Thermodynamics explores the connection between energy and the EXTENT of a reaction but does not give information about reaction rates (Kinetics).

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Thermodynamics explores the connection between energy and the EXTENT of a reaction but does not give information about reaction rates (Kinetics)."

Transcription

1 Thermodynamics explores the connection between energy and the EXTENT of a reaction but does not give information about reaction rates (Kinetics). Rates of chemical reactions are controlled by activation energy! lower E a, faster rate. Collision frequency;! collisions,! rate Equilibrium is reached when rate forward = rate reverse, also depends on energy (temp). 2 THERMODYNAMICS Review of Energy and Enthalpy Changes (Ch. 10) Energy Changes: Heat and Work Heat = q = energy transferred due to a difference in temperature. +q means heat is added to the system Work = w = action of force through a distance (often P!V) +w means work is done on the system Energy Changes!E = E final state " E initial state!e (kj/mol) O 2 (g) " 2 O atoms Water " ice at 25 o C "6.0 Si (s) + O 2 (g) " SiO 2 (s) "908 3

2 A STATE FUNCTION is a quantity that does not depend on the process by which the system was prepared Example: Your altitude (height above sea level) does not depend on the route you took to class this morning. State functions are written as uppercase letters (E, H, P, V, T, S#) Changes in state functions are path-independent: reactants 2 1 products!e q and w are not state functions but!e (= q + w) is a state function 4 1 st Law of Thermodynamics: the total energy of the universe is constant. "E universe = 0 "E universe = " E system + " E surroundings "E system = # " E surroundings! Heat and work:!e system = q + w and for PV work at const. pressure,!e system = q P!V 5

3 Enthalpy (H): $H = heat transferred at const. P H is a state function changes are path-independent H = E + PV (sums and products of state functions are also state functions) If "H is + : If "H is # : Classify as endo- or exo-thermic: Ice melting Water boiling Wood burning 6 Standard Enthalpy of Formation: $H o f!h for making 1 mole of a compound from its component elements in their standard states Standard state is the most stable form (pure solid, pure liquid, or gas at P = 1 atm and 298K) For solutes in solution, standard state is usually 1 M. Appendix 2 provides values of $H o f!h o rxn = $!H o f (products) $!H o f (reactants) 7

4 Metals All solids except one (which one?) Standard states of the elements The most stable form of an element at 298 K and 1 atm ( STP ) Nonmetals Atomic gases Noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn Metalloids All solids Diatomics halogens and H 2, N 2, O 2 H 2, N 2, O 2 (gas) F 2 (gas) Cl 2 (gas) Br 2 (liquid) I 2 (solid) Halogens (group 7) Other nonmetals solids C (graphite), S, P, Se 8 MAIN GROUPS 1A 1 1 H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr [223] 2A 2 4 Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra [226] 3B 3 21 Sc Y La* Ac** [227] 4B 4 22 Ti Zr Hf Rf [261] 5B 5 23 V Nb Ta Db [262] 6B 6 24 Cr Mo W Sg [266] PERIODIC TABLE of the ELEMENTS Standard States TRANSITION METALS 7B 7 25 Mn Tc [98] 75 Re Bh [264] 8B 8 26 Fe Ru Os Hs [265] 8B 9 27 Co Rh Ir Mt [268] 8B Ni Pd Pt [269] 1B Cu Ag Au [272] 2B Zn Cd Hg [277] 3A 13 5 B Al Ga In Tl A 14 6 C Si Ge Sn Pb [285] MAIN GROUPS 5A 15 7 N P As Sb Bi A 16 8 O S Se Te Po [209] 116 [289] 7A 17 9 F Cl Br I At [210] 8A 18 2 He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn [222] 118 [293] * LANTHANOIDS ** ACTINOIDS 58 Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm [145] 93 Np [237] 62 Sm Pu [244] 63 Eu Am [243] 64 Gd Cm [247] 65 Tb Bk [247] 66 Dy Cf [251] 67 Ho Es [252] 68 Er Fm [257] 69 Tm Md [258] 70 Yb No [259] 71 Lu Lr [262]

5 Spontaneous Processes: reaction that is capable of proceeding in the forward direction to a substantial extent under a given set of conditions. Processes that are spontaneous in one direction are nonspontaneous in the reverse direction. 10 Saying a reaction is spontaneous is not the same as saying it will occur if the reactants are mixed. Relationship between kinetics and thermodynamics It means the reaction can occur but may be so slow that nothing seems to happen. In the case of a slow spontaneous reaction it is worthwhile to look for a catalyst, but if we know the reaction is nonspontaneous, there is no point in even mixing the reactants, let alone searching for a catalyst. A nonspontaneous reaction cannot occur of itself without outside intervention. 11

6 A spontaneous reaction (process) can do WORK. Water falling over a dam: Is this process spontaneous? Can this process do work? What is the reverse of this process? Which process can do work? Is the reverse process spontaneous? 2 H 2 + O 2! 2 H 2 O 2 H 2 O! 2 H 2 + O 2 12 Processes that are spontaneous at one temperature may be nonspontaneous at other temperatures. Above 0 C ice melts spontaneously Below 0 C the reverse process is spontaneous. What happens at 0 C? 13

