Intro to Learning and History

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Intro to Learning and History"

Transcription

1 Psyc 104: Learning Chs 1 & 2 Intro and Methods Intro to Learning and History Chapter 1 1

2 Behavior and Learning What is behavior? Behavior is any activity of an organism that can be directly or indirectly observed Example: Observing a child randomly pushing the buttons on a stereo Behavior and Learning What is learning? A relatively permanent change in behavior (or potential behavior) that results from some kind of experience or practice. Example: Pushing volume button more when notice the change in loudness that occurs. 2

3 Behavior and Learning cont. Why Potenti al Behavi or? behavior changes are not always immediate (can be exhibited at a later time). Example: the child now will begin pushing buttons on many different objects that she encounters in the future. Every time you learn something new, you have the potential to behave differently! Behavior and Learning cont. What causes these types of behavioral changes? Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning Inherited patterns of behavior e.g. fixed action patterns 3

4 Historical Background Aristotle: Empiricism and Laws of Assoc. Descartes: Mind-body Dualism and the Reflex The British Empiricists Structuralism Functionalism PROBLEM: use of inferences in studying the mind (not reliable results) Behaviorism John Watson di sli ked previ ous approaches Introspection an unreliable research method Can t study the mind scientifically Wanted Psychology to be a true sci ence Direct observation of behavior NOT inference environmental influences on observable behavior Law of Parsi mony the simpler the explanation, the better! Learni ng is m ore i mportant than genetics 4

5 5 Schools of Behaviorism Watson s Methodological Behaviorism Hull s Neobehaviorism Tolman s Cognitive Behaviorism Bandura s Social Learning Theory Skinner s Radical Behaviorism 5 Schools of Behaviorism Watson s Methodological Behaviorism Hull s Neobehaviorism Tolman s Cognitive Behaviorism Bandura s Social Learning Theory Skinner s Radical Behaviorism 5

6 Watson s Methodological Behaviorism Most extreme form Study only directly observable behaviors (can t study thinking ) Psychology s mentalism must be stopped for the discipline to survive Methodological Behaviorism: Role of Internal Processes Internal processes consist of: Conscious processes Thoughts Feelings Unconscious processes Drives Motives Internal processes exist, BUT: don t cause behavior are not suitable subjects f or study 6

7 Other Characteristics of Methodological Behaviorism Called S-R Theory Learning: the result of associations between a Stimulus(S) and a Response (R) Example: Lights turn off in classroom(s)-->talking stops(r) Mechanistic view (robotic) Extreme position on the nature vs. nurture issue Only a f ew ref lexes & basic emotions were inherited 5 Schools of Behaviorism Watson s Methodological Behaviorism Hull s Neobehaviorism Tolman s Cognitive Behaviorism Bandura s Social Learning Theory Skinner s Radical Behaviorism 7

8 Hull s Neobehaviorism Disagreed with Watson: Rejected Watson s view that unobservable events (internal processes) couldn t be studied Thought internal processes could be studied once they were operationalized (measurable) Example: thirst defined as number of minutes since last drink Believed some of these processes could mediate between the environment and behavior Called these mediating processes intervening variables Processes were physiological (e.g. hunger and the sex drive) Hull s agreement with Watson Shared the view that Psychology s mentalistic emphasis must go! Only used internal variables that could be measured Example: tired measured as # hours since sleep Also took a pure S-R approach to learning Theory was also mechanistic 8

9 5 Schools of Behaviorism Watson s Methodological Behaviorism Hull s Neobehaviorism Tolman s Cognitive Behaviorism Bandura s Social Learning Theory Skinner s Radical Behaviorism Tolman s Cognitive Behaviorism Disagreed with Watson and Hull: Analyzed behavior more holistically NOT just as a series of S-R connections Viewed behavior to be goal directed Influenced by Gestalt psychologists Whole greater than the sum of its parts Believed that internal cognitive processes like expectations and hypotheses guided behavior instead of just physiological processes (like Hull s view) 9

10 Tolman s Cognitive Behaviorism Example: Navigating through the environment Hull Says: learn sequence of right and left turns to get to the goal. Tolman says: learns the signs that indicate how to get to the goal Build up a cognitive map of the environment that is used to navigate Intervening Variables in Tolman s Approach Cognitive Map - mental representation of surroundings 3 groups of rats Given reward (R) Given no reward (NR) Given no reward and then after 10 days began giving a reward (NR-R) 10

11 Concepts in Tolman s Approach Latent Learning NR-R group had learned about the maze but it only showed when given a reward (had Cognitive Map) Distinction between learning and performance Place learning vs response learning Place learning: Rats always found reward in same place Response learning: Rats always found reward if turned right Results: Place learning rats learned much faster (some response rats never learned). 11

