Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice"

Transcription

1 EN COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION 1 ST JANUARY 2005 GENERAL SECRETARIAT DG F - COMMUNICATION Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

2 COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

3 Table of contents 1. Introduction Why build an area of freedom, security and justice? 1.2 The European area of freedom and of free movement of persons 1.3 The European area of security 1.4 The European area of justice 1.5 The external dimension of JHA 2. The main stages of development of JHA The early stages of police cooperation: the TREVI Group 2.2 The Schengen area, a laboratory for intergovernmental cooperation 2.3 The Treaty of Maastricht and the third pillar of the European Union 2.4 Decision-making under the third pillar 2.5 Assessment and limits of the third pillar 2.6 The advances of the Treaty of Amsterdam 2.7 The Tampere programme 2.8 The Treaty of Nice and the Charter of Fundamental Rights 2.9 The contribution of the draft European Constitution 3. The key players in European JHA policy The European Council 3.2 The Council of the European Union 3.3 The Presidency 3.4 The General Secretariat of the Council 3.5 The Member States 3.6 The European Commission 3.7 The European Parliament 3.8 The European Economic and Social Committee 3.9 The Committee of the Regions 3.10 The Court of Justice of the European Communities 4. The legal instruments of the area of freedom, security and justice Third pillar instruments Conventions Framework decisions Decisions Common positions 2 Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

4 4.2 Community instruments Regulations European directives Decisions Recommendations and opinions Resolutions, declarations and conclusions 5. The acquis of the area of freedom, security and justice The European area of freedom and of free movement of persons Schengen, an area of variable geometry Union citizenship The Union, a rampart of democracy and freedoms in the Member States The fight against discrimination The European Union common visa policy The European Union asylum and immigration policy 5.2 The European area of security European police cooperation and Europol The European Police College The Schengen Information System (SIS) Combating illegal immigration and trafficking in human beings Integrated management of EU external borders External relations in the field of JHA 5.3 The European area of justice Judicial cooperation in civil matters Judicial cooperation in criminal matters Mutual recognition of judicial decisions in criminal matters and the European arrest warrant Respect for procedural safeguards The approximation of the criminal laws of the Member States The emergence of integrated judicial cooperation: the European Judicial Network and Eurojust 6. An ongoing endeavour Assessment and prospects of the Tampere programme 6.2 Priorities for the coming years: The Hague programme Justice and Home Affairs in the European Union 3

5 European citizens may move freely in the Schengen area. 1. Introduction Freedom of movement in an area without internal borders, the admission of foreigners under fitting and fair conditions, a safe environment in which to live, access to justice under equal conditions for all: these are just a few of the practical benefits of European integration. The European Union has developed policies to achieve these aims, policies affecting the lives of both European citizens and third country nationals residing in the Union. Cooperation in the field of Justice and Home Affairs, better known under its abbreviation JHA, was officially written into the Treaty on European Union (TEU), which entered into force in In the context of completion of the Single Market and preparation of the European Union's single biggest enlargement in 2004, JHA policy has made huge strides forward over the past decade. It forms part of a complex institutional architecture and rests on a variety of legal instruments. The Tampere European Council in 1999 offered the occasion to link the creation of an area of freedom, security and justice - announced in the Treaty of Amsterdam to an ambitious five-year work programme. On freedom, the aim is to extend free movement of persons but also to promote Union citizenship, protect fundamental rights and facilitate the integration of third country nationals. The area of security covers the fight against all forms of organised crime, such as illegal immigration, trafficking in human beings, drug trafficking and international terrorism. With the area of justice, the Union's aim is to guarantee European citizens equal access to justice and to facilitate cooperation between Member States' judicial authorities. Today, the development of JHA seems as important as making Europe the world's most competitive economy by The creation of an area of freedom, security and justice responds to the practical concerns of European citizens. 1.1 Why build an area of freedom, security and justice? The creation of an area of freedom, security and justice is closely tied to completion of the Single Market and its four freedoms. The free movement of persons, one of the four fundamental freedoms, resulted in the abolition of controls at internal borders of the countries belonging to the Schengen Area 1. This raises issues for the internal security of each Member State and of its residents. The corollary to the abolition of internal borders is the strengthening of the Union's external borders and the definition of a common visa, asylum and immigration policy. 1 On 1 May 2004, 13 Member States, plus Norway and Iceland, were full members of this Area. Controls were still in place at the border between members of the Schengen Area and the 10 new Member States. Ireland and the United Kingdom apply special provisions. 4 Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

6 Combating organised crime is a priority for the European Union. 1.2 The European area of freedom and of free movement of persons The European Union defines itself first and foremost as a community of values, founded on the principles of freedom, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, as well as the rule of law. These principles are shared by all the Member States. The Union respects fundamental rights as guaranteed by the 1950 European Convention on Human Rights and as laid down in the Charter of Fundamental Rights proclaimed in Nice on 7 December The freedom dimension of the area of freedom, security and justice concerns both European citizens and nationals of third countries residing temporarily or permanently in the Union: tourists, students, foreign workers, refugees, asylum seekers or illegal immigrants awaiting a decision on their final destination. Better known under the name of Schengen Area, free movement of persons constituted an indisputable advance in European integration, one gradually to be extended to the entire Union, not only to EU citizens, but also to third country nationals residing in the Union. 1.3 The European area of security Europe's internal security is threatened by different forms of organised crime: terrorism, trafficking in human beings and drug trafficking, illegal immigration, cybercrime and so on. Criminals must not be allowed to take advantage of the territorial restrictions of criminal law to commit offences in one Member State and take refuge in another. This is why the European Union has decided to strengthen operational cooperation between police forces in the Member States, while creating central institutions (Schengen Information System and Europol) charged with collecting and exchanging data on criminal activities. Following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 in the United States and of 11 March 2004 in Madrid, the Union gave priority to coordinating counter-terrorism activities. Justice and Home Affairs in the European Union 5

7 The equality of European citizens before the law is an essential aspect of the European judicial area. 1.4 The European area of justice Increasing interaction between European citizens whether tourists, students, businessmen or employees results in a growing number of cross-border cases going to court, which must be settled fairly irrespective of the nationality of the parties and the place of trial. Better than the approximation of national laws, mutual recognition of judicial decisions has become the cornerstone of the European area of justice being built. Its aim is equal access to justice for all. The European Union has also created instruments like the European arrest warrant to facilitate the transfer of alleged offenders from one Member State to another. 1.5 The external dimension of JHA The creation of an area of freedom, security and justice would be incomplete if it failed to take account of the impact of European policies on third countries and their nationals. In recent years, the external dimension of cooperation in matters of Justice and Home Affairs has taken on particular importance. In the wake of the biggest enlargement of the Union, JHA is still an ongoing endeavour, equal to the myriad challenges Europe will have to meet in the coming years. 6 Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

8 The town of Schengen, in Luxembourg, is famous throughout Europe: it was here that the Schengen Agreement was signed in The main stages of development of JHA Cooperation in the area of Justice and Home Affairs is a recent European Union policy. It was not explicitly written into the founding Treaty of Rome of 25 March 1957, which gave European integration essentially economic objectives: the gradual creation of a customs union and a common market. Mentioned for the first time in the Treaty of Maastricht, JHA policy has reached its most advanced form in the draft European Constitution. 2.1 The early stages of police cooperation: the TREVI Group From the 1970s, the Member States of the European Community started experiencing the need to strengthen their cooperation in the face of the threat of terrorism (the action of the Red Brigades in Italy and of the Red Army Fraction in Germany). Created under the impetus of the Rome European Council on 1 December 1975, the TREVI Group 2 met for the first time on 29 June 1976 at ministerial level 3 to address the question of combating terrorism. It gave itself the objective of exchanging information on the terrorist threat and working out complementary strategies between Member States. The following years, the group regularly brought together the Home Affairs and/or Justice Ministers, senior officials and experts outside the framework of the European treaties. In 1985, the TREVI Group's remit was extended to illegal immigration and the fight against organised crime. The TREVI Group laid the foundations for JHA policy, particularly in matters of counter-terrorism (TREVI I), police cooperation (TREVI II), the fight against international crime (TREVI III) and the abolition of borders (TREVI 1992). 2.2 The Schengen area, a laboratory for intergovernmental cooperation The aim of gradually doing away with controls on persons at internal borders in the European Community emerged during the 1980s at the initiative of Germany and France. The first Schengen Agreement was symbolically signed on 14 June 1985 in Schengen (Luxembourg) by Germany, Belgium, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. This text, which entered into force on 2 March 1986, lays down the principle of abolishing controls at common borders and postpones implementation of this principle to a subsequent convention, subject to implementation of compensatory measures. The Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement (better known as the Schengen Convention ) was signed on 19 June 1990 by the same five Member States. It constitutes the heart of the system for doing away with border controls on persons. Indeed, it establishes implementing conditions leading to the abolition of internal border checks. 2 Referring to the fountain in Rome of the same name and to the acronym: Terrorism, Radicalism, Extremism and International Violence. 3 Member State Home Affairs and/or Justice Ministers in charge of countering terrorism. Justice and Home Affairs in the European Union 7

