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1 Dynamics the study of the causes and changes of motion Force Force Categories ContactField 4 fundamental Force Types 1 Gravity 2 Weak Nuclear Force 3 Electromagnetic 4 Strong Nuclear Force Units DEMO spring scales masses 1

2 Newtons 3 laws of motion 1 st Law DEMOS Concept of Inertia 2

3 Newtons Laws Student Sheet 1 1 An astronaut in outer space away from any gravitational or frictional forces throws a rock. The rock will (a) gradually slow to a stop (b) Continue to move at a constant speed (c) gradually speed up 2 The rocks tendency to behave as described above is called (a) acceleration (b) weight (c) inertia 3. The sketch shown here is a top view of a rock being whirled at the end of a string. Is the string breaks, the path of the rock is a b c d 4. The sketch shown here is a side view of a rock being whirled at the end of a string. Is the string breaks, the path of the rock is a b c d 5. Which person has the greatest inertia? 1.a 110 kg wrestler resting on a mat 2.a 90 kg man walking at 2 m/s 3.a 70 kg long distance runner traveling at 5 m/s 4.a 50 kg girl sprinting at 10 m/s 3

4 2 nd Law Net Force F net F net = 0 Terminal Velocity Revisitied 4

5 Newtons Laws Student Sheet 2 True/False questions explain answer 1 When the net force = 0, no forces are acting on the object 2 A moving object must have forces acting on it 3 When the net force is not zero you must accelerate 4 An object moving at constant velocity has a net force = 0 Which examples shown below are situations where equilibrium could exist 5

6 3 rd Law Identifying reactions Action Reaction Pairs Horse and Cart 6

7 Applications of Third Law 1) Rocket Propulsion 2) Cannon Ball / Gun (recoil) DEMO 3) Earth 4) Free Fall Explained 5) Helicopter 7

8 HW14 8

9 Newtons Laws Student Sheet 2 multiple choice (1 3) A man and his son are on a frictionless pond each holding an end of a taught(tight) rope. The man is twice as massive as the son and the father pulls with a constant force. 1 Which of the following best describes the motion of the boy? (a) constant speed (b) constant velocity (c) constant acceleration (d) at rest 2 What is the force on the boy (a) half the force on the father, directed towards the father (b) equal to the force on the father, directed towards the father (c) Twice the force on the father, directed towards the father (d) Twice the force on the father, directed away from the father 3 What is the acceleration of the boy (a) twice the acceleration of the father, directed towards the father (b) half the acceleration of the father, directed towards the father (c) equal to the acceleration of the father, directed away from the father (d) zero, since the boy moves with a constant speed 5 Two children are playing catch. The ball follows a parabolic trajectory. Which of the following best represents the direction of the force on the ball, the ball s acceleration, and its velocity at the top of its trajectory. 6 A sheet of paper can be withdrawn from under a bottle of cola without toppling it if the paper is jerked quickly. This can be done because of the property of (a) weight (b) inertia (c) acceleration (d) newtons third law of motion 7 An automobile that is pulling a trailer is accelerating on a level highway. The force that the automobile exerts on the trailer is (a) equal to the force the trailer exerts on the automobile (b) equal to the force the road exerts on the trailer (c) greater than the force the trailer exerts on the automobile (d) equal to the force the trailer exerts on the road 9

10 8 When the mass of an object is halved and the net force on it doubled, then the acceleration is (a) ¼ as much (b) ½ as much (c) 2 times as much (d) 4 times as much 9 A bug splatters on the windshield of a moving car. Compared to the magnitude of the force acting on the car, the magnitude of the force acting on the bug is (a) larger (b) smaller (c) equal (d) not able to be determined 10 A ball is thrown into the air at some angle. Neglecting air resistance, the horizontal velocity (a) increases (b) decreases (c) decreases, is zero at the top, then increases (d) remains constant 11 Action and reaction pairs (a) always occur together on the same object (b) must be equal in magnitude (c) cancel each other out (d) all of the above Explain 1 Why does the acceleration of a rocket increase as it rises into the air 2 A golf club hits a golf ball and each object applies and equal amount of force on each other. Why do they accelerate differently 3 An object has multiple forces acting on it and moves at a constant speed. Is it in equilibrium? Explain the conditions that exist in this situation. 4 In terms of velocity, what does is mean for an object to have a decreasing magnitude of acceleration. 10

11 Weight and Mass Earths Gravity Field Used to determine the amount of force (weight) of a given mass 1 kg of mass weighs 5 kg of mass weighs 11

12 Relationship between weight and mass 12

13 Weight or Mass??? 1.) A 100 N box moves across the floor... 2.) A 20 kg ball rolls down a hill... 13

14 Moon Problems 1.) The gravity on the moon is 1/6 of that on earth, determine the weight of a 10 kg rock on the moon N 2.) The gravity on the moon is 1/6 of that on earth. A 36 kg rock is brought from the earth to the moon, what is its mass on the moon 36 kg 14

15 3.) A 10 kg object weighs 160 N on Saturn, what is the acceleration due to gravity on Saturn? 16 m/s 2 15