7 Spontaneous processes are irreversible. reversible process: Irreversible processes: 14 Can we predict the spontaneity of a reaction? %H (+ or ") Spontaneous Y or N H 2 O(!)! H 2 O(s) At #10 C 2NaCl(s)! 2Na(s) + Cl 2 (g) 4Fe(s) + 3O 2 (g)! 2 Fe 2 O 3 (s) N 2 (g)! 2N(g) 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g)! 2H 2 O(g) Hypothesis: 15

8 Test the hypothesis: If "H is negative, is the reaction spontaneous? Demonstrations Ba(OH) 2 8H 2 O(s) + 2NH 4 SCN(s)! Ba(SCN) 2 (aq) + 2NH 3 (aq) + 10H 2 O(!) %H =? H 2 O(s)! H 2 O(!) At +10 C %H =? NH 4 Cl(s) + H 2 O(!)! NH 4 Cl(aq) % H =? 16 "H is not the only factor that determines spontaneity There is another factor that also influences spontaneity:! Nature tends to move spontaneously from a state of lower probability to one of higher probability» G.N. Lewis (Nobel Laureate) 17

9 ENTROPY a thermodynamic parameter (S) that is a measure of the disorder or randomness in a system. The more disordered a system, the greater it s entropy. It is related to the various modes of motion in molecules. Like enthalpy, H, entropy S is a state function. It s value depends ONLY on the state of the system (not how it got there!) 18 Second Law of Thermodynamics: the entropy of the universe is increasing. For reversible processes:!s univ =!S system +!S surroundings = 0 For irreversible processes:!s univ =!S system +!S surroundings > 0 19

10 Which processes have "S > 0? Unopened deck of cards! Cards spread out on a table %S Unassembled car parts! Assembled car Seed + CO 2 + H 2 O + Minerals! Tree 20 Which processes have "S > 0? Can we predict "S for molecular level processes? 1 mole of gas confined in % of the container REMOVE the barrier 1 mole of gas has 2x more space. NH 4 Cl(s) " NH 4+ (aq) + Cl # (aq) 21

11 The three LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS 1st Law: The total energy in the universe is constant. "E universe = 0 "E universe = "E system + "E surroundings "E system = # "E surroundings 2nd Law: The total entropy in the universe is increasing. " S universe > 0 "S universe = "S system + "S surroundings > 0 3rd Law: The entropy of every pure substance at 0 K (absolute zero temperature) is zero. S = 0 at 0 K. 22 Third Law says ABSOLUTE ENTROPY (S) = 0 at T = 0 K. This means we can measure absolute entropy S (not just $S)! At T=0 K the third Law says that there is perfect order in the system (no entropy). Entropy is a state function (its value depends only on the system's initial and final states). $S can then be defined relative to this initial state (where S = 0) Tabulated values are absolute entropies. 23

12 Entropy increases with the number of microstates of the system Entropy on the Molecular Scale Molecules exhibit several types of motion: Translational: Vibrational: Rotational: 24 If the number of possible microstates increases the entropy increases The number of microstates and, therefore, the entropy tends to increase with increases in: Temperature Volume # of molecules (independently moving particles) 25

13 Increasing Temperature increases Entropy 1.. S (1 mole N 2 (g)) at 300K S (1 mole N 2 (g)) at 200K S of Au(s) at 298K S of Au(s) at 1000K solid liquid gas 2. Entropy depends on the STATE. Trends: sol " gas; sol " liq; liq " gas %S = Entropy (S) melting boiling gas " liq; gas " sol; liq " sol %S = "S (+ or #?) H 2 O (l, 25 o C) " H 2 O(g) CaCO 3 (s) " CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) Ag + (aq) + Cl # (aq) " AgCl(s) Temperature (K)! 26 Entropy increases a molecular complexity increases. 3.. E.g. S Ar < S HCl < S H2O There are more possible vibrational modes as the number of atoms increases. Compare F 2 and O 3. 27

14 Entropy increases a molecular complexity increases. There are also more rotational modes as the number of atoms increases Entropy is an extensive property. E.g. 5 molecule " 7 molecules. S(2 moles HCl(g)) S(1 mole HCl(g)) N 2 O 4 (g)! 2 NO 2 (g) 1 moles! 2 moles 29

15 Summary of Molecular Basis of Entropy 1. Adding heat increases entropy. 2. Entropy depends on the state. Entropy (S) solid liquid gas melting boiling Temperature (K)! 3. Entropy increases as # of atoms in a molecule increases. 4. Entropy is an extensive property: more moles, more entropy Entropy is a state function - its value depends only on the system's initial and final states. Absolute Entropy: S = 0 at T = 0 K (Third Law) 30 The Entropy of a substance in its standard state can be defined. S (Standard Molar Entropy): Unit for S o is: S is always positive (>0) for pure substances! These are molar entropy values of substances in their standard states. Standard entropies tend to increase with increasing molar mass. Substance S J/mol-K Gases H 2 (g) N 2 (g) O 2 (g) F 2 (g) H 2 O(g) NH 3 (g) CH 3 OH(g) Liquids H 2 O(!) 69.9 CH 3 OH(!) Solids Li(s) 29.1 Na(s) 51.4 K(s) 64.7 NaCl(s)