12 Concepts in Tolman s Approach Blocked Paths Rats cxplore a maze Then food provided Take Path 1 (shortest) If blocked at A, then take Path 2 (next shortest) If blocked at B, then take Path 3 not path 2 (even though longer) Ways that Tolman Agrees with Watson & Hull Thought it was necessary but shameful to have to incorporate internal processes to explain behavior Believed it was only okay to include internal processes because they were inferred from directly observable behavior 12

13 5 Schools of Behaviorism Watson s Methodological Behaviorism Hull s Neobehaviorism Tolman s Cognitive Behaviorism Bandura s Social Learning Theory Skinner s Radical Behaviorism Bandura s Social Learning Theory Most different from Watson s view Interested in the influences of imitation and observation on learning. Emphasized internal events (e.g. expectations) in learning. E.g. If I also clean up my room I ll expect to get reinforcement. 13

14 Bandura s Social Learning Theory continued Believed in reciprocal determinism Environmental Events (Ss), Observable Behavior (Rs) and Internal Person Variables (thoughts and feelings) ALL influence each other For example: Having aggressive thoughts can result in aggressive behavior. The aggressive behavior in turn effects the environment by causing others to have aggre ssive thoughts and actions Their actions then affect your environment and change your thoughts. Inf luences of Bandura s Theory Helped stimulate the development of Cognitive Theory by building on Tolman s approach Laid the groundwork for the popularity of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment - Example: (depression) change areas in env. that cause extra stress and works to omit pessimistic thoughts Led to research on the influence of television (and other aspects of pop culture) on behavior 14

15 5 Schools of Behaviorism Watson s Methodological Behaviorism Hull s Neobehaviorism Tolman s Cognitive Behaviorism Bandura s Social Learning Theory Skinner s Radical Behaviorism Skinner s Radical Behaviorism Another strict form of behaviorism Emphasized influence of environmental consequences on overt & covert behavior & rejects internal events as explanations for behavior. overt behavior : covert behavior : 15

16 Ways Skinner Agreed with Watson Disliked the increasing interest in internal processes Emphasized the influence of the environment on overt behavior Rejected the use of internal processes (or covert behaviors) to explain overt behavior e.g. can t use fea r to explain running away Believed thoughts and feelings were themselves behaviors that needed to be explained by environmental events e.g. use being bitten by a dog to explain fear of dogs Characteristics of Skinner s View Emphasized environmental consequences on causes of behavior e.g. baby stands up for the first time --> praised Baby will try to stand up again in the future (caused by praise) Not as mechanistic as Watson and Hull (we re not helplessly controlled by environment) Countercontrol once we know how the environment influences our behavior, humans have the capacity to change the environment to have a more beneficial effect 16

17 Research Methods: For Outside of Class Understand basic definitions in boldface in text so when we refer to them they are familiar. For Example: stimulus & response Overt & covert Appetitive and aversive Deprivation and satiation Contiguity and contingency Types of Recording Methods Basic Research Designs 17

Chapter 11: Behaviorism: After the Founding Dr. Rick Grieve PSY 495 History and Systems Western Kentucky University Neobehaviorism

Chapter 11: Behaviorism: After the Founding Dr. Rick Grieve PSY 495 History and Systems Western Kentucky University Neobehaviorism Chapter 11: Behaviorism: After the Founding Dr. Rick Grieve PSY 495 History and Systems Western Kentucky University Neobehaviorism Operationism Operationism: the doctrine that a physical concept can be

More information

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 10: Operant & Cognitive Approaches. Module 10. Operant & Cognitive Approaches

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 10: Operant & Cognitive Approaches. Module 10. Operant & Cognitive Approaches Module 10 Operant & Cognitive Approaches OPERANT CONDITIONING Thorndike s law of effect states that behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative consequences

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience Classical Conditioning Type of learning where a stimulus gains the power to cause a response The stimulus

More information

Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning

Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning Chapter Summary Definitions Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. A stimulus is anything that comes in through your senses.

More information

Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Development:

Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Development: To help learners link observations to Child Development theories: Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Development: Age Stage Behaviours Role of Adult Birth-18 months Sensorimotor Learn through reflexes Learn

More information

Welcome to Psychology, The First Assessment

Welcome to Psychology, The First Assessment Your first assessment task begins here!! Below you will find some reading about an approach in psychology called behaviourism. This is not the only type of psychology that we will consider but it was one

More information

Schools of Psychology

Schools of Psychology Structuralism (1875-1930 s) Schools of Psychology Psychology 390 Psychology Steven E. Meier, Ph.D. Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides Wundt Considered the first psychologist Titchener

More information

Chapter 1: What is Psychology?