9 Cooperation in justice and home affairs represents the third pillar of the Treaty of Maastricht. The Schengen area became a reality on 26 March 1995, first of all for Germany, Benelux, France, Spain and Portugal. Other States subsequently joined their ranks (see page 20). Given the participation of a limited number of Member States, the Schengen area is the first example of enhanced cooperation in the European Union, governed by a specific decisionmaking process (see page 10). 2.3 The Treaty of Maastricht and the third pillar of the European Union The Treaty of Maastricht created the European Union. Signed on 7 February 1992, it entered into force on 1 November This new entity has a single institutional framework (European Council, Council of Ministers, Commission and European Parliament) and three pillars : the European Communities, the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and cooperation in the fields of justice and home affairs (JHA policy). For JHA, the Treaty on European Union led to the creation of a Coordination Committee in the Council. JHA incorporates and organises the intergovernmental cooperation that has been developing since the 1970s. It is laid down in Title VI of the Treaty of Maastricht. This cooperation is based on nine matters of common interest: asylum, crossing of external borders, immigration, policy relating to nationals of third countries, the fight against drugs and drug addiction, the fight against fraud on an international scale, judicial cooperation in civil matters, judicial cooperation in criminal matters, customs and police cooperation, including the creation of Europol. What is more, the common provisions of the new Treaty mention the creation of a citizenship of the European Union matched with specific rights (see page 22). 8 Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

10 Monika Lamperth, Minister of Home Affairs, Hungary in Decision-making under the third pillar In contrast with the European Communities, the second (CFSP) and third (JHA policy) pillars of the European Union are intergovernmental cooperation mechanisms with specific decisionmaking procedures. For these two pillars, the Council of Ministers is the decision-making body and has exclusive power to define common positions and adopt joint actions. It acts unanimously but has the option to decide (unanimously) that implementing measures shall be decided by qualified majority. For third pillar matters, the Council of Ministers, known as the Justice and Home Affairs Council, brings together Member States' Justice and/or Home Affairs Ministers. 2.5 Assessment and limits of the third pillar In five years, the Council has adopted more than 300 JHA decisions of various types. Particular emphasis was placed during this period on the law enforcement aspect of internal security, especially police cooperation and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, where political will existed between the Member States. The Europol Convention (signed in 1995, it entered into force on 1 July 1999) was the major achievement under the third pillar. It led to the creation of a European Police Office (see page 28). In addition, cooperation in the fields of justice and home affairs initiated a culture of working side-by-side and sharing information among the police, justice and customs administrations of the Member States. The third pillar has nonetheless been severely criticised for the slowness, lack of transparency and complexity of the legislative procedure 4. The partial communitisation of the third pillar, namely the transfer of certain matters to the Community pillar and application in full of the Community method has been proposed as a solution for the many shortcomings of the third pillar. 2.6 The advances of the Treaty of Amsterdam. The area of JHA was one of the major issues of the Intergovernmental Conference of The idea was to abolish certain obstacles to the free movement of persons while making internal security a fully-fledged objective of the European Union. When all is said and done, the signature of the Treaty of Amsterdam on 2 October 1997 made the legislative procedure for JHA matters more effective and democratic, and clarified the legal basis of decisions in the field of justice and home affairs. INTERGOVERNMENTAL MODEL AND COMMUNITY METHOD The intergovernmental model is based on a decision-making process based primarily on diplomatic negotiations between States. It safeguards State sovereignty in politically sensitive areas. It also offers the possibility of using flexible forms of cooperation and combining the protection of national interests with the development of coordinated initiatives. Use of the intergovernmental model rather than the classic Community method can be put down to the initial reluctance of Member States to accept major transfers of sovereignty in areas coming under their inherent powers (internal security, defence, foreign policy, etc). The requirement of unanimity is nonetheless proving problematic in a Union of 25 Member States. The Community method refers to a decisionmaking process where the European Commission, which has exclusive power of initiative, presents legislative proposals that are adopted jointly by the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament under the so-called co-decision procedure. Their acts are monitored by the Court of Justice of the European Communities. In the Community pillar, Council decisions are adopted either unanimously or by qualified majority (taking account of Member States' respective demographic weight). Compared to the intergovernmental model, this decisionmaking procedure offers the advantage of being more effective, and also guarantees transparency along with democratic and judicial scrutiny. The term communitisation refers to the transfer of certain matters originally under the third pillar to the Community or first pillar of the European Union. These matters are henceforth subject to the Community decision-making method. Under the new Treaty, a large part of cooperation in the field of JHA comes under the Community method: participation of all the institutions, control of legality by the Court of Justice of the European Communities and use of legal instruments best adapted to the 4 At the time the Amsterdam Treaty entered into force, only the texts on Europol (and the Dublin Convention concluded before the Treaty of Maastricht) had entered into force out of the nine international conventions and 10 protocols related to it, concluded during the six years following adoption of the Treaty of Maastricht ( ). The Dublin Convention signed in June 1990 between 11 Member States, which entered into force in 1997, sets up a legally binding mechanism to determine the Member State responsible for reviewing an asylum application. Monika Lamperth, Minister of Home Affairs, Hungary in 2004 The issue of sovereignty was very important during the accession negotiations. When a country loses part of its sovereignty, it has to know why. Justice and Home Affairs in the European Union 9

11 WHAT IS ENHANCED COOPERATION? The Member States that so wish may decide to engage in enhanced cooperation that is open to participation by all the Member States. Such cooperation has recourse to the institutions, procedures and mechanisms laid down by the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community. Initially foreseen only under the Community framework and the third pillar, enhanced cooperation is now possible under the second pillar, following the entry into force of the Treaty of Nice. At least eight Member States must be involved to launch enhanced cooperation. In terms of procedure, the Council acts by qualified majority on all enhanced cooperation proposals. In the Community framework, the European Parliament's assent must be obtained when enhanced cooperation concerns a field subject to codecision. The right of each Member State to block enhanced cooperation through the right of veto has been abolished and replaced by the possibility of referring the matter to the European Council. objectives sought. Communitisation concerns visa policy, conditions for issuing residence permits to immigrants, asylum procedures and rules for judicial cooperation in civil matters. The third pillar now covers only police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters. Although the principle of unanimity has been maintained, this pillar includes certain elements of the Community method. Instruments are in large part aligned to those of Community law, for example: decisions and framework decisions have a great deal in common with first pillar regulations and directives, though without having direct effect. Furthermore, agreements may enter into force in the countries that have ratified them once at least half the Member States have proceeded with ratification. The Commission shares the right of initiative with the Member States. The European Parliament is consulted on all third pillar measures with the exception of common positions. The role of the Court of Justice of the European Communities is strengthened and the approximation of criminal law is being taken into consideration for the first time. The Amsterdam Treaty also introduced the Schengen Convention into the Union's single institutional framework, putting an end to the contradictions resulting from the existence of two separate systems. The JHA Executive Committee is replaced by the Council of Ministers and the Schengen Secretariat is integrated into the General Secretariat of the Council, even though not all EU Member States are members of the Schengen area (see page 21). By agreeing to this exception, the European Union put into practice for the first time the enhanced cooperation mechanism written into the Amsterdam Treaty. The 13 States involved (the 15 pre-2004 Member States, less the United Kingdom and Ireland) are now pursuing their cooperation according to the legal logic of the new Treaty. A special system has been established for Denmark. 2.7 The Tampere programme With a view to the gradual creation of an area of freedom, security and justice, the Treaty of Amsterdam established a period of five years from its entry into force (May 1999) during which the Council would continue to act unanimously when adopting common measures in the fields of asylum, immigration and controls at the Union's external borders. Due to the growing importance of JHA in Union policies, a special European Council was held in Tampere in October 1999 under the Finnish Presidency to focus on this policy area. In Tampere, the Heads of State or Government launched an ambitious five-year programme for the implementation of the area of freedom, security and justice. The European Council Conclusions confirmed that internal security is henceforth a priority for the Union and that European citizens are at the heart of the AFSJ. As with completion of the internal market, a follow-up mechanism was introduced in the form of a scoreboard updated every six months by the European Commission to give an overview of progress to date and the measures still needed. 10 Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