16 The entropy change for a reaction ("S rxn ) can be calculated using tabulated values of absolute entropy. "S o FOR REACTIONS "S (rxn) = & S (products) # & S (reactants) What is %S (rxn) for N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) " 2 NH 3 (g) "S > 0 when: Gases form from either liquids or solids Liquids or solutions form from solids The number of molecules of gas increase during a chemical reaction. 32 Take Home Message Reaction The spontaneity of a reaction depends on: Temperature, "H and "S Next we ll combine these to get a new thermodynamic parameter, Gibbs Free Energy ("G) to predict reaction spontaneity. What you should know: How to calculate the "S of a reaction Predict what molecules/reactions will have a greater or smaller entropy according to the factors that affect entropy. 33

B I N G O B I N G O. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. I Fl Fr Mo Si. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Md Co P Pa Tc. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Bh Cm H Bi Es. Mo Uus Lu P F.

B I N G O B I N G O. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. I Fl Fr Mo Si. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Md Co P Pa Tc. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Bh Cm H Bi Es. Mo Uus Lu P F. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr Ho Bi Ce u Ac I Fl Fr Mo i Md Co P Pa Tc Uut Rh K N Dy Cl N Am b At Md H Y Bh Cm H Bi s Mo Uus Lu P F Cu Ar Ag Mg K Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of cience ducation

More information

PERIODIC TABLES: I. Directory, II. Traditional, III. Vertical, IV. Toxicity (LD 50 values), V. Native (elemental form)

PERIODIC TABLES: I. Directory, II. Traditional, III. Vertical, IV. Toxicity (LD 50 values), V. Native (elemental form) PERIODIC TABLES: I. Directory, II. Traditional, III. Vertical, IV. Toxicity (LD 50 values), V. Native (elemental form) Site developed by Steve Murov, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, Modesto Junior College,

More information

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Why? Chemists are concerned with mass relationships in chemical reactions, usually run on a macroscopic scale (grams, kilograms, etc.). To deal with

More information

Electronic Stability & Periodic Table

Electronic Stability & Periodic Table Electronic Stability & Periodic Table Things at higher energy are less stable!! All living things are dependent on their ability to acquire energy from unstable things! The compounds in the food you eat

More information

Topic 3 Periodic Trends

Topic 3 Periodic Trends Topic 3 Periodic Trends Chapter 06 Trends on the Periodic Table Chapter 07 Relationships between the elements CHEM 10 T03D01 How are elements arranged Prior to 1735, only 12 elements were known to man

More information

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers Key Questions & Exercises Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers 1. The atomic weight of carbon is 12.0107 u, so a mole of carbon has a mass of 12.0107 g. Why doesn t a mole of

More information

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change CLASS TEST GRADE PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change MARKS: 45 TIME: hour INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION. Answer ALL the questions. 2. You may use non-programmable calculators. 3. You may

More information

CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011

CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011 CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011 Name (please print) All equations must be balanced and show phases for full credit. Significant figures count, show charges as appropriate, and please box your answers!

More information

Electron Configuration Activity

Electron Configuration Activity Electron Configuration Activity Purpose To find the relationship between electron configuration and organization of the periodic table. Materials Paper copy of the periodic table colored pencils or markers

More information

AUS-e-TUTE. Periodic Table Lessons and Activities. ausetute.com.au. Definition of Terms used in this publication: Crossword: Drill: Exam:

AUS-e-TUTE. Periodic Table Lessons and Activities. ausetute.com.au. Definition of Terms used in this publication: Crossword: Drill: Exam: 2012 AUS-e-TUTE Periodic Table Lessons and Activities Definition of Terms used in this publication: requires students to find and enter information, Interactive Learning Activity: then guides them through

More information

All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units!

All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units! CHEM 10113, Quiz 2 September 7, 2011 Name (please print) All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units! IA Periodic Table of the Elements VIIIA (1) (18) 1 2 1 H IIA

More information

Periodic Table of the Elements

Periodic Table of the Elements Periodic Table of the Elements 1A 8A 1 18 1 2 H 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A He 1.0079 2 13 14 15 16 17 4.0026 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Li Be B C N O F Ne 6.941 9.0122 10.811 12.011 14.0067 15.9994 18.9984 20.1797 11 12

More information

Blocks on the periodic table. Atomic weight: This is either a decimal number or a number in parenthesis.