16 Friction Main Type of Friction 1) Kinetic 2) Static Fluid Rolling DEMO 16

17 ??? Anytime two surfaces touch, is there friction??? 17

18 Static vs. Kinetic Friction \ 18

19 Direction of friction 19

20 The Normal Force Normal Force and Action Reaction 20

21 Free Body Diagrams (FBD s) Drawing force diagrams 21

22 22

23 slides constant 23

24 Newtons Laws Student Sheet 5 1. A crate filled with junk food rests on a horizontal floor. Draw a FBD of the crate. (a) The net force on the crate is (zero) (greater than zero) (b) Evidence for this is 2. A slight pull F is exerted on the crate, not enough to move it. Draw the FBD of the crate. (a) The friction force that exists now is (less than) (equal to) (greater than) F (b) The net force acting on the crate is (zero) (greater than zero) 3. Pull F is increased until the crate begins to move. It is pulled so that it moves with constant velocity across the floor. Draw the FBD of the crate. (a) The friction force is (less than) (equal to) (greater than) F (b) Constant velocity means acceleration is (zero) (greater than zero) (c) The net force on the crate is (less than) (equal to) (greater than) zero 4. Pull F is increased again. (a) The net force on the crate is (less than) (equal to) (greater than) zero. (b) The net force is directed left, and the acceleration is directed (left) (right) 5. If the pulling force F is 150 N and the crate doesn t move, what is the magnitude of the friction force? 6. If the pulling force F is 200 N and the crate doesn t move, what is the magnitude of the friction force? 7. If the force of sliding friction is 250 N, what force is needed to keep the crate moving at constant velocity? 8. If the mass of the crate is 50 kg and sliding friction is 250N, what is the acceleration of the crate when the pulling force is (a) 250 N (b) 300 N (c) 500 N 24

25 WORKBOOK Regents Practice 6 1) The graph shows the relationship between weight and mass for a series of objects. The slope of this graph represents 1) change of position 2) normal force 3) momentum 4) acceleration due to gravity 2) Two concurrent forces have a maximum resultant of 45 newtons and a minimum resultant of 5.0 newtons. What is the magnitude of each of these forces? 1) 0.0 N and 45 N 2) 5.0 N and 9.0 N 3) 20. N and 25 N 4) 0.0 N and 50.N 3) Box M is on a frictionless table with forces F1 and F2 acting as shown below. If the magnitude of F1 is greater than the magnitude of F2, then the box is 1) moving with a constant speed in the direction of F1 2) moving with a constant speed in the direction of F2 3) accelerating in the direction of F1 4) accelerating in the direction of F2 4) What is the gravitational force of attraction between a planet and a 17 kilogram mass that is falling freely toward the surface of the planet at 8.8 meters per second squared? 1) 150 N 2) 8.8 N 3) 1.9 N 4) 0.52 N 25

26 5) A box initially at rest on a level floor is being acted on by a variable horizontal force, as shown in the diagram. Compared to the force required to start the box moving, the force required to keep it moving is 1) less 2) greater 3) the same 6) Compared to the inertia of a 1 kilogram mass, the inertia of a 4 kilogram mass is 1) 1/4 as great 2) 1/16 as great 3) 16 times as great 4) 4 times as great 7) The graph represents the linear motion of a car. During which interval is the net force on the car zero? 1) AB 2) BC 3) CD 4) EF 26

27 8) Four forces are acting on an object as shown in the diagram. If the object is moving with a constant velocity, the magnitude of force F must be 1) 0 N 2) 20 N 3) 100 N 4) 40 N 9) A cart rolls down an inclined place with constant speed as shown in the diagram. Which arrow represents the direction of the frictional force? 1) A 2) B 3) C 4) D 10) As shown in the diagram, an inflated balloon released from rest moves horizontally with velocity v. The velocity of the balloon is most likely caused by 1) action reaction force 2) centripetal force 3) gravitational attraction 4) rolling friction 27

28 11) A tennis ball is hit with a tennis racket. Compared to the force of the racket on the ball, the force of the ball on the racket is 1) smaller 2) larger 3) the same 12) If the sum of all the forces acting on a moving object is zero, the object will 1) slow down and stop 2) change the direction of its motion 3) accelerate uniformly 4) continue moving with constant velocity 13) When a 12 newton horizontal force is applied to a box on a horizontal tabletop, the box remains at rest. The force of static friction acting on the box is 1) 0 N 2) between 0 N and 12 N 3) 12 N 4) greater than 12 N 14) A constant unbalanced force is applied to an object for a period of time. Which graph best represents the acceleration of the object as a function of elapsed time? 15) The additional force necessary to bring the object into a state of equilibrium is (1) 20. N, northeast (3) 28 N, northeast (2) 20. N, southwest (4) 28 N, southwest 16) A 3 newton force and a 4 newton force are acting concurrently on a point. Which force could not produce equilibrium with these two forces? (1) 1 N (3) 9 N (2) 7 N (4) 4 N 28

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