12 The Tampere European Council laid down the bases of an ambitious European policy in Justice and Home Affairs. The priorities of the JHA programme have in essence remained unchanged since the Tampere European Council: implementation of a European asylum and immigration policy, creation of a European area of justice, combating crime at Union level, stronger external action. On asylum and immigration, the aim is to develop a common European policy based on a partnership with migrants' countries of origin, a common European asylum system, fair treatment for nationals of third countries residing legally in the Union, and the fight against illegal immigration. In the European judicial area, emphasis is placed on giving citizens effective access to justice and on developing the principle of mutual recognition of judicial decisions, the cornerstone of judicial cooperation in criminal and civil matters in the Union, as a complement to the approximation of criminal law. The European Council Conclusions also mention the creation of a new judicial cooperation unit, Eurojust. Finally, three guidelines steer the fight against organised and cross-border crime: a prevention policy at Union level, closer cooperation between Member State police and judicial administrations, and specific action by the Union to combat money laundering. 2.8 The Treaty of Nice and the Charter of Fundamental Rights The Treaty of Nice, signed in 2001, did not appreciably modify the provisions of the Amsterdam Treaty in matters of JHA: certain first pillar decisions (visas, asylum, immigration and judicial cooperation in civil matters) were switched to qualified majority and Eurojust was explicitly mentioned. More so than the Treaty of Nice, the major contribution of the French Presidency to JHA was the solemn proclamation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights in December 2000 (see page 23). The Charter brings together into a single easy-to-read text all the personal, civil and political, economic and social rights guaranteed to European citizens. Its legal value depends upon the final adoption and ratification of the draft Constitutional Treaty. Justice and Home Affairs in the European Union 11

13 Logo of the European Constitution 2.9 The contribution of the future European Constitution CHRONOLOGY June 1976: first meeting of TREVI Group June 1985: signature of first Schengen Agreement by five Member States June 1990: signature of the Schengen Convention February 1992: signature of the Treaty on European Union (Treaty of Maastricht) November 1993: entry into force of the Treaty of Maastricht March 1995: entry into force of the Schengen Convention in six Member States October 1997: signature of the Treaty of Amsterdam May 1999: entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam October 1999: Tampere European Council December 2000: solemn proclamation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights February 2001: signature of the Treaty of Nice February 2003: entry into force of the Treaty of Nice July 2003: conclusion of the Convention on the Future of Europe, which drew up a European Constitution October 2003: launch of the Intergovernmental Conference on the draft Constitution June 2004: adoption of the European Constitution by the Heads of State or Government October 2004: signature of the European Constitution The proposed European Constitution drafted by the Convention on the Future of Europe introduces important changes in Justice and Home Affairs. Because it is written into the Treaty, the Charter of Fundamental Rights acquires constitutional value. The Union thus introduces a bill of rights on which judgements by the Court of Justice of the European Communities can be based. The draft Constitution also does away with the pillars. All JHA policy will thus be communitised if the draft Constitution is ratified by all the Member States. This policy is defined in the third part of the new text under the name Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, which covers border controls, asylum, immigration and police and judicial cooperation. Like other Community policies, the new JHA policy will not be subject to the rule of unanimity, with the exception of a limited number of matters in the field of judicial cooperation (civil and criminal) and operational cooperation between police authorities. The other important contribution of the Constitution concerns the objectives of JHA policy, which in several areas replaces the concept of common system with the idea of minimum standards. The Union is thus set to develop a common policy on asylum and temporary protection, including uniform status. The Union is also invited to develop a common immigration policy. These actions are based on a principle of solidarity and fair sharing of responsibility between the Member States, including the financial implications. The most sensitive questions concern judicial cooperation in criminal matters and police cooperation, two areas where the Commission does not have an exclusive right of initiative, but shares it with one quarter of the Member States. The biggest advance in criminal matters, however, is that the principle of mutual recognition of judgements and judicial decisions is written into the treaty. To this end, a framework law may establish minimum rules concerning: mutual admissibility of evidence, the rights of individuals in criminal procedures, victims' rights and the definition of sanctions for particularly serious crimes (from terrorism to organised crime), the list of which may only be extended by the Council acting unanimously. Extract from the Preamble to the European Constitution The peoples of Europe, in creating an ever closer union among them, are resolved to share a peaceful future based on common values. The draft European Constitution was adopted in June 2004 by the Heads of State or Government. It includes most of the proposals adopted by the Convention on the Future of Europe. Its provisions will only be valid once the new treaty enters into force following ratification by the Member States. 12 Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

14 The Justice and Home Affairs Council is the central decision-making body in JHA matters. 3. The key players in European JHA policy Decision-making in matters of justice and home affairs fits into a complex institutional framework. Historically, the Member States have been the driving force behind the development of JHA policy. With the entry into force of the Amsterdam Treaty, the powers of the Commission, the European Parliament and the Court of Justice of the European Communities have been strengthened. Given the difficulty of coming to unanimous agreement in a Union of 25 Member States, the Community method is used more and more often. 3.1 The European Council The European Council brings together at regular intervals (at least once every six months) the Heads of State or Government of the Member States and the President of the European Commission. It defines priorities and objectives and gives such impetus as necessary for the development of the Union, including in matters of justice and home affairs. The first European Council focusing exclusively on JHA was held in Tampere (Finland) on 15 and 16 October The Heads of State or Government now hold regular exchanges of views on justice and home affairs. The development of a common asylum and immigration policy, for example, was defined as a priority by the Heads of State or Government at the Seville European Council on 21 and 22 June The Council of the European Union The Council of the European Union is composed of representatives of each Member State at ministerial level. The field of JHA is generally addressed in the Justice and Home Affairs Council by the Member States' Justice and/or Home Affairs Ministers. The Council's deliberations are prepared by the Committee of Permanent Representatives (Coreper), composed of Member States' representatives to the European Union and their assistants. The work of this Committee is in turn prepared by committees and working groups composed of Member States' representatives. Among these, certain committees play a specific role of providing coordination and expertise, for example the Committee for the Coordination of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters. The Council constitutes an essential decision-making body in justice and home affairs. With the European Parliament in some cases, the Council has the power to adopt or reject the legislative texts proposed by the Commission or the Member States. The Commission attends Council meetings to present and defend its proposals. Justice and Home Affairs in the European Union 13

15 Javier Solana, Secretary-General of the Council Cooperation between the Member States is vital to ensure effective JHA policies. Many Council decisions in the field of justice and home affairs form an integral part of the Union's common policies, with the exception of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, which still comes under the intergovernmental sphere. Provisions exist in the Treaty for a gradual transition to qualified majority in a growing number of communitised matters, particularly visas, asylum, immigration and controls at EU external borders. 3.3 The Presidency The Presidency of the European Union rotates among each of the Member States, by turns, every six months. The Member State in question chairs the European Council, the Council of the European Union and the committees and working groups charged with preparing deliberations. The Presidency plays a role of providing momentum in deliberations and decisions by the Council, including in JHA. 3.4 The General Secretariat of the Council The General Secretariat of the Council assists the Presidency in carrying out its tasks, under the supervision of the Secretary General. The individuals who work at the Council are highly qualified civil servants. The Secretariat provides general coordination of the Council's activities. Directorate-General H of the Council handles the following matters: asylum and immigration; police and customs cooperation; judicial cooperation; the Schengen Information System; the Schengen area and the protection of personal data. The General Secretariat can chair certain working groups in exceptional cases, when matters being debated are technical in nature, and when the Committee of Permanent Representatives (Coreper) adopts a decision to that effect. 3.5 The Member States The Member States of the European Union stay informed and consult one another in the Council to coordinate their action and to develop cooperation between the ministries and administrations concerned. They defend common positions in international bodies. They may also make individual proposals to the Council for the adoption of common positions, decisions or framework decisions, or for the drafting of justice and home affairs conventions under the third pillar (police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters). Above all, they react to the Commission's proposals and exercise their right of vote. Javier Solana, Secretary-General of the Council Cooperation between the Member States in justice and home affairs is crucial to ensuring stability, security and prosperity, not only within our borders, but also for our closest neighbours. 14 Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