Blocks on the periodic table. Atomic weight: This is either a decimal number or a number in parenthesis. 68 Blocks on the periodic table 11 Sodium 22.99 Atomic number: This is always a whole number. The periodic table is arranged by atomic number! Element symbol: A one or two letter abbreviation for the name

More information

The Periodic Table and Periodic Law

The Periodic Table and Periodic Law The Periodic Table and Periodic Law Section 6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table In your textbook, reads about the history of the periodic table s development. Use each of the terms below just

More information

Secondary Support Pack. be introduced to some of the different elements within the periodic table;

Secondary Support Pack. be introduced to some of the different elements within the periodic table; Secondary Support Pack INTRODUCTION The periodic table of the elements is central to chemistry as we know it today and the study of it is a key part of every student s chemical education. By playing the

More information

The Periodic Table, Electron Configuration & Chemical Bonding. Lecture 7

The Periodic Table, Electron Configuration & Chemical Bonding. Lecture 7 The Periodic Table, Electron Configuration & Chemical Bonding Lecture 7 Electrons We will start to look at the periodic table by focusing on the information it gives about each element s electrons. How

More information

Periodic Table of the Elements

Periodic Table of the Elements Periodic Table of the Elements 1A 8A 1 18 1 2 H 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A He 1.0079 2 13 14 15 16 17 4.0026 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Li Be B C N O F Ne 6.941 9.0122 10.811 12.011 14.0067 15.9994 18.9984 20.1797 11 12

More information

The Periodic Table of the Elements. The Periodic Table of the Elements QUIZ THURSDAY Oct 20

The Periodic Table of the Elements. The Periodic Table of the Elements QUIZ THURSDAY Oct 20 The Periodic Table of the Elements 1 18 1 2 H 2 13 14 15 16 17 He 1.0079 4.0026 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Li Be B C N O F Ne 6.941 9.01218 10.811 12.011 14.0067 15.9994 18.9984 20.1797 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Na

More information

Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy

Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy Name: Science Teacher: Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy Atoms Fill in the missing information to summarize what you know about atomic structure. Name of Subatomic Particle Location within the Atom

More information

Ch 8 Atomic Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity

Ch 8 Atomic Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity Ch 8 Atomic Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity Pauli Exclusion principle No two electrons in an atom have the same set of quantum numbers. If two electrons occupy the same orbital, they must

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1314 3;30 pm Theory Exam III John III. Gelder November 13, 2002 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 8 different pages. The last page include a periodic

More information

Chemistry 5 Test 1. You must show your work to receive credit PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS. 5 B 10.81 13 Al 26.98

Chemistry 5 Test 1. You must show your work to receive credit PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS. 5 B 10.81 13 Al 26.98 Chemistry 5 Test 1 Name: You must show your work to receive credit PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 1A 1 H 1.008 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 3 Li 6.941 11 Na 22.99 19 K 39.10 37 Rb 85.47 55 Cs 132.9 87 Fr (223) 4

More information

EXAM I Sample Exam 1-2 Dr. V. Williamson. FORM A is EXAM I AF, VERSION 2 (v2)

EXAM I Sample Exam 1-2 Dr. V. Williamson. FORM A is EXAM I AF, VERSION 2 (v2) FORM A is EXAM I AF, VERSION 2 (v2) 1. DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL DIRECTED TO DO SO. 2. These tests are machine graded; therefore, be sure to use a No. 1 or 2 pencil for marking the answer sheets. 3.

More information

Periodic Table & Periodic Law

Periodic Table & Periodic Law Periodic Table & Periodic Law Organizing the Elements A few elements, such as gold and copper, have been known for thousands of years - since ancient times Yet, only about 13 had been identified by the

More information

1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding

1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding CHAPTER 1 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is chemical bonding? What are valence

More information

From Quantum to Matter 2006

From Quantum to Matter 2006 From Quantum to Matter 006 Why such a course? Ronald Griessen Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam AMOLF, May 4, 004 vrije Universiteit amsterdam Why study quantum mechanics? From Quantum to Matter: The main

More information

Chemistry 5 Final. Name(printed): Note: 10 points will be assigned if you print your name so I can read it effortlessly. Print legibly!

Chemistry 5 Final. Name(printed): Note: 10 points will be assigned if you print your name so I can read it effortlessly. Print legibly! Chemistry 5 Final ame(printed): ote: 10 points will be assigned if you print your name so can read it effortlessly. Print legibly! You must show your work to receive credit PERODC TABLE OF TE ELEMETS 1A

More information

Lewis Dot Structures. Reading: Gray: (2-1), (2-7), (2-11) to (2-13) OGN: (3.2) to (3.5)

Lewis Dot Structures. Reading: Gray: (2-1), (2-7), (2-11) to (2-13) OGN: (3.2) to (3.5) Lewis Dot Structures Reading: Gray: (2-1), (2-7), (2-11) to (2-13) OGN: (3.2) to (3.5) Periodic Chemical Reactivity Reactions with hydrogen to form hydrides: Li vs. (notice electronegativity difference)

More information

Lewis dot structures for molecules

Lewis dot structures for molecules 1 Lewis dot structures for molecules In the dot structure of a molecule, - SHARED valence electrons are shown with dashes - one per pair. - UNSHARED valence electrons ("lone pairs") are represented by

More information

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION (SHORT FORM) # of electrons in the subshell. valence electrons Valence electrons have the largest value for "n"!

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION (SHORT FORM) # of electrons in the subshell. valence electrons Valence electrons have the largest value for n! 179 ELECTRON CONFIGURATION (SHORT FORM) - We can represent the electron configuration without drawing a diagram or writing down pages of quantum numbers every time. We write the "electron configuration".