Chapter 1: What is Psychology? PSY 110 General Psychology Chapter 1: What is Psychology? PSY 110: General Psychology Outline Defining Psychology Historical Foundations of Psychology Contemporary Approaches to Psychology Specializations

More information

psychology the science of psychology CHAPTER third edition Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White

psychology the science of psychology CHAPTER third edition Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White psychology third edition CHAPTER 1 the science of psychology Learning Objectives LO 1.1 Definition and Goals of Psychology LO 1.2 Structuralism and Functionalism LO 1.3 Early Gestalt, Psychoanalysis, and

More information

A View on Behaviorist Learning Theory. view of behaviorism assumes that all behavior is determined via the environment or how one has

A View on Behaviorist Learning Theory. view of behaviorism assumes that all behavior is determined via the environment or how one has A View on Behaviorist Learning Theory Introduction Behaviorism is a learning theory that emphasizes observable behavior. The most radical view of behaviorism assumes that all behavior is determined via

More information

The History of Cognitive Psychology. The History of Cognitive Psychology

The History of Cognitive Psychology. The History of Cognitive Psychology The History of Cognitive Psychology Connectionism Philosophy Cognitive Neuroscience Physiology Computer Metaphor Birth of Psychology Human-Factors & Info/Com.Sci. Behaviorism Piaget & Chomsky Gestalt Psychology

More information

Operant Conditioning

Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning! Definition! Classical vs. Operant Conditioning! Four Basic Operant Procedures! Factors that make Operant procedures more effective! Primary and Secondary Reinforcers! Shaping Conditioning!

More information

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Association *We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years

More information

Behaviorism: Laws of the Observable

Behaviorism: Laws of the Observable Behaviorism: Laws of the Observable The Backdrop to Watson: Functionalism at the Univ. of Chicago John Dewey, like James, was influenced by both Peirce and Darwin Moved to the University of Chicago in

More information

Psych 305A: Lecture 14. The Cognitive Approach Part I Learning and Behaviorism

Psych 305A: Lecture 14. The Cognitive Approach Part I Learning and Behaviorism Psych 305A: Lecture 14 The Cognitive Approach Part I Learning and Behaviorism 1 The Cognitive Approach to Personality 2 History Behaviorism Classical conditioning (Watson) Operant conditioning (Skinner)

More information

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs through experience. It is a continuous process. It is a gradual process.

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs through experience. It is a continuous process. It is a gradual process. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs through experience. It is a continuous process. It is a gradual process. Process of Learning A stimulus could be an event, situation,

More information

Behavioral Principles. S-R Learning. Pavlov & Classical Conditioning 12/2/2009

Behavioral Principles. S-R Learning. Pavlov & Classical Conditioning 12/2/2009 Behavioral Principles S-R Learning Classical conditioning The most basic form of learning; one stimulus comes to serve as a signal for the occurrence of a second stimulus (the response) Stimulus a physical

More information

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 9: Classical Conditioning. Module 9. Classical Conditioning

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 9: Classical Conditioning. Module 9. Classical Conditioning Module 9 Classical Conditioning THREE KINDS OF LEARNING 1. Classical conditioning a kind of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response that was originally produced

More information

UNIT 6: LEARNING A. SIMPLE FORMS OF LEARNING

UNIT 6: LEARNING A. SIMPLE FORMS OF LEARNING UNIT 6: LEARNING Learning: Stressing the lasting change/permanent Behaviorist Psychologists vs. Cognitive Psychologists Behavioral: Learning only occurs with behavior since they can observe behavior. Cognitive:

More information

David G. Myers. Exploring Psychology Seventh Edition

David G. Myers. Exploring Psychology Seventh Edition David G. Myers Exploring Psychology Seventh Edition Psychology s Roots Prescientific Psychology Is the mind connected to the body or distinct? Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience?

More information

Edward C. Tolman. Edward C. Tolman. Edward C. Tolman. Chapter 12

Edward C. Tolman. Edward C. Tolman. Edward C. Tolman. Chapter 12 Edward C. Tolman (1886-1959) Chapter 12 1 Edward C. Tolman 1. Born (1886) in West Newton, Massachusetts. 2. B.S from MIT. PhD from Harvard. 3. Studied under Koffka. 4. 1915-1918 taught at Northwestern

More information

PSYC 307 Developmental Psychology

PSYC 307 Developmental Psychology PSYC 307 Developmental Psychology Heather Bortfeld PSYC 255 Tuesday/Thursday 12-1 hbortfeld@psych.tamu.edu http://www.tamu.edu/classes/psyc/bortfeld/ Teaching Assistant: Eswen Fava PSYC 413 eswen@mac.com