16 Antonio Vitorino, European Commissioner in charge of Justice and Home Affairs The European Parliament is the democratic body that debates JHA policies. 3.6 The European Commission Since 1 May 2004, the European Commission has an exclusive right of initiative in matters of justice and home affairs under the Community pillar. It shares this right with the Member States for police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters (third pillar). The President of the European Commission takes part in European Councils alongside the Heads of State or Government. The Commission also participates in Council meetings at the Ministerial, Coreper, committee and working group levels. One Member of the Commission is specifically charged with Justice and Home Affairs. He has the support of a Directorate-General for Justice and Home Affairs. 3.7 The European Parliament The European Parliament's role in the field of JHA was strengthened by the Treaty of Amsterdam. Since 1 May 2004, the European Parliament is co-legislator with the Council for visa, asylum and immigration policy. The European Parliament and the Council are also co-legislators in many areas of judicial cooperation in civil matters. The reports submitted to the European Parliament plenary session are initially debated in EP committees, particularly the Committee on Citizens' Freedoms and Rights, Justice and Home Affairs. The Presidency consults Parliament on all decisions with legal value under police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters. The Presidency and the Commission also regularly update the European Parliament on work in progress. Finally, the European Parliament holds an annual debate on progress achieved in this field. 3.8 The European Economic and Social Committee As an advisory assembly representing organised civil society, the Economic and Social Committee provides expertise for the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union and the Commission. The Committee issues opinions in the cases provided for by the Treaties, and in all cases where the institutions consider it advisable. It may also be referred to on an exploratory basis by one institution or another, or may itself take the initiative of issuing opinions. Antonio Vitorino, European Commissioner in charge of Justice and Home Affairs The area of freedom, security and justice was created to facilitate the daily life of citizens, whether in the exercise of their individual and collective rights or if they find themselves obliged to turn to the courts to assert their rights fully. Justice and Home Affairs in the European Union 15

17 3.9 The Committee of the Regions The Committee of the Regions is the political assembly where the views of regional authorities are brought to the heart of the European Union. It issues opinions in the cases provided for by the Treaties. The Commission, the Council and the European Parliament can consult the Committee on proposals they consider will have a major impact at local and regional level, particularly in matters of justice and home affairs. The Committee of the Regions can also issue opinions on its own initiative The Court of Justice of the European Communities The Treaty of Amsterdam gave the Court of Justice the power to issue preliminary rulings on the validity and interpretation of framework decisions and conventions in certain cases (third pillar), and of regulations and directives (Community pillar). Above all, the Court has jurisdiction to rule on all disputes between Member States over the interpretation or application of measures adopted in the field of justice and home affairs. If the European Constitution is adopted, the Court will certainly have the opportunity to issue a judgement on the basis of the Charter of Fundamental Rights which is written into the new Treaty. 16 Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

18 4. The legal instruments of the area of freedom, security and justice The European Union is first and foremost based on the rule of law. Decisions in the field of justice and home affairs take the form of legal instruments adopted by the Council. The legal instruments of the area of freedom, security and justice differ between the Community (first) pillar and the third pillar (police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters). The Treaty of Amsterdam helped clarify and simplify instruments. This does not however bring into question the validity of conventions adopted by Member States under international public law, such as the European Convention on Human Rights of 4 November 1950 or the 1951 Geneva Convention on Refugees. 4.1 Third pillar instruments The legal instruments of the third pillar were originally based on the model of the second pillar (common foreign and security policy). Before the adoption of the Treaty of Amsterdam, the Council's most important JHA legal instruments were classic international conventions. Implementing conventions is slow and difficult however, so the Treaty of Amsterdam created two new instruments: decisions and framework decisions Conventions Conventions are a traditional instrument of international law. The Council of the European Union may draw up conventions and recommend their adoption by the Member States. Unlike common positions and other decisions, conventions had to be ratified by the national parliaments of all the Member States until the time the Treaty of Amsterdam entered into force. Since then, conventions apply, with certain exceptions, as soon as at least half the Member States have ratified them. On 26 July 1995, for example the Council adopted a convention establishing a European Police Office (Europol). Justice and Home Affairs in the European Union 17

19 4.1.2 Framework decisions Framework decisions, like Community directives, are binding on the Member States in terms of the result to be achieved while leaving the choice of form and methods to the national authorities. Unlike directives, however, framework decisions have no direct effect (and therefore cannot be used as grounds in judicial proceedings by individuals). They are used to approximate the laws and regulations of Member States. For example, on 22 December 2003 the Council adopted the Framework Decision on the fight against the sexual exploitation of children and child pornography Decisions Decisions are compulsory but do not have direct effect. They are consequently accompanied by implementing measures. A decision in the legal sense may be taken for any purpose other than the approximation of Member States' laws and regulations. Decisions have been adopted, for example, in matters of judicial cooperation (creation of Eurojust) and police cooperation (creation of the European Police College). The Council acts unanimously when adopting framework decisions and decisions. Implementing measures may be taken by qualified majority in certain cases Common positions Common positions define the Union's approach to a given issue which Member States must defend in international organisations and at international conferences. Prior to the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam, the Council adopted a Common position on the exact definition of the term refugee for questions related to asylum. 18 Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

20 4.2 Community instruments Community instruments are increasingly used to implement JHA policies. This tendency reflects the growing political weight of the Commission, European Parliament and Court of Justice of the European Communities in relation to the Council Regulations Regulations are compulsory in all their elements and directly applicable in all the Member States. No national measure is required to implement them. They are general in scope and compulsory for all. On 18 February 2003, for example, the Council adopted the Regulation establishing the criteria and mechanisms used to determine the State with responsibility for examining an asylum request European directives Directives set objectives or results that Member States must achieve by means of national legislation or other appropriate measures. Example: on 29 April 2004, the Council adopted the Directive laying down the conditions for recognition of refugee status and defining the rights it entails Decisions Decisions are compulsory and can be addressed to one or more Member States in particular or to all the Member States, to enterprises or to individuals Recommendations and opinions These instruments are not legally binding and do not constitute legislative instruments proper. They are frequently addressed to the Member States and state a general objective or define a set of measures recommended by the Council Resolutions, declarations and conclusions These instruments give the Council's point of view and are not binding. They may nevertheless have an important political impact. Justice and Home Affairs in the European Union 19

21 5. The acquis of the area of freedom, security and justice The creation of an area of freedom, security and justice constitutes a priority for the European Union, particularly since the Tampere European Council of This area represents a coherent and integrated concept. Indeed, the concepts of freedom, security and justice are best not brought into conflict with one another because they are necessarily complementary in an entity governed by the rule of law. Freedom, for example, means more than simply free movement in the European Union: it also encompasses living in a safe environment, where all citizens can enjoy peace and prosperity. Security is not limited to punishing crime: it is a means of attaining freedom. Security and freedom are inseparable. The role of justice is to protect freedom and to guarantee security in an area where natural persons and legal entities can cross Member States' national borders with increasing ease. Legal systems must be capable of responding to the difficulties that will inevitably arise in this context. 5.1 The European area of freedom and of free movement of persons The possibility for all European Union citizens to travel freely in the Union, and the civil and political rights resulting from Union citizenship, are tangible signs of Europe's unity. In addition, the creation of an area of free movement of persons implies that specific provisions are needed for nationals of third countries, whether tourists, students, researchers, workers, asylum seekers or illegal immigrants Schengen, an area of variable geometry In time, the idea is to create an area without any controls on persons at the European Union's internal borders, regardless of the individual's nationality. This of course implies mutual trust between Member States, regular exchanges of information to combat organised and cross-border crime, and effective controls at the Union's external borders. The Schengen area prefigures the area without borders under construction. What is distinctive about Schengen is that it developed under a purely intergovernmental form, outside the framework of the founding Treaties of the European Union, up until the time the Schengen Agreements were written into a Protocol to the Treaty of Amsterdam (1997). This made it possible to introduce parliamentary and judicial scrutiny of provisions adopted in the context of the Schengen area, even though the borders of the Schengen area do not match those of the European Union. 20 Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