More information

Chemistry 102 Chapter 17 THERMODYNAMICS

Chemistry 102 Chapter 17 THERMODYNAMICS THERMODYNAMICS Thermodynamics is concerned with the energy changes that accompany chemical and physical processes. Two conditions must be fulfilled in order to observe a chemical or physical change: The

More information

3.06 Periodic Table and Periodic Trends

3.06 Periodic Table and Periodic Trends 3.06 Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry 100, Miramar College 1 3.06 Periodic Table and Periodic Trend The Periodic Table and the Elements What is the periodic table? What

More information

3.01 Elements, Symbols and Periodic Table

3.01 Elements, Symbols and Periodic Table .0 Elements, Symbols and Periodic Table Dr. Fred O. Garces Chemistry 00 Miramar College.0 Elements, symbols and the Periodic Table January 0 The Elements: Building block of Matter The periodic table of

More information

Chapter 17 Thermodynamics: Directionality of Chemical Reactions

Chapter 17 Thermodynamics: Directionality of Chemical Reactions Reactant- & Product-Favored Processes John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore Chapter 17 hermodynamics: Directionality of Chemical Reactions Why are

More information

100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals.

100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals. 2.21 Ionic Bonding 100% ionic compounds do not exist but predominantly ionic compounds are formed when metals combine with non-metals. Forming ions Metal atoms lose electrons to form +ve ions. Non-metal

More information

The Lewis structure is a model that gives a description of where the atoms, charges, bonds, and lone pairs of electrons, may be found.

The Lewis structure is a model that gives a description of where the atoms, charges, bonds, and lone pairs of electrons, may be found. CEM110 Week 12 Notes (Chemical Bonding) Page 1 of 8 To help understand molecules (or radicals or ions), VSEPR shapes, and properties (such as polarity and bond length), we will draw the Lewis (or electron

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1314 3:30 pm Section Exam II ohn II. Gelder October 16, 2002 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 8 different pages. The last three pages include a periodic

More information

H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) H 2 O(l) H o f [NO(g)] = 90.2 kj/mol; H o f [H 2 O(g)] = kj/mol H o f [NH 3 (g)] = kj/mol; H o f [O 2 (g)] =?

H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) H 2 O(l) H o f [NO(g)] = 90.2 kj/mol; H o f [H 2 O(g)] = kj/mol H o f [NH 3 (g)] = kj/mol; H o f [O 2 (g)] =? Chapter 16 Thermodynamics GCC CHM152 Thermodynamics You are responsible for Thermo concepts from CHM 151. You may want to review Chapter 8, specifically sections 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10 (except work ). Thermodynamics:

More information

INTRODUCTION TO MEASUREMENTS

INTRODUCTION TO MEASUREMENTS INTRODUCTION TO MEASUREMENTS Introduction: In the first three experiments you will learn how to use equipment that to measure length, mass, and volume. You will apply the rules about significant figures

More information

Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered

Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered 2. Elements in a specific compound are always present in a definite proportion by mass; for example, in methane, CH 4, 12 g of carbon are combined with

More information

The Periodic Properties of the Elements. Department of Chemistry Pima Community College Tucson, AZ, USA

The Periodic Properties of the Elements. Department of Chemistry Pima Community College Tucson, AZ, USA The Periodic Properties of the Elements David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College Tucson, AZ, USA Electron Configurations Lewis Dot Symbols Show the outermost electrons only 1 IA Oxidation

More information

2. Predict which of the following spontaneous reactions increase the entropy of the system.

2. Predict which of the following spontaneous reactions increase the entropy of the system. Spontaneity and Entropy DCI Name Section 1. Entropy (S) is a second driving force for chemical reactions. Define the word entropy. How is the sign of S for a chemical reaction interpreted? Entropy is a

More information

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Science Junior Cert Quick Notes

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Science Junior Cert Quick Notes Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Science Junior Cert Quick Notes Elements, Compounds and Mixtures CHEMISTRY The world is made up of a variety of substances. Some of these occur naturally in our environment,

More information

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal

B) atomic number C) both the solid and the liquid phase D) Au C) Sn, Si, C A) metal C) O, S, Se C) In D) tin D) methane D) bismuth B) Group 2 metal 1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and

More information

FORM 3 CHEMISTRY TIME: 1h 30min

FORM 3 CHEMISTRY TIME: 1h 30min DIRECTORATE FOR QUALITY AND STANDARDS IN EDUCATION Department of Curriculum Management Educational Assessment Unit Track 3 Annual Examinations for Secondary Schools 2015 FORM 3 CHEMISTRY TIME: 1h 30min

More information

Entropy and Free Energy

Entropy and Free Energy Entropy and Free Energy How to predict if a reaction can occur, given enough time? THERMODYNAMICS 1 Thermodynamics If the state of a chemical system is such that a rearrangement of its atoms and molecules

More information

3.05 Atomic Structure and Electronic Configuration

3.05 Atomic Structure and Electronic Configuration .05 Atomic Structure and Electronic Configuration Arranging the electrons in an atom Learning Objectives/Terminology- Pauli Exclusion Principle Aufbau Hund s Rule Diamagnetism/Paramagnetism Ne-Va-S-P Dr.