More information

Instrumental Conditioning I: Control learning

Instrumental Conditioning I: Control learning Instrumental Conditioning I: Control learning PSY/NEU338: Animal learning and decision making: Psychological, computational and neural perspectives a simple decision making task prediction helps decisions

More information

Discriminative stimulus cue to specific response for reinforcement

Discriminative stimulus cue to specific response for reinforcement Links to Objectives DEFINITION OF LEARNING LO 5.1 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING LO 5.2 Study of and important elements LO 5.3 Conditioned emotional response OPERANT CONDITIONING (Part 1) LO 5.4, Skinner and Thorndike

More information

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Chapter 7 Learning Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Association We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence

More information

Heilmaniac s Advanced Placement Psychology Unit 1 Introduction Practice Test #3

Heilmaniac s Advanced Placement Psychology Unit 1 Introduction Practice Test #3 Heilmaniac s Advanced Placement Psychology Unit 1 Introduction Practice Test #3 1. The term Psychology is often represented by the Greek letter. A. chi B. sigma C. alpha D. psi 2. A popular rock group

More information

Definition Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience.

Definition Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience. EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition) David Myers Chapter 7 How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Operant Conditioning Skinner s Experiments Contrasting Classical & Operant Conditioning

More information

STRUCTURALISM: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener

STRUCTURALISM: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener STRUCTURALISM: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920): Established first first Psychology Lab Lab in in Germany. Defined psychology as as the the science

More information

Introduction to History & Research Methods of Psychology

Introduction to History & Research Methods of Psychology Term Explanation Application/Example/Extension Psychology is the scientific study of mental processes and behavior Influences on Psychology Psychology started as only the study of mental processes, but

More information

What is Psychology? A set of questions about mental functioning trace back to philosophy Aristotle asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc.

What is Psychology? A set of questions about mental functioning trace back to philosophy Aristotle asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc. What is? The science of behavior and the mind behavior - observable actions of a person or animal mind - thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives and other subjective experiences

More information

AP Psychology 2008-2009 Academic Year

AP Psychology 2008-2009 Academic Year AP Psychology 2008-2009 Academic Year Course Description: The College Board Advanced Placement Program describes Advanced Placement Psychology as a course that is designed to introduce students to the

More information

Chapter 6. Chapter 6 Preview. What is Learning? Learning defined

Chapter 6. Chapter 6 Preview. What is Learning? Learning defined Learning defined Chapter 6 Learning and Behavior Analysis Chapter 6 Preview The Study of Learning Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals Operant Conditioning: Learning About Consequences

More information

Learning Notes. I think this is a fun lesson! Anyone with pets or children has seen how these principles are applied to behavior.

Learning Notes. I think this is a fun lesson! Anyone with pets or children has seen how these principles are applied to behavior. Learning Notes I think this is a fun lesson! Anyone with pets or children has seen how these principles are applied to behavior. Learning is more than taking classes! It changes your behavior and how you

More information

Chapter 1 The Nature of Psychology

Chapter 1 The Nature of Psychology 1-1 Chapter 1 The Nature of Psychology Chapter Outline The Historical Context of Psychology The Roots of Psychology The Founding Schools of Psychology The Growth of Psychology Contemporary Perspectives

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7 1 Chapter in Review 1. Learning is difficult to define, but most psychologists would agree that: In learning the organism acquires some new knowledge or behavior as a result of experience; learning can

More information

SOUTH EASTERN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE (A Constituent College of the University Of Nairobi)

SOUTH EASTERN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE (A Constituent College of the University Of Nairobi) SOUTH EASTERN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE (A Constituent College of the University Of Nairobi) UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS 2012/2013 FIRST YEAR FIRST SEMESTER EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (ARTS)

More information

History/Approaches. 1. A cognitive psychologist would likely be most interested in

History/Approaches. 1. A cognitive psychologist would likely be most interested in History/Approaches 1. A cognitive psychologist would likely be most interested in (A). concentration of neutral transmitters in the spinal cord (B). unconditional positive regard in the therapeutic setting

More information

BEYOND PAVLOV, THORNDIKE, AND SKINNER: OTHER EARLY BEHAVIORIST THEORIES

BEYOND PAVLOV, THORNDIKE, AND SKINNER: OTHER EARLY BEHAVIORIST THEORIES Supplementary reading in the Companion Website accompanying HUMAN LEARNING 5/E by J. E. Ormrod, 2008, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights

More information

CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE OF BSc. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE OF BSc. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE OF BSc. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Learning may be defined as a change in behavior that occurs

More information

Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning

Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning Understanding Learning The ABC s of Behavior Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Classroom Behavioral Interventions Problems & Issues Applied Behavior