22 Indeed, internal borders in the Schengen area were abolished in March 1995 between Germany, France, Benelux, Spain and Portugal. Over the years, Italy (1990), Spain, Portugal (1991), Greece (1992), Austria (1995), Denmark, Finland, Sweden (1996) and the 10 new Member States (2004) have subscribed to the Schengen Agreements. Without being members of the European Union, Iceland and Norway did the same in Switzerland has also submitted an application to join the Schengen area. Inversely, Ireland and the United Kingdom are members of the European Union but not of the Schengen area. The Schengen acquis and its subsequent development had to be fully accepted by applicants. Controls at the borders with the 10 new Member States will not be abolished before the end of 2006, to give these countries time to join the second-generation Schengen Information System (SIS II, see page 28), and to guarantee controls at the Union's external borders (see page 30). Since 1 May 2004, citizens of the EU need nothing more than their identity card or valid passport to travel within the Union. Visas for stays of more than 90 days by nationals of the 10 new Member States have also been abolished. FREE MOVEMENT OF PERSONS AND FREE MOVEMENT OF WORKERS: TWO CONCEPTS NOT TO BE CONFUSED The free movement of persons is not to be confused with free movement of workers. The former refers to the principle under which all European Union citizens have the right to travel freely to another European Union country provided they have a valid travel document (identity card or valid passport). The concept of free movement of workers refers to the right of all European citizens to reside in another Union country for the purpose of exercising a paid professional activity. This right is not yet a reality throughout the Union. Indeed, the 15 Member States obtained the possibility of restricting access to their labour markets and social security systems for a transitional period of at least two years following the enlargement of These restrictions apply to workers from eight new Member States 6. Sweden, Ireland and the United Kingdom have decided not to apply these transitional measures. Inversely, Poland and Hungary plan to limit access to their labour market for nationals from countries imposing restrictions on Polish and Hungarian nationals. Non-EU Countries in Schengen EU Member States in Schengen EU Member States not in Schengen Countries outside the EU 5 Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia. 6 Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia. Justice and Home Affairs in the European Union 21

23 Thanks to the Treaty of Maastricht, European citizens have the right to vote in European and local elections in their country of residence Union citizenship The creation of Union citizenship is an outstanding achievement of European integration. The concept was originally written into the Treaty of Maastricht. With reference to citizenship of a State, Union citizenship is characterised by rights and duties regarding participation in political life. Any person with the nationality of a Member State is automatically a Union citizen. Citizenship of the Union complements national citizenship but does not replace it. It is composed of a set of rights and duties that come on top of those deriving from citizenship of a Member State. Union citizenship gives each and every Union citizen: the right to move and reside freely in Member State territories; the right to vote and stand as a candidate in local and European elections in the Member State of residence under the same conditions as nationals of that State; the right to diplomatic and consular protection by the authorities of another Member State if one's own country is not represented, under the same conditions as nationals of the Member State concerned; the right to petition the European Parliament and the right to lodge complaints with the European Ombudsman in cases of maladministration by Community institutions or bodies, with the exception of judicial authorities. With the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam, Union citizenship also means: the right to contact the European institutions in any of the official languages and to receive a response in the same language; the right to consult documents of the European Parliament, Council and Commission under certain conditions. European citizenship aims in essence to bring citizens closer to Europe by promoting the development of a European political identity. 22 Living in an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

Section 1: Development of the EU s competence in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters

Section 1: Development of the EU s competence in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters CALL FOR EVIDENCE ON THE GOVERNMENT S REVIEW OF THE BALANCE OF COMPETENCES BETWEEN THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE EUROPEAN UNION Police and Criminal Justice LEGAL ANNEX Section 1: Development of the EU s competence

More information

What is the European Union? A unique economic and political partnership between 27 democratic European countries. What are its aims?

What is the European Union? A unique economic and political partnership between 27 democratic European countries. What are its aims? What is the European Union? A unique economic and political partnership between 27 democratic European countries. What are its aims? Peace, prosperity and freedom for its 495 million citizens in a fairer,

More information

AP EUROPEAN HISTORY 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP EUROPEAN HISTORY 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES AP EUROPEAN HISTORY 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 7 Analyze the ways in which Western European nations have pursued European economic and political integration from 1945 to the present, referring to

More information

LEGAL BASIS COMMON RULES

LEGAL BASIS COMMON RULES THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: ELECTORAL PROCEDURES The procedures for electing the European Parliament are governed both by European legislation defining rules common to all Member States and by specific national

More information

1. Protocol on the role of national parliaments in the European Union. 3. Protocol on the Statute of the Court of Justice of the

1. Protocol on the role of national parliaments in the European Union. 3. Protocol on the Statute of the Court of Justice of the The final act lists the binding protocols and non-binding declarations Final act THE CONFERENCE OF THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE MEMBER STATES, convened in Brussels on 30 September 2003

More information

Minister Shatter presents Presidency priorities in the JHA area to European Parliament

Minister Shatter presents Presidency priorities in the JHA area to European Parliament Minister Shatter presents Presidency priorities in the JHA area to European Parliament 22 nd January 2013 The Minister for Justice, Equality and Defence, Alan Shatter TD, today presented the Irish Presidency

More information

The European Commission is today proposing to

The European Commission is today proposing to Turkey s progress on the visa liberalisation roadmap 4 May 2016 The European Commission is today proposing to the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament to lift the visa requirements

More information

EU s Asylum Policy and the Danish Justice and Home Affairs Opt-Out

EU s Asylum Policy and the Danish Justice and Home Affairs Opt-Out EU s Asylum Policy and the Danish Justice and Home Affairs Opt-Out Marlene Wind, Professor and Director of Centre for European Politics, Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen Professor

More information

Migration/ Asylum. Co-operation in the field of drugs

Migration/ Asylum. Co-operation in the field of drugs Non-exhaustive list of issues and questions to facilitate preparations for the bilateral meeting with Turkey in the area of Chapter 24 Justice, freedom and security Migration/ Asylum - Which are currently

More information

THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE'S FRAMEWORK CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES

THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE'S FRAMEWORK CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES Pamphlet No. 8 THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE'S FRAMEWORK CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES Summary: The European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities is the most comprehensive

More information

Declaration of the Ministerial Conference of the Khartoum Process

Declaration of the Ministerial Conference of the Khartoum Process Declaration of the Ministerial Conference of the Khartoum Process (EU-Horn of Africa Migration Route Initiative) Rome, 28 th November 2014 We, Ministers of the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

More information

The future of the European Union and the Lisbon Treaty. Marie-José Garot IE Law School Center for European Studies, IE University

The future of the European Union and the Lisbon Treaty. Marie-José Garot IE Law School Center for European Studies, IE University The future of the European Union and the Lisbon Treaty Marie-José Garot IE Law School Center for European Studies, IE University Introduction The one-year old Lisbon Treaty The special European context

More information

TITLE III JUSTICE, FREEDOM AND SECURITY

TITLE III JUSTICE, FREEDOM AND SECURITY TITLE III JUSTICE, FREEDOM AND SECURITY Article 14 The rule of law and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms In their cooperation on justice, freedom and security, the Parties shall attach

More information

Review of the Balance of Competences between the United Kingdom and the European Union Police and Criminal Justice

Review of the Balance of Competences between the United Kingdom and the European Union Police and Criminal Justice Review of the Balance of Competences between the United Kingdom and the European Union Police and Criminal Justice December 2014 Review of the Balance of Competences between the United Kingdom and the