More information

Electronegativity and Polarity

Electronegativity and Polarity and Polarity N Goalby Chemrevise.org Definition: is the relative tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons in a covalent bond to itself. is measured on the Pauling scale (ranges from 0 to

More information

HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS

HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS 1. Proust s Hypothesis The atomic weights of all elements are simple multiple of atomic weight of hydrogen. Proust gave this hypothesis on the basis of Dalton s atomic

More information

Chapter 19. Chemical Thermodynamics. The reverse reaction (two eggs leaping into your hand with their shells back intact) is not spontaneous.

Chapter 19. Chemical Thermodynamics. The reverse reaction (two eggs leaping into your hand with their shells back intact) is not spontaneous. Chapter 19. Chemical Thermodynamics SOURCE: Chemistry the Central Science: Prentice hall I. Spontaneous Processes Thermodynamics is concerned with the question: will a reaction occur? First Law of Thermodynamics:

More information

12B The Periodic Table

12B The Periodic Table The Periodic Table Investigation 12B 12B The Periodic Table How is the periodic table organized? Virtually all the matter you see is made up of combinations of elements. Scientists know of 118 different

More information

It takes four quantum numbers to describe an electron. Additionally, every electron has a unique set of quantum numbers.

It takes four quantum numbers to describe an electron. Additionally, every electron has a unique set of quantum numbers. So, quantum mechanics does not define the path that the electron follows; rather, quantum mechanics works by determining the energy of the electron. Once the energy of an electron is known, the probability

More information

Chapter 20. Thermodynamics p. 811 842. Spontaneity. What have we learned about spontaneity during this course?

Chapter 20. Thermodynamics p. 811 842. Spontaneity. What have we learned about spontaneity during this course? Chapter 20 p. 811 842 Spontaneous process: Ex. Nonspontaneous process: Ex. Spontaneity What have we learned about spontaneity during this course? 1) Q vs. K? 2) So.. Spontaneous process occurs when a system

More information

1. Which of the following atoms has the highest first ionization energy? 2. Which of the following atoms has the highest third ionization energy?

1. Which of the following atoms has the highest first ionization energy? 2. Which of the following atoms has the highest third ionization energy? 1. Which of the following atoms has the highest first ionization energy? (a) Cs (b) Cl (c) I (d) Ar (e) Na 2. Which of the following atoms has the highest third ionization energy? (a) Si (b) Al (c) S (d)

More information

The Nature of Chemistry

The Nature of Chemistry CHAPTER 1 The Nature of Chemistry Objectives You will be able to do the following. 1. Describe how science in general is done. 2. Given a description of a property of a substance, identify the property

More information

Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics 1

Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics Some Important Topics First Law of Thermodynamics Internal Energy U ( or E) Enthalpy H Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy S Third law of Thermodynamics Absolute Entropy

More information

CHEM 10113, Exam 3 November 2, 2011

CHEM 10113, Exam 3 November 2, 2011 CHEM 10113, Exam 3 November 2, 2011 Name (please print) All equations must be balanced and show phases for full credit. Significant figures count, and box your answers! 1. (11 points) In each blank write

More information

1 Arranging the Elements

1 Arranging the Elements CHAPTER 12 1 Arranging the Elements SECTION The Periodic Table BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How are elements arranged on the periodic table?

More information

Thermodynamics: Entropy & Gibbs Free Energy

Thermodynamics: Entropy & Gibbs Free Energy Thermodynamics: Entropy & Gibbs Free Energy PSI Chemistry Name------------------------------------------------------- I. Entropy & the Second Law of Thermodynamics 1) A reaction that is spontaneous. A)

More information

CHAPTER 10 MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS

CHAPTER 10 MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS HEINS10-118-128v4.qxd 12/30/06 2:05 PM Page 118 CHAPTER 10 MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. An electron orbital is a region in space around the nucleus of an

More information

EXPERIMENT 14: CALORIMETRY

EXPERIMENT 14: CALORIMETRY EXPERIMENT 14: CALORIMETRY Introduction: You will calculate the specific heat constant of a metal, c, by measuring the heat exchanged in a calorimeter. Once c is determined, use the Law of Dulong and Petit

More information

The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work. Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work.

The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work. Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work. The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work. Compare fuel value of different compounds. What drives these reactions to proceed

More information

Chapter 16 Review Packet

Chapter 16 Review Packet Chapter 16 Review Packet AP Chemistry Chapter 16 Practice Multiple Choice Portion 1. For which process is ΔS negative? Note: ΔS = S final S initial therefore, if ΔS is positive, S final > S initial if

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes.

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. 1 PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. Metal Nonmetal Scheme (based on physical properties) Metals - most elements are metals - elements on left

More information

Element Electronic structure W 2,5 X 2,7 Y 2,8,8 Z 2,8,8,1. (b) Which two Groups of the periodic table do not contain any non-metals?