More information

Behaviorism Theory. And Its Relation to Instructional Design. Bryan Danley Nakita James Cameron Mims Andrew Simms

Behaviorism Theory. And Its Relation to Instructional Design. Bryan Danley Nakita James Cameron Mims Andrew Simms Behaviorism Theory And Its Relation to Instructional Design Bryan Danley Nakita James Cameron Mims Andrew Simms 2 Overview History of Behaviorism Behaviorism Theorists Timeline of Development Definition

More information

Section One: Classical Conditioning

Section One: Classical Conditioning Operational Definitions Learning Learning Page 1 of 8 o A relatively change in behavior (or behavior potential) due to Behaviorism experience o Research on learning has been influenced by this approach

More information

Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP 1

Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP 1 EDS 245: Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP California State University, Sacramento Behavioral Interventions Behavioral Consultation and Intervention: A Credentialing Standard Standards for Graduate Preparation

More information

Unit 1: Psychology s History and Approaches. Unit Overview. What is Psychology? What is Psychology? Contemporary Psychology

Unit 1: Psychology s History and Approaches. Unit Overview. What is Psychology? What is Psychology? Contemporary Psychology Unit 1: Psychology s History and Approaches Unit Overview What is Psychology? Contemporary Psychology Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation. What is Psychology?

More information

Psychology AP. Summer Assignment. Ms. Van Duyne. 1. Please read the attached first chapter of the textbook Prologue: the Story of Psychology.

Psychology AP. Summer Assignment. Ms. Van Duyne. 1. Please read the attached first chapter of the textbook Prologue: the Story of Psychology. Psychology AP Summer Assignment Ms. Van Duyne 1. Please read the attached first chapter of the textbook Prologue: the Story of Psychology. 2. Please complete the two multiple choice quizzes. You may use

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7 1 Chapter Test 1. Knowing how to do something, like drive a car or play a sport, is referred to as a. explicit knowledge b. behavioral knowledge c. procedural knowledge d. implicit knowledge 2. All of

More information

Visualizing Psychology

Visualizing Psychology Visualizing Psychology by Siri Carpenter & Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 6: Learning Siri Carpenter, Yale University Karen Huffman, Palomar College Lecture Overview Classical

More information

A. Learning Process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior.

A. Learning Process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior. Woolfolk, A. (2010). Chapter 6: Behavioral Views of Learning. In A. Woolfook (Ed.), Educational psychology (11th ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. This chapter begins by defining learning and

More information

Operant Conditioning and Cognitive Learning

Operant Conditioning and Cognitive Learning CHAPTER 9 Operant Conditioning and Cognitive Learning 151. What is one major difference between operant conditioning and classical conditioning? (A) Operant conditioning takes place as a result of some

More information

Big Questions of Developmental Psychology

Big Questions of Developmental Psychology Big Questions of Developmental Psychology How did developmental psychologists understand something as incredibly complicated as children and our development? We 'break' the child into parts by studying

More information

BASICS OF PSYCHOLOGY. A Brief History of Psychology. B. The Emergence of Psychology. A. Before Psychology

BASICS OF PSYCHOLOGY. A Brief History of Psychology. B. The Emergence of Psychology. A. Before Psychology BASICS OF PSYCHOLOGY A brief history of psychology A. before psychology B. the emergence of psychology C. early schools of psychology Theoretical approaches (Disciplines/Schools) Behaviourist Psychodynamic

More information

Chapter 1 WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?

Chapter 1 WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? Chapter 1 WHAT IS? Science of human behavior and mental processes Section 1: Why Study Psychology? Section 2: What Psychologists Do Section 3: A History of Psychology Section 4: Contemporary Perspectives

More information

A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING

A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING Chapter 10 Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning: The Story of Dogs and Little Albert A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING As you read below you may come to think that behavioral learning theories seem

More information

Learning Theories 4- Behaviorism

Learning Theories 4- Behaviorism LEARNING THEORIES - BEHAVIORISM CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER Learning Theories 4- Behaviorism LEARNING OUTCOMES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain the principles of classical conditioning,

More information

In what ways did Erikson disagree with his mentor, Freud? Why do children often copy their parents habits and prejudices?