More information

Statewatch Analysis EU Lisbon Treaty Analysis no 4: UK and Irish opt-outs from EU Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) law

Statewatch Analysis EU Lisbon Treaty Analysis no 4: UK and Irish opt-outs from EU Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) law Statewatch Analysis EU Lisbon Treaty Analysis no 4: UK and Irish opt-outs from EU Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) law Prepared by Professor Steve Peers, University of Essex Version 3: 26 June 2009 1. Introduction

More information

CABINET OFFICE THE CIVIL SERVICE NATIONALITY RULES

CABINET OFFICE THE CIVIL SERVICE NATIONALITY RULES ANNEX A CABINET OFFICE THE CIVIL SERVICE NATIONALITY RULES Introduction The Civil Service Nationality Rules concern eligibility for employment in the Civil Service on the grounds of nationality and must

More information

Accepting volunteers from outside the UK

Accepting volunteers from outside the UK Accepting volunteers from outside the UK Summary Generally there should be no problem with an organisation accepting someone from outside the UK as a volunteer, but the individual must ensure that immigration

More information

Proposal for a COUNCIL DECISION

Proposal for a COUNCIL DECISION EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 8.12.2014 COM(2014) 721 final 2014/0345 (NLE) Proposal for a COUNCIL DECISION authorising Austria, Belgium and Poland to ratify, or to accede to, the Budapest Convention on

More information

SAFE THIRD COUNTRY CASES

SAFE THIRD COUNTRY CASES SAFE THIRD COUNTRY CASES Table of Contents SAFE THIRD COUNTRY CASES 1. Introduction 1.1 Application of this Instruction in Respect of Children and those with Children 2. The Dublin Arrangements 3. The

More information

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE NATIONAL TOURISM ADMINISTRATION OF THE PEOPLE S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE NATIONAL TOURISM ADMINISTRATION OF THE PEOPLE S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE NATIONAL TOURISM ADMINISTRATION OF THE PEOPLE S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY ON VISA AND RELATED ISSUES CONCERNING TOURIST GROUPS FROM THE PEOPLE

More information

Eligibility to Work in the UK

Eligibility to Work in the UK Eligibility to Work in the UK The University of Hull is obliged to carry out checks for all new employees before they commence work with the University to ensure it does not break the law in terms of illegal

More information

TREATY OF AMSTERDAM AMENDING THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION, THE TREATIES ESTABLISHING THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES AND CERTAIN RELATED ACTS

TREATY OF AMSTERDAM AMENDING THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION, THE TREATIES ESTABLISHING THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES AND CERTAIN RELATED ACTS TREATY OF AMSTERDAM AMENDING THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION, THE TREATIES ESTABLISHING THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES AND CERTAIN RELATED ACTS INTRODUCTORY NOTE This publication reproduces the text of the Treaty

More information

Statewatch Analysis - Update. The Proposed European Investigation Order

Statewatch Analysis - Update. The Proposed European Investigation Order Statewatch Analysis - Update The Proposed European Investigation Order Steve Peers Professor of Law, University of Essex Introduction In April 2010, a group of seven Member States tabled an initiative

More information

Ordinary Legislative Procedure

Ordinary Legislative Procedure Annex 4 LIST OF THE ARTICLES COMING UNDER ORDINARY LEGISLATIVE PROCEDURE The Treaty of Lisbon plans for extension of the so-called "codecision" procedure, which is now called "ordinary legislative procedure",

More information

European judicial training 2014. Justice

European judicial training 2014. Justice European judicial training 2014 Justice Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union. Freephone number (*): 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 (*) Certain mobile telephone

More information

Ad-Hoc Query on travel documents for new-born baby (TCN) Requested by EE EMN NCP on 7 th August Compilation produced on 13 th September 2013

Ad-Hoc Query on travel documents for new-born baby (TCN) Requested by EE EMN NCP on 7 th August Compilation produced on 13 th September 2013 Ad-Hoc Query on travel documents for new-born baby (TCN) Requested by EE EMN NCP on 7 th August 2013 Compilation produced on 13 th September 2013 Responses from Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech

More information

Information and Notices

Information and Notices Official Journal of the European Union ISSN 1977-091X C 326 English edition Information and Notices Volume 55 26 October 2012 Notice No Contents Page 2012/C 326/01 Consolidated versions of the Treaty on

More information

Eurocentrum Praha 4 th October 2007. A stronger Europe for a better world is the motto of the current Portuguese Presidency.

Eurocentrum Praha 4 th October 2007. A stronger Europe for a better world is the motto of the current Portuguese Presidency. Eurocentrum Praha 4 th October 2007 Portuguese Presidency of the European Union A stronger Europe for a better world A stronger Europe for a better world is the motto of the current Portuguese Presidency.

More information

DOCUMENTS THAT EVIDENCE RIGHT TO WORK IN THE UK

DOCUMENTS THAT EVIDENCE RIGHT TO WORK IN THE UK DOCUMENTS THAT EVIDENCE RIGHT TO WORK IN THE UK Background The Immigration Asylum and Nationality Act 2006, sections 15-25, place a requirement on the University to check that any employee who commences

More information

CIVIL SERVICE NATIONALITY RULES GUIDANCE ON CHECKING ELIGIBILITY

CIVIL SERVICE NATIONALITY RULES GUIDANCE ON CHECKING ELIGIBILITY CIVIL SERVICE NATIONALITY RULES GUIDANCE ON CHECKING ELIGIBILITY Employment Practice Division Civil Service Capability Group Cabinet Office November 2007 1 CIVIL SERVICE NATIONALITY RULES GUIDANCE ON CHECKING

More information

Guidance on the Prevention of Illegal Working

Guidance on the Prevention of Illegal Working Guidance on the Prevention of Illegal Working Human Resources 1 Introduction 1. Introduction 1.1 As an employer the University has a legal responsibility to prevent illegal working in the UK. The Immigration,

More information

Ad-Hoc Query on collecting biometric data when applying for a long-stay visa at the consulate. Requested by FR EMN NCP on 30 th July 2014

Ad-Hoc Query on collecting biometric data when applying for a long-stay visa at the consulate. Requested by FR EMN NCP on 30 th July 2014 Requested by FR EMN NCP on 30 th July 2014 Responses from Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

More information

Guide to EU decision-making and justice and home affairs after the Treaty of Lisbon

Guide to EU decision-making and justice and home affairs after the Treaty of Lisbon Guide to EU decision-making and justice and home affairs after the Treaty of Lisbon by Steve Peers, Professor of Law, University of Essex with additional material by Tony Bunyan A Statewatch publication

More information

SECOND REPORT ON CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES RAISED BY THE RATIFICATION OF THE ROME STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

SECOND REPORT ON CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES RAISED BY THE RATIFICATION OF THE ROME STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT Strasbourg, 4 November 2008 Study no. 498/2008 Or. Engl. EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) SECOND REPORT ON CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES RAISED BY THE RATIFICATION OF THE ROME

More information

European Centre for Information Policy and Security (ECIPS) DO NOT COPY! PROPERTY OF ECIPS

European Centre for Information Policy and Security (ECIPS) DO NOT COPY! PROPERTY OF ECIPS European Centre for Information Policy and Security (ECIPS) DO NOT COPY! PROPERTY OF ECIPS Due to the authority vested in the European Centre for Information Policy and Security (ECIPS) Decree / Statute

More information

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES GREEN PAPER

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES GREEN PAPER EN EN EN COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Brussels, 11.11.2009 COM(2009) 624 final GREEN PAPER on obtaining evidence in criminal matters from one Member State to another and securing its admissibility

More information

Federal Department of Foreign Affairs FDFA. Directorate for European Affairs DEA. The European Union. June 2016

Federal Department of Foreign Affairs FDFA. Directorate for European Affairs DEA. The European Union. June 2016 Federal Department of Foreign Affairs FDFA Directorate for European Affairs DEA The European Union June 2016 Content 1. Overview 2. Functioning 3. Treaties 4. Organs and institutions European Union, 2014

