Heat Pipe Heat Exchangers. Dr Amir Amini Group Heat Transfer Solution May 2013

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1 Dr Amir Amini Group Heat Transfer Solution May 2013

2 Heat pipe comprises : Tube filled with a working fluid, Wick Structures : Sintered, Groove and Mesh Using the latent capacity of the fluid, we can transfer large amounts of heat very rapidly from a hot point to a cold point on the tube wall. Convective heat transfer is much faster than heat transfer due to conduction Condensate Heat out vapour Heat in Condenser Evaporator Working fluid The prime purpose of the wick is to generate capillary pressure to transport the working fluid from the condenser to the evaporator Vacuum pipe (container) Heat out Partition Phase change Heat in Adiabatic section

3 Heat Pipe Basic Theory How It Works Primary can be hot exhaust, air, liquid, solid surface Up to 350C From -30C Secondary can be a gas, water, thermal oil, glycol, R245fa and various others Up to 1000C e.g. 120C Pipe materials chosen according performance requirement of fluid types and temperatures: carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminium, copper, etc.

4 Working fluid chosen according to temperatures involved - water, ammonia, acetone, Dowtherm, etc Melting point, Deg.C Boiling point Deg.C From Deg.C To Deg C -300

5 Heat Pipe Basic Theory Advantages Multiple Redundancy Each pipe operates independently so unit is not vulnerable to a single pipe failure This prevents cross contamination each heat pipe acts as an additional buffer between the two fluids Intermediate Pipe Working Temperature Allows higher exhaust temperature limits on some applications Suitable for high SO2 fuels Low Fouling Use of smooth pipes allows exchangers to be used in high particulate or oily applications Ease of Cleaning & Maintenance Can be maintained in situ (no uninstall) Manual/automated cleaning systems Low Pressure Drop Low parasitic load means less capital and running cost on fans and greater energy recovery possibilities More efficient can be smaller and/or lighter than conventional exchangers Isothermal Operation no hot or cold spots Eliminates cold corners and condensation Allows greater energy recovery Better longevity for thermal oil Highly Scalable, Customisable & Configurable Modular design allows on site assembly Can be designed for future expansion, to meet specific application or operational needs Robust Materials and Long Life Design allows pipes to freely expand and contract, thus no thermal stress on structure Thick pipe walls resist erosion/corrosion Reactivity Fast reaction time, offers different control options and suitable for sensitive apparatus: does not require preheating

6 Heat Pipe Basic Theory Heat Pipe Types Pulsating Standard Finned Hybrid Heat Pipes S-shape Flat Panel Heat Exchangers 6

7 General Heat Exchanger Diagram

8 Gas / Liquid heat exchanger diagram Horizontal layout Cross flow

9 Gas / Liquid heat exchanger diagram Vertical layout Through flow

10 Gas / Steam heat exchanger diagram Horizontal layout Cross flow

11 Gas / Air heat exchanger diagram Horizontal layout Cross flow

12 Gas / Air heat exchanger diagram Vertical layout - Through flow

13 Heat exchanger details

14 Competitive advantages for heat pipe systems Superior Reliability Multiple Redundancy Each heat pipe operates independently; the unit can work in the event of damage to individual heat pipe Isothermal operation A unique feature of heat pipes is their Isothermal operation. This eliminates cold corners where condensation may occur and is often the cause of failure in conventional heat recovery equipment. Superior Performance Low pressure drop A low pressure drop can delivered relative to conventional heat recovery equipment and subsequent decrease in electric power consumption Higher Recovery The Isothermal operation of the pipes allows more heat to be extracted from the primary flow whilst still avoiding problematic condensation in the unit. Lower shut-down period Easy to clean unit through dedicated access points, and modular replacing.

15 System Systems - Hot Water production Safety system: Temperature switch Pressure safety valve Differential pressure switch Temperature transmitters Accessories: Temperature indicator/transmitters Pressure gauge Manual valve for vent/drain. Differential pressure transmitter Electrical Cabinet : Junction box Electronic control board for security management

16 System Systems Steam generation (bespoke unit)

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