Element Electronic structure W 2,5 X 2,7 Y 2,8,8 Z 2,8,8,1. (b) Which two Groups of the periodic table do not contain any non-metals? The periodic table 1. Use the periodic table on the Data Sheet to answer these questions. The table below gives the electronic structures of four elements, W, X, Y and Z. Element Electronic structure W

More information

Chapter 2 Lecture Notes: Atoms

Chapter 2 Lecture Notes: Atoms Educational Goals Chapter 2 Lecture Notes: Atoms 1. Describe the subatomic structure of an atom. 2. Define the terms element and atomic symbol. 3. Understand how elements are arranged in the periodic table

More information

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions 8-1 Describing Chemical Reactions I. Introduction A. Reactants 1. Original substances entering into a chemical rxn B. Products 1. The resulting substances from

More information

Surviving Chemistry. One Concept at a Time. Periodic Table. Fe S. Au Mg. Engaging and Easy-to-learn. Guided Study of High School Chemistry

Surviving Chemistry. One Concept at a Time. Periodic Table. Fe S. Au Mg. Engaging and Easy-to-learn. Guided Study of High School Chemistry Surviving Chemistry One Concept at a Time Periodic Table Au Mg Fe S Engaging and Easy-to-learn Guided Study of High School Chemistry Guided Study Book One Concept at a Time A Guided Study and Workbook

More information

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements INTRODUCTION Primary substances, called elements, build all the materials around you. There are more than 109 different elements known today. The elements

More information

Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions. System loses heat (negative); gains heat (positive) Describe the difference between the two.

Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions. System loses heat (negative); gains heat (positive) Describe the difference between the two. Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions Most reactions give off or absorb energy Energy is the capacity to do work or supply heat. Heat: transfer of thermal (kinetic) energy between two systems at different

More information

Chem 111 Evening Exam #3

Chem 111 Evening Exam #3 * Enter your answers on the bubble sheet. Turn in all sheets. * This exam is composed of 25 questions on 7 pages total. Go initially through the exam and answer the questions you can answer quickly. Then

More information

Chemical Thermodynamics

Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Thermodynamics David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College Tucson, AZ 85709, USA First Law of Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics was expressed in the study of thermochemistry.

More information

Spontaneity of a Chemical Reaction

Spontaneity of a Chemical Reaction Spontaneity of a Chemical Reaction We have learned that entropy is used to quantify the extent of disorder resulting from the dispersal of matter in a system. Also; entropy, like enthalpy and internal

More information

Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table Chapter 2 1 Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table Solutions to In-Chapter Problems 2.1 Each element is identified by a one- or two-letter symbol. Use the periodic table to find the symbol for each element.

More information

The Role of Triads in the Evolution of the Periodic Table: Past and Present

The Role of Triads in the Evolution of the Periodic Table: Past and Present The Role of Triads in the Evolution of the Periodic Table: Past and Present Eric Scerri Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095; scerri@chem.ucla.edu

More information

Unit 2 Matter and Chemical Change. Unit Test

Unit 2 Matter and Chemical Change. Unit Test Unit Test Student Name Class Section 1 Properties of Matter 1. Aluminum foam is used to create lighter, safer cars. The reason that a lighter car is a safer car is because aluminum foam is A. less rigid

More information

Test Review # 9. Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A

Test Review # 9. Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A TEST 9 REVIEW Name Date Period Test Review # 9 Collision theory. In order for a reaction to occur, particles of the reactant must collide. Not all collisions cause reactions.

More information

INTRODUCING THE PERIODIC TABLE INFORMATION ON THE PERIODIC TABLE. 1 Name: Date: CHAPTERS 3 & What is the periodic table?

INTRODUCING THE PERIODIC TABLE INFORMATION ON THE PERIODIC TABLE. 1 Name: Date: CHAPTERS 3 & What is the periodic table? 1 Name: Date: CHAPTERS 3 & 5.1 INTRODUCING THE PERIODIC TABLE 1. What is the periodic table? 2. State who made the periodic table? 3. What ability did the periodic table have? INFORMATION ON THE PERIODIC

More information

MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE CHAPTER 10 MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Wavelength is defined as the distance between consecutive peaks in a wave. It is generally symbolized by the Greek

More information

(3) AgCl(s) Ag + (aq) + Cl (aq) (4) 2 HgO(s) 2 Hg( ) + O 2. A(g) + B(g) AB(g) 2 SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 SO 3 (g)

(3) AgCl(s) Ag + (aq) + Cl (aq) (4) 2 HgO(s) 2 Hg( ) + O 2. A(g) + B(g) AB(g) 2 SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 SO 3 (g) 1. Given the reaction at equilibrium: H 2 + Cl 2 2 HCl As the pressure s at constant temperature, the number of moles of HCl (1) s (3) remains the same (2) s 2. The Haber process is represented by the

More information

Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I.

Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I. Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I. Element Review THE SEVEN DIATOMIC MOLECULES ( Super Seven ): H 2 F 2 O

More information

Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics.

Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. Ch. 4 NOTES ~ Formation of Compounds NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I. Element Review THE SEVEN DIATOMIC MOLECULES ( Super Seven ): H 2 F 2 O

More information

Form A. CORRECT: As gases mix, the disorder or number of microstates with the same energy increases. As a result, entropy increases as well.