More information

Freedom, Security, Privacy. European Home Affairs in an open world

Freedom, Security, Privacy. European Home Affairs in an open world Freedom, Security, Privacy European Home Affairs in an open world istockphoto.com/frankydemeyer, sam.7 Report of the Informal High Level Advisory Group on the Future of European Home Affairs Policy ( The

More information

MAPPING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF POLICY FOR INCLUSIVE EDUCATION KEY POLICY MESSAGES

MAPPING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF POLICY FOR INCLUSIVE EDUCATION KEY POLICY MESSAGES MAPPING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF POLICY FOR INCLUSIVE EDUCATION KEY POLICY MESSAGES Introduction The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the findings of the European Agency for Development in

More information

TREATY OF AMSTERDAM TREATY OF AMSTERDAM

TREATY OF AMSTERDAM TREATY OF AMSTERDAM TREATY OF AMSTERDAM TREATY OF AMSTERDAM Tool Box II: The Instruments»»» CONSOLIDATED VERSION OF THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION TITLE I: COMMON PROVISIONS Article By this Treaty, the HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES

More information

THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA

THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA (EEA), SWITZERLAND AND THE NORTH The European Economic Area (EEA) was formed in 1994 in order to extend the European Union s provisions on its internal market to countries in

More information

CONSOLIDATED VERSION OF THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION

CONSOLIDATED VERSION OF THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION 26.10.2012 Official Journal of the European Union C 326/13 CONSOLIDATED VERSION OF THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION 26.10.2012 Official Journal of the European Union C 326/15 PREAMBLE HIS MAJESTY THE KING

More information

The Act imposes foreign exchange restrictions, i.e. performance of certain actions requires a relevant foreign exchange permit.

The Act imposes foreign exchange restrictions, i.e. performance of certain actions requires a relevant foreign exchange permit. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE NATIONAL BANK OF POLAND RESULTING FROM THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE ACT 1. FOREIGN EXCHANGE PROVISIONS Foreign exchange regulations, which constitute part of the financial legislation,

More information

In May and July 2014 UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI) introduced changes to the right to work checks employers are required to carry out.

In May and July 2014 UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI) introduced changes to the right to work checks employers are required to carry out. Summary of changes - August 2014 In May and July 2014 UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI) introduced changes to the right to work checks employers are required to carry out. In light of the recent changes,

More information

NEGOTIATING FRAMEWORK FOR TURKEY. Principles governing the negotiations

NEGOTIATING FRAMEWORK FOR TURKEY. Principles governing the negotiations NEGOTIATING FRAMEWORK FOR TURKEY Principles governing the negotiations 1. The negotiations will be based on Turkey's own merits and the pace will depend on Turkey's progress in meeting the requirements

More information

European Parliament Eurobarometer (EB/EP 84.1) Parlemeter 2015 Part II ANALYTICAL OVERVIEW

European Parliament Eurobarometer (EB/EP 84.1) Parlemeter 2015 Part II ANALYTICAL OVERVIEW Directorate-General for Communication Public Opinion Monitoring Unit European Parliament Eurobarometer (EB/EP 84.1) Parlemeter 2015 Part II ANALYTICAL OVERVIEW Coverage: EU28 (28 150 EU citizens) Target

More information

Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community

Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community CONFERENCE OF THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE MEMBER STATES Brussels, 3 December 2007 (OR. fr) CIG 14/07 Subject : Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing

More information

Consultation on the future of European Insolvency Law

Consultation on the future of European Insolvency Law Consultation on the future of European Insolvency Law The Commission has put the revision of the Insolvency Regulation in its Work Programme for 2012. The revision is one of the measures in the field of

More information

Global Leaders' Meeting on Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment: A Commitment to Action 27 September 2015, New York

Global Leaders' Meeting on Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment: A Commitment to Action 27 September 2015, New York Global Leaders' Meeting on Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment: A Commitment to Action 27 September 2015, New York EU and its Member States' Commitments to the full, effective and accelerated implementation

More information

Final (RUSSIA-EU VISA DIALOGUE) GENERAL FRAMEWORK

Final (RUSSIA-EU VISA DIALOGUE) GENERAL FRAMEWORK Final COMMON STEPS TOWARDS VISA FREE SHORT-TERM TRAVEL OF RUSSIAN AND EU CITIZENS (RUSSIA-EU VISA DIALOGUE) GENERAL FRAMEWORK The European Union and the Russian Federation reiterate their international

More information

BELGIAN EU PRESIDENCY IMMIGRATION AND ASYLUM Programme

BELGIAN EU PRESIDENCY IMMIGRATION AND ASYLUM Programme BELGIAN EU PRESIDENCY IMMIGRATION AND ASYLUM Programme INTRODUCTION The Belgian Presidency will ensure the continuity of the work initiated by the Spanish Presidency, in close collaboration with the European

More information

I have asked for asylum in the EU which country will handle my claim?

I have asked for asylum in the EU which country will handle my claim? EN I have asked for asylum in the EU which country will handle my claim? A Information about the Dublin Regulation for applicants for international protection pursuant to article 4 of Regulation (EU) No

More information

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. Measuring money laundering at continental level: The first steps towards a European ambition. January 2011 EUROPEAN COMMISSION

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. Measuring money laundering at continental level: The first steps towards a European ambition. January 2011 EUROPEAN COMMISSION MONEY LAUNDERING IN EUROPE Measuring money laundering at continental level: The first steps towards a European ambition EXECUTIVE SUMMARY January 2011 EUROPEAN COMMISSION DG HOME AFFAIRS FIGHT AGAINST

More information

Voting power in the European Union

Voting power in the European Union Voting power in the European Union Federico Perea Justo Puerto MaMaEuSch Management Mathematics for European Schools 94342 - CP - 1-2001 - DE - COMENIUS - C21 University of Seville This project has been

More information

JUSTICE note on the draft framework decision on ne bis in idem

JUSTICE note on the draft framework decision on ne bis in idem JUSTICE note on the draft framework decision on ne bis in idem For further information contact: Marisa Leaf, EU Legal Officer Email: mleaf@justice.org.uk Tel: 020 7762 6413 November 2003 JUSTICE, 59 Carter

More information

The Situation of Military Personnel in Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain

The Situation of Military Personnel in Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain The Situation of Military Personnel in Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain Content Introduction of EUROMIL Fundamental Rights for Military Personnel Added value of military unions/associations Situation

More information

Anna Sapota* Jagielonian University in Kraków, Poland

Anna Sapota* Jagielonian University in Kraków, Poland THE ENHANCED COOPERATION IS IT AN INSTRUMENT EFFICIENT ENOUGH TO AVOID THE DIVERGENCE BETWEEN THE NATIONAL REGULATIONS OF PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW IN THE EU? Anna Sapota* Jagielonian University in Kraków,

More information

ROADMAP TOWARDS A VISA-FREE REGIME WITH TURKEY

ROADMAP TOWARDS A VISA-FREE REGIME WITH TURKEY ROADMAP TOWARDS A VISA-FREE REGIME WITH TURKEY A. The Dialogue Within the broader dialogue and cooperation framework between the EU and its Member States and Turkey in Justice and Home Affairs matters,

More information

Market Barriers A European Online Gambling Study 2012

Market Barriers A European Online Gambling Study 2012 Market Barriers A European Online Gambling Study 2012 An impartial and comprehensive evaluation of the current legal, regulatory and market landscape for online gambling in Europe Contents Contents Market

More information

Council of the European Union Brussels, 14 November 2014 (OR. en) Ensuring respect for the rule of law in the European Union

Council of the European Union Brussels, 14 November 2014 (OR. en) Ensuring respect for the rule of law in the European Union Council of the European Union Brussels, 14 November 2014 (OR. en) 15206/14 FREMP 198 JAI 846 COHOM 152 POLG 156 NOTE From: To: Subject: Presidency Council Ensuring respect for the rule of law in the European

More information

A COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE CURRENT EC AND EU TREATIES AS AMENDED BY THE TREATY OF LISBON

A COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE CURRENT EC AND EU TREATIES AS AMENDED BY THE TREATY OF LISBON Foreign and Commonwealth Office London A COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE CURRENT EC AND EU TREATIES AS AMENDED BY THE TREATY OF LISBON 9.25 A COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE CURRENT EC AND EU TREATIES AS AMENDED BY