In what ways did Erikson disagree with his mentor, Freud? Why do children often copy their parents habits and prejudices? WHAT WILL YOU KNOW? How does a theory differ from a fact? In what ways did Erikson disagree with his mentor, Freud? Why do children often copy their parents habits and prejudices? Do people sometimes act

More information

A Behavioral Perspective of Childhood Trauma and Attachment Issues: Toward Alternative Treatment Approaches for Children with a History of Abuse

A Behavioral Perspective of Childhood Trauma and Attachment Issues: Toward Alternative Treatment Approaches for Children with a History of Abuse A Behavioral Perspective of Childhood Trauma and Attachment Issues: Toward Alternative Treatment Approaches for Children with a History of Abuse By: Walter Prather and Jeannie A. Golden ABSTRACT This article

More information

Theories of Adolescence. From Freud to Bronfenbrenner

Theories of Adolescence. From Freud to Bronfenbrenner + Theories of Adolescence From Freud to Bronfenbrenner + Brief Review of Last Time n Defining Adolescence n Age n Biological Development n Social Roles n Historical Forces n Psychological Characteristics

More information

Evolutionary Perspective: Wrap Up

Evolutionary Perspective: Wrap Up Psych 305A: Lecture 18 Evolutionary Approach Wrap Up The Cognitive Approach Part I Learning and Behaviorism 1 Evolutionary Perspective: Wrap Up 2 1 Importance of Good Financial Prospect When Selecting

More information

Behavioural Therapy A GUIDE TO COUNSELLING THERAPIES (DVD) Published by: J & S Garrett Pty Ltd ACN 068 751 440

Behavioural Therapy A GUIDE TO COUNSELLING THERAPIES (DVD) Published by: J & S Garrett Pty Ltd ACN 068 751 440 Behavioural Therapy A GUIDE TO COUNSELLING THERAPIES (DVD) Published by: J & S Garrett Pty Ltd ACN 068 751 440 All Case Histories in this text are presented as examples only and any comparison which might

More information

What is this thing we call psychology? Science of the mind; Science of behavior. Biological mechanisms and psychological phenomena

What is this thing we call psychology? Science of the mind; Science of behavior. Biological mechanisms and psychological phenomena Psychology Introduction What is psychology? The range and major schools Disciplines Conclusion YRG @ Department of Epileptology University of Bonn Medical Centre, Germany * christian.hoppe@ukb.uni-bonn.de

More information

Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date

Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Thorndike was known for his

More information

LEARNING MEYERS AND DEWALL CHAPTER 6

LEARNING MEYERS AND DEWALL CHAPTER 6 LEARNING MEYERS AND DEWALL CHAPTER 6 LEARNING OVERVIEW HOW DO WE LEARN? CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OPERANT CONDITIONING BIOLOGY, COGNITION, AND LEARNING LEARNING BY OBSERVATION LEARNING Learning the process

More information

Chapter 5 CC (Classical Conditioning) Practice "Quiz" Name Period Date

Chapter 5 CC (Classical Conditioning) Practice Quiz Name Period Date Chapter 5 CC (Classical Conditioning) Practice "Quiz" Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Conditioned taste aversions

More information

Major Psychological Perspectives

Major Psychological Perspectives Major Psychological s Major theorists and their theories Laws, Principles, Concepts Methods, & Techniques Strengths, Criticisms and Weaknesses Psychodynamic 1900 1920s Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 Theory of

More information

Operant Conditioning. PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers. Module 22

Operant Conditioning. PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers. Module 22 PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, 2007 1 Operant Conditioning Module 22 2 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning

More information

Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and. Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst

Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and. Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior 2e Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst Methods Domain Introductory Chapter Module 02 History and Perspectives Module 2: History and Perspectives

More information

Behaviorism & Education

Behaviorism & Education Behaviorism & Education Early Psychology (the use of nonobjective methods such as Introspection) Learning = behavior change movement toward objective methods Behaviorism Pavlov, Skinner (Focus on Sà R)

More information

CHAPTER TEN. SKINNER AND STAATS: The Challenge of Behaviorism 10/14/08. Personality Psychology. Chapter Overview. Chapter Overview

CHAPTER TEN. SKINNER AND STAATS: The Challenge of Behaviorism 10/14/08. Personality Psychology. Chapter Overview. Chapter Overview Personality Psychology Psychology 370 Sheila K. Grant, Ph.D. Professor California State University, Northridge CHAPTER TEN SKINNER AND STAATS: The Challenge of Behaviorism Chapter Overview RADICAL BEHAVIORISM:

More information

What is Psychology? Goal of Experimental Psychologists. Danger of calling yourself a Psychologist. Danger of calling yourself a Psychologist

What is Psychology? Goal of Experimental Psychologists. Danger of calling yourself a Psychologist. Danger of calling yourself a Psychologist Danger of calling yourself a Psychologist Danger of calling yourself a Psychologist Scientific Psychology bears little resemblance to pop psychology, fortune telling, phrenology, or astrology Subjective,

More information

syllabus: honors history and systems of psychology (psy 4604)

syllabus: honors history and systems of psychology (psy 4604) syllabus: honors history and systems of psychology (psy 4604) Dr. Kevin Lanning Fall 2011 overview Psychology 4604 is a seminar on the history of psychology. Its objectives are both (a) to provide a historical

More information

During this unit, we will be looking at the following topics:

During this unit, we will be looking at the following topics: Unit 5: Learning and Conditioning For many species, including of course human beings, the ability to survive depends upon our ability to modify our behavior based upon experience. In other words, our survival

More information

Learning: Classical Conditioning

Learning: Classical Conditioning Learning: Classical Conditioning Outline Learning Overview Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov & his dogs Watson Terminology Applications Transitioning from classical conditioning to operant conditioning

More information

Chapter Outline. Learning. Ch. 6 Learning and Behavior General Psychology Jeffrey D. Leitzel, Ph.D.