Form A. CORRECT: As gases mix, the disorder or number of microstates with the same energy increases. As a result, entropy increases as well. Chem 130 Name Exam 3, Ch 7, 19, and a little 14 November 11, 2011 100 Points Please follow the instructions for each section of the exam. Show your work on all mathematical problems. Provide answers with

More information

Periodic Table Of The Elements

Periodic Table Of The Elements H Hydrogen NOTE: The classification of some elements, especially METALLOIDS and OTHER METALS, is often artbitrary because these elements have characteristics of both 8 9 0 Li Be metals and nonmetals. As

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chem2A_Ch3_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The smallest amount of an element that retains that elementʹs characteristics is

More information

Mr. Bracken. Multiple Choice Review: Thermochemistry

Mr. Bracken. Multiple Choice Review: Thermochemistry Mr. Bracken AP Chemistry Name Period Multiple Choice Review: Thermochemistry 1. If this has a negative value for a process, then the process occurs spontaneously. 2. This is a measure of how the disorder

More information

CHEM 107 (Spring-2005) Final Exam (100 pts)

CHEM 107 (Spring-2005) Final Exam (100 pts) CHEM 107 (Spring-2005) Final Exam (100 pts) Name: ------------------------------------------------------------------------, Clid # ------------------------------ LAST NAME, First (Circle the alphabet segment

More information

Unit 19 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Unit 19 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Unit 19 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The first law of thermodynamics can be given as. A) E = q + w B) =

More information

Thermodynamics Review

Thermodynamics Review Thermodynamics Review 1. According to Reference Table I, the dissolving of NH 4Cl(s) in water is 1) exothermic and the heat of reaction is negative 2) exothermic and the heat of reaction is positive 3)

More information

4. Using the data from Handout 5, what is the standard enthalpy of formation of BaO (s)? What does this mean?

4. Using the data from Handout 5, what is the standard enthalpy of formation of BaO (s)? What does this mean? HOMEWORK 3A 1. In each of the following pairs, tell which has the higher entropy. (a) One mole of liquid water or one mole of water vapor (b) One mole of dry ice or one mole of carbon dioxide at 1 atm

More information

Page Which element is a noble gas? (1) krypton (3) antimony (2) chlorine (4) manganese

Page Which element is a noble gas? (1) krypton (3) antimony (2) chlorine (4) manganese 1. Which characteristics describe most nonmetals in the solid phase? (1) They are malleable and have metallic luster. (2) They are malleable and lack metallic luster. (3) They are brittle and have metallic

More information

Role of Hydrogen Bonding on Protein Secondary Structure Introduction

Role of Hydrogen Bonding on Protein Secondary Structure Introduction Role of Hydrogen Bonding on Protein Secondary Structure Introduction The function and chemical properties of proteins are determined by its three-dimensional structure. The final architecture of the protein

More information

1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products?

1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? 1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? 1 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + _3 C(s) 2 Fe(s) + _3 CO(g) a) 5 b) 6 c) 7 d) 8 e) 9 2. Which of the following equations

More information

Standard Free Energies of Formation at 298 K. Average Bond Dissociation Energies at 298 K

Standard Free Energies of Formation at 298 K. Average Bond Dissociation Energies at 298 K 1 Thermodynamics There always seems to be at least one free response question that involves thermodynamics. These types of question also show up in the multiple choice questions. G, S, and H. Know what

More information

CHEM-100-chapter-2 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

CHEM-100-chapter-2 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHEM-100-chapter-2 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1.Which metric prefix means 1 10-6? a. milli b. kilo c. pico d. micro e. nano 2.Which metric

More information

Reading. Spontaneity. Monday, January 30 CHEM 102H T. Hughbanks

Reading. Spontaneity. Monday, January 30 CHEM 102H T. Hughbanks Thermo Notes #3 Entropy and 2nd Law of Thermodynamics Monday, January 30 CHEM 102H T. Hughbanks Reading You should reading Chapter 7. Some of this material is quite challenging, be sure to read this material

More information

Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson

Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson Thermochemistry r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc Ron Robertson I. What is Energy? A. Energy is a property of matter that allows work to be done B. Potential and Kinetic Potential energy

More information

Chapter Six. Energy Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Chapter Six. Energy Relationships in Chemical Reactions Chapter Six Energy Relationships in Chemical Reactions 1 Energy (U): Capacity to Do Work Radiant energy Energy from the sun Nuclear energy Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom Thermal energy Energy

More information

Test 7: Periodic Table Review Questions

Test 7: Periodic Table Review Questions Name: Wednesday, January 16, 2008 Test 7: Periodic Table Review Questions 1. Which halogen is a solid at STP? 1. fluorine 3. bromine 2. chlorine 4. iodine 2. Element M is a metal and its chloride has the

More information

Standard Operating Procedure for XRF (Ex-Calibur)

Standard Operating Procedure for XRF (Ex-Calibur) Standard Operating Procedure for XRF (Ex-Calibur) 1. Prepare the sample holder(s) for your measurement by installing a new Mylar film onto the plastic cups. Instrument can measure up to 8 samples per cycle

More information