# Subnetting on Exams: Another look at solving the math

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1 Subnetting on Exams: Another look at solving the math A Guide for IT professionals preparing for any timed exams dealing with subnetting such as Cisco's CCNA and CompTIA's Network+. By: Robert H. Williams III CompTIA A+\Net+, Microsoft MCP\MCSA\MCSE (2000), Cisco CCNA Copyright Version

5 Network Section / /1, /2, /4, /8, /16, /32, /65, And now it s on the working on the host side of the chart. Part 2e) Host bits Now that it s time to move onto the host section, we have three easy steps. The first one, writing the host bits, is just putting the 0 s down where the bits used for the hosts are in the net mask. For example, in 128, the mask is , and since all 0 s are for the hosts, you put on the chart Then each line, you remove one, until on 255 you have nothing to write. Like this: If you look, this should match up with the 1 s bits in the network portion. For example, the 224 mask has 111, and That s eight total bits, three for the network, and five for the hosts. The last one, 255, will have no bits, while all the network masks has at least one bit. This is because of the overlap of 0 and 255 masks. If we had done the 0 mask, it would have been above the 128 line, with no bits for the network, and eight 0 s for hosts, or Meaning all bits for this part is dedicated to the host. Part 2f) Number of Hosts Finding the number of hosts is easy, cause you already did the math. The number of hosts is 2^(Host bits)-2. The same thing as the network side, just as the network moves up, hosts move down. So, starting with 255 and moving up, you write the number of hosts per network. The first line is the dual duty 255/0 line, so it s a bit special. You have 0 bits set aside for hosts, meaning you can not have this as a network. so we just put an X there for now. Nest up, the 254 line. We have 1 bit for the hosts. If you look at the 128 line for networks, you see that it also has 1 bit. 2^1-2 = 0, so this mask has 0 hosts. On to the 252 mask, we have two bits for hosts, and if we look at the network side, three bits is 6 networks, and for us, 6 hosts. So, to make this side quickly, you just place an X on the last one, 255, then moving up, you copy the network numbers down. As you move up the hosts column, you move down the network column, until you hit 126 hosts. The next line, 254, you wrap around and place it behind the X, like this: Network Section Host Section / / /1, / /2, / /4, / /8, / /16, / /32, / /65,534 X/254 5

6 So, why do these numbers not line up right? Simple, it s cause we re not showing the 0 mask line, remember. Since the data would be the same as 255, we skip it, but if we did show it, the chart would look like this: Network Section Host Section 0 X/ / / / /1, / /2, / /4, / /8, / /16, / /32, / /65,534 X/254 See the pattern now? The 0 line wouldn t have served any point, so we skipped writing it, to make things go a bit quicker. So, to finish the host section of the chart, just finish copying the numbers till you get to 32,766. Your finished chart should look like this: Network Section Host Section / /32, /1, /16, /2, /8, /4, /4, /8, /2, /16, /1, /32, / /65,534 X/254 And now we move on to the last part... Part 2g) CIDR numbers Ever seen an IP address written as /27? That network has 30 hosts on it per subnet, 6 subnets if you don t count the two special ones. It s subnet mask is Took me about 3 seconds to find that out on the chart. The final part of this chart, the CIDR numbers. These are easy, all you have to do is write a 1 for the first net mask, 128, then a 2 for the next one, 192, down to 8 for 255. Then back to 1, place a /, then go from 9 down to 16. Start back up to the top again, and repeat until you have all 32 numbers done. Now, finally, you finished all the steps, and have finished your chart Network Section Host Section Net Mask / /32,766 1/9/17/ /1, /16,382 2/10/18/ /2, /8,190 3/11/19/ /4, /4,094 4/12/20/ /8, /2,046 5/13/21/ /16, /1,022 6/14/22/ /32, /510 7/15/23/ /65,534 X/254 8/16/24/ Part 2h) Using the chart Using the chart is pretty easy, but since subnetting questions can take so many forms, you need practice. Say your question is, what is the subnet for the /27 network? 6

9 All works on this paper Copyright Robert H. Williams III This paper may not be edited or reposted without permission. If you would like to post this paper on your site, please contact me at 9

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