Chapter Outline. Learning. Ch. 6 Learning and Behavior General Psychology Jeffrey D. Leitzel, Ph.D. Ch. 6 Learning and Behavior General Psychology Jeffrey D. Leitzel, Ph.D. Chapter Outline Types of Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning 2 Learning Learning: Relatively

More information

Test Review Chapter 7

Test Review Chapter 7 Name: Test Review Chapter 7 Period: 1. An unconditioned stimulus: A) becomes a response to the conditioned stimulus. B) causes the conditioning to happen. C) is a previously neutral response that becomes

More information

Child Development A CHILD S WORLD TODAY. The Critical Period

Child Development A CHILD S WORLD TODAY. The Critical Period Child Development A CHILD S WORLD TODAY A child s world has changed dramatically in the past three or four decades. The typical child of 40 years ago stayed at home with his or her mother from birth to

More information

7/17/2014. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapy Overview. Applied Behavior Analysis Therapy. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

7/17/2014. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapy Overview. Applied Behavior Analysis Therapy. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Applied Behavior Analysis Therapy Continuum Autism Spectrum Alliance Presented: Tram Chum Newcomb B.A. ABA Program Coordinator and Junior Consultant www.autismspectrumalliance.com Applied Behavior Analysis

More information

Reductionism Holism. Objective Subjective

Reductionism Holism. Objective Subjective Nature Nurture Individual Situational Reductionism Holism Determinism Free Will Objective Subjective Ideographic Nomothetic A spectrum of two concepts. A disagreement about a range of issues. The different

More information

Chapter 10 Personality Name Period Date. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 10 Personality Name Period Date. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 10 Personality Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The BEST kind of personality test is one that is. A) both

More information

Social learning theory, learned helplessness and its applications

Social learning theory, learned helplessness and its applications Social learning theory, learned helplessness and its applications Seligman on learned helplessness (partly based on Gross) Seligman (1974, 1975) made an experiment with dogs strapped into a harness and

More information

What is learning? On the nature and merits of a functional definition of learning

What is learning? On the nature and merits of a functional definition of learning DOI 10.3758/s13423-013-0386-3 THEORETICAL REVIEW What is learning? On the nature and merits of a functional definition of learning Jan De Houwer & Dermot Barnes-Holmes & Agnes Moors # Psychonomic Society,

More information

Chapter 9 Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences. Toward a Science of Behavior. apter 9 Behaviorism: Antecedent

Chapter 9 Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences. Toward a Science of Behavior. apter 9 Behaviorism: Antecedent Chapter 9 Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences Dr. Rick Grieve PSY 495 Western Kentucky University 1 Toward a Science of Behavior Background Functionalism was more evolutionary than revolutionary Behaviorism

More information

Behavior Analysis: A Science of Behavior. Created by: Division 25, J. Miller, D. Reed, B. Kaplan, & J. Hirst

Behavior Analysis: A Science of Behavior. Created by: Division 25, J. Miller, D. Reed, B. Kaplan, & J. Hirst Behavior Analysis: A Science of Behavior Created by: Division 25, J. Miller, D. Reed, B. Kaplan, & J. Hirst For more information, visit: Division 25 @ http://www.auburn.edu/~newlamc/apa_div25/ Behavior

More information

Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? learning Conditioning II. Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli Ivan Pavlov

Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? learning Conditioning II. Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli Ivan Pavlov Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? A. Psychologists define learning as a process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of an individual s experience.

More information

Slide 1: What is Learning? Learning- a relatively durable change in behavior that is due to experience.

