periodicity

Mendeleev s s Table. Periodic Table Revisited. The Modern Periodic Table. Section 14.1 Classification of the Elements. Chapter 14 Chemical Periodicity Chapter Chemical Periodicity Section. Classification of the Elements OBJECTIVES: Explain why you can infer the properties of an element based on those of other elements in the periodic table. Use electron

More information

Ionizing Radiation, Czech Republic, CMI (Czech Metrology Institute)

Ionizing Radiation, Czech Republic, CMI (Czech Metrology Institute) Ionizing Radiation, Czech Republic, (Czech Metrology Institute) Calibration or Measurement RADIOACTIVITY 1.0E+00 1.0E+02 Bq cm -2 C-14 1.0E+01 1.0E+02 Bq cm -2 Co-60 1.0E+01 1.0E+02 Bq cm -2 Sr-90 1.0E+01

More information

Standard Operation Procedure. Elemental Analysis of Solution samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

Standard Operation Procedure. Elemental Analysis of Solution samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Standard Operation Procedure Elemental Analysis of Solution samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Soil & Plant Analysis Laboratory University of Wisconsin Madison http://uwlab.soils.wisc.edu

More information

Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:)

Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:) Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:) 2. Atomic Structure and Electron 2-1. Give the one main contribution to the

More information

Chapter 15 Chemical Equilibrium

Chapter 15 Chemical Equilibrium Chapter 15 Chemical Equilibrium Chemical reactions can reach a state of dynamic equilibrium. Similar to the equilibrium states reached in evaporation of a liquid in a closed container or the dissolution

More information

Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces: Introduction Intermolecular Forces Forces between separate molecules and dissolved ions (not bonds) Van der Waals Forces 15% as strong as covalent or ionic bonds Chapter 11 Intermolecular

More information

States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided. CHAPTER 10 REVIEW States of Matter SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Identify whether the descriptions below describe an ideal gas or a real gas. ideal gas

More information