Slide 1: What is Learning? Learning- a relatively durable change in behavior that is due to experience. Slide 1: What is? - a relatively durable change in behavior that is due to experience. Common examples- Language Sports Mastery Social Behavior Reading etc Types of to be studied Observational (Bandura)-

More information

Chapter 5: Finishing up Classical Conditioning. Lecture Outline

Chapter 5: Finishing up Classical Conditioning. Lecture Outline Chapter 5: Finishing up Classical Practical Applications of Classical Lecture Outline Underlying processes in Pavlovian conditioning S-R vs. S-S learning Stimulus-substitution vs. Preparatory-response

More information

Psychology Dr. Saman Lecture 2 - Learning

Psychology Dr. Saman Lecture 2 - Learning Psychology Dr. Saman Lecture 2 - Learning Learning refers to relatively permanent changes in behavior resulting from practice or experience Observation can lead to learning Learning requires an operational

More information

Learning CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER OUTLINE

Learning CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER OUTLINE CHAPTER 5 Learning CHAPTER OUTLINE Adaptation is adjustment to changes in the environment. The process of development, from birth to death, involves adapting to increasingly complex, ever-changing environments,

More information

ABA. History of ABA. Interventions 8/24/2011. Late 1800 s and Early 1900 s. Mentalistic Approachs

ABA. History of ABA. Interventions 8/24/2011. Late 1800 s and Early 1900 s. Mentalistic Approachs ABA Is an extension of Experimental Analysis of Behavior to applied settings Is not the same as modification Uses cognition in its approach Focuses on clinically or socially relevant s Is used in many

More information

Sketch. Behaviorism. J. Moore. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Sketch. Behaviorism. J. Moore. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee The Psychological Record, 2011, 61, 449 464 Sketch Behaviorism J. Moore University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology,

More information

Theories for Child Development: What are they and why should you care? Lifespan Developmental Theory

Theories for Child Development: What are they and why should you care? Lifespan Developmental Theory Theories for Child Development: What are they and why should you care? Wednesday, August 24 th, 2005 Covering: Lifespan Developmental Theory, Psychoanalytic Theory, Erikson, Behavioral and Social Learning,

More information

REVISION NOTES. Intermediate 1 & 2 Psychology LEARNING THEORIES. Understanding the Individual

REVISION NOTES. Intermediate 1 & 2 Psychology LEARNING THEORIES. Understanding the Individual Intermediate 1 & 2 Psychology Understanding the Individual LEARNING THEORIES REVISION NOTES 1 www.curriculumpress.co.uk Number 55 Psychology Factsheets s 2 3 4 OPERANT CONDITIONING Trial and Error Learning

More information

Restorative Parenting: A Group Facilitation Curriculum Activities Dave Mathews, Psy.D., LICSW

Restorative Parenting: A Group Facilitation Curriculum Activities Dave Mathews, Psy.D., LICSW Restorative Parenting: A Group Facilitation Curriculum Activities Dave Mathews, Psy.D., LICSW RP Activities 1. Framework of Resourcefulness 2. Identifying the Broken Contract Articles 3. The Process of

More information

9.00 Learning. Professor John Gabrieli

9.00 Learning. Professor John Gabrieli 9.00 Learning Professor John Gabrieli Recent Research on Effective Study Test First, Study Later Testing Yourself on Material More Useful Than Continued Study (ok to have wrong answers) LEARNING how behavior

More information

Choosing to Change Behavior

Choosing to Change Behavior Choosing to Change Behavior Operant Conditioning Module 18 1 Operant Conditioning Unlike Classical Conditioning, behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or weakened if followed by a punisher.

More information

Chapter 15. Historical Perspective. How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory

Chapter 15. Historical Perspective. How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory Chapter 15 How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory Learning 2 stimuli events, things, or people repeatedly experienced together will eventually come to elicit the same

More information

The rise of behaviorism: introduction. The rise of behaviorism: introduction. The rise of behaviorism: its precursors

The rise of behaviorism: introduction. The rise of behaviorism: introduction. The rise of behaviorism: its precursors Lecture plan Introduction Precursors of behaviorism Founding of behaviorism Reaction to Watson s manifesto 1 The history of behaviorism can start with describing the functionalist movement, which came

More information

PSY 100 Foundations of Contemporary Psychology

PSY 100 Foundations of Contemporary Psychology PSY 100 Foundations of Contemporary Psychology The Science of Psychology PSY 100: Foundations of Contemporary Psychology Outline Defining Psychology Historical Foundations of Psychology Contemporary Approaches

More information

Chapter 6 Learning Objectives with SubQuestions

Chapter 6 Learning Objectives with SubQuestions Chapter 6 Learning Objectives with SubQuestions #1) Describe Pavlov's demonstration of classical conditioning and the key elements in this form of learning (pp 170 171) What is classical conditioning?

More information

The Psychology of Personality

The Psychology of Personality LP 13A intro 1 The Psychology of Personality Personality: The characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances

More information

Why do people like extra credit?

Why do people like extra credit? Why do people like extra credit? CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is Operant Conditioning? Ch.6-Learning 1 Classical Conditioning was a good start but B. F. Skinner believed that more behaviors can be explained

More information