More information

Access to social housing supports for non-irish nationals including clarification re Stamp 4 holders

Access to social housing supports for non-irish nationals including clarification re Stamp 4 holders Housing Circular 41/2012 December, 2012 To: Directors of Service (Housing) Town Clerks Access to social housing supports for non-irish nationals including clarification re Stamp 4 holders Dear Director/Town

More information

EUROPEAN YOUTH: PARTICIPATION IN DEMOCRATIC LIFE

EUROPEAN YOUTH: PARTICIPATION IN DEMOCRATIC LIFE Flash Eurobarometer EUROPEAN YOUTH: PARTICIPATION IN DEMOCRATIC LIFE REPORT Fieldwork: April 2013 Publication: May 2013 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General for

More information

Employee eligibility to work in the UK

Employee eligibility to work in the UK Employee eligibility to work in the UK This document details legal requirements that apply to ALL new members of staff All employers in the UK are legally bound to comply with the Asylum and Immigration

More information

THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN FACTS & FIGURES

THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN FACTS & FIGURES THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN FACTS & FIGURES 2014 This document has been prepared by the Public Relations Unit of the Court, and does not bind the Court. It is intended to provide basic general

More information

Right to Work in the UK Guidance Notes:

Right to Work in the UK Guidance Notes: Right to Work in the UK Guidance Notes: Sections 15-25 of the Immigration, Asylum and Nationality Act 2006 requires all employers in the United Kingdom (UK) to make basic document checks on every person

More information

THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION THE SECRETARIAT. Brussels, 26 May 2003 (OR. fr) CONV 724/03 VOLUME 1. COVER NOTE from : Praesidium

THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION THE SECRETARIAT. Brussels, 26 May 2003 (OR. fr) CONV 724/03 VOLUME 1. COVER NOTE from : Praesidium THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION THE SECRETARIAT Brussels, 26 May 2003 (OR. fr) CONV 724/03 VOLUME 1 COVER NOTE from : Praesidium to : Convention Nos prev. docs : CONV 528/03, CONV 571/03, CONV 579/03, CONV 602/03,

More information

Brussels, 12 July 2002 THE SECRETARIAT

Brussels, 12 July 2002 THE SECRETARIAT THE EUROPEAN CONVTION Brussels, 12 July 2002 THE SECRETARIAT CONV 189/02 CONTRIB 64 COVER NOTE from Secretariat to The Convention Subject : Contribution from certain members of the Convention The Secretary

More information

CRS Report for Congress

CRS Report for Congress Order Code RS21208 Updated September 28, 2006 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Summary Cybercrime: The Council of Europe Convention Kristin Archick Specialist in European Affairs Foreign

More information

CULTURAL AND CREATIVE SECTORS GUARANTEE FACILITY

CULTURAL AND CREATIVE SECTORS GUARANTEE FACILITY CULTURAL AND CREATIVE SECTORS GUARANTEE FACILITY OPEN CALL FOR EXPRESSION OF INTEREST TO SELECT FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES UNDER THE CULTURAL AND CREATIVE SECTORS GUARANTEE FACILITY (Published on 18th July

More information

Asylum decisions in the EU EU Member States granted protection to more than 185 000 asylum seekers in 2014 Syrians remain the main beneficiaries

Asylum decisions in the EU EU Member States granted protection to more than 185 000 asylum seekers in 2014 Syrians remain the main beneficiaries 82/2015-12 May 2015 Asylum decisions in the EU EU Member States granted to more than 185 000 asylum seekers in 2014 Syrians remain the main beneficiaries This News Release has been revised on 21 May following

More information

CASH BENEFITS IN RESPECT OF SICKNESS AND MATERNITY SUBJECT TO EU COORDINATION

CASH BENEFITS IN RESPECT OF SICKNESS AND MATERNITY SUBJECT TO EU COORDINATION CASH BENEFITS IN RESPECT OF SICKNESS AND MATERNITY SUBJECT TO EU COORDINATION Z a k ł a d U b e z p i e c z e ń S p o ł e c z n y c h The scope and purpose of benefits coordination The EU coordination

More information

Aarhus Convention: Structure, practice & experience of the Compliance Committee

Aarhus Convention: Structure, practice & experience of the Compliance Committee Aarhus Convention: Structure, practice & experience of the Compliance Committee Jonas Ebbesson Convention on Migratory Species 1 st Meeting of Review Mechanism Working Group 19-20 September 2016 Aarhus

More information

J O I N T D E C L A R A T I O N

J O I N T D E C L A R A T I O N REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA MINISTRY OF INTERIOR SALZBURG FORUM MINISTERIAL MEETING 15 17 November 2011 RIU Pravets Resort, Bulgaria J O I N T D E C L A R A T I O N On the occasion of their ministerial meeting

More information

WORKING DOCUMENTS W 112 ENLARGEMENT-RELATED DIVERSITY IN EU JUSTICE AND HOME AFFAIRS: CHALLENGES, DIMENSIONS AND MANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS.

WORKING DOCUMENTS W 112 ENLARGEMENT-RELATED DIVERSITY IN EU JUSTICE AND HOME AFFAIRS: CHALLENGES, DIMENSIONS AND MANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS. WORKING DOCUMENTS W 112 ENLARGEMENT-RELATED DIVERSITY IN EU JUSTICE AND HOME AFFAIRS: CHALLENGES, DIMENSIONS AND MANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS Jörg Monar The Hague, December 2000 ENLARGEMENT-RELATED DIVERSITY

More information

I have asked for asylum in the EU which country will handle my claim?

I have asked for asylum in the EU which country will handle my claim? EN I have asked for asylum in the EU which country will handle my claim? A Information about the Dublin Regulation for applicants for international protection pursuant to article 4 of Regulation (EU) No

More information

AGENDA ITEM IV: EU CITIZEN'S RIGHTS

AGENDA ITEM IV: EU CITIZEN'S RIGHTS SCREENING CHAPTER 23 Country Session: 4.1. THE RIGHT TO VOTE AND STAND FOR EP ELECTIONS Voting in diplomatic missions in Turkey is not prohibited by the Turkish legislation. Foreigners may cast their votes

More information

BUILDING MIGRATION PARTNERSHIPS PRAGUE MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE JOINT DECLARATION

BUILDING MIGRATION PARTNERSHIPS PRAGUE MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE JOINT DECLARATION BUILDING MIGRATION PARTNERSHIPS PRAGUE MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE JOINT DECLARATION We, the Ministers responsible for migration and other representatives from: Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium,

More information

Camden Asset Recovery Inter-Agency Network (CARIN)

Camden Asset Recovery Inter-Agency Network (CARIN) Camden Asset Recovery Inter-Agency Network (CARIN) The History, Statement of Intent, Membership and Functioning of CARIN MANUAL CARIN MANUAL Secretariat, Camden Asset Recovery Inter-Agency Network (CARIN)

More information

Guidelines from the Ministry of Justice No. 9188/2015 of 20 March 2015 on the Processing of Applications for Visas for Denmark

Guidelines from the Ministry of Justice No. 9188/2015 of 20 March 2015 on the Processing of Applications for Visas for Denmark The Ministry of Justice Guidelines from the Ministry of Justice No. 9188/2015 of 20 March 2015 on the Processing of Applications for Visas for Denmark Guidelines on the Processing of Applications for Visas

More information

Know Your Rights to Information on

Know Your Rights to Information on Know Your Rights to Information on CRIMINAL Charges GRACE MULVEY & SINÉAD SKELLY The JUSTICIA European Rights Network is coordinated by the Irish Council for Civil Liberties www.iccl.ie 9 13 Blackhall

More information

The North Atlantic Treaty (1949)

The North Atlantic Treaty (1949) The North Atlantic Treaty (1949) Washington D.C. - 4 April 1949 The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live

More information

Update on asylum seekers and the new EU accession countries

Update on asylum seekers and the new EU accession countries June 2004 Update on asylum seekers and the new EU accession countries Introduction On 1 May 2004, the European Union (EU) 1 expanded from 15 to 25 members. This briefing explains how enlargement of the

More information

The fifth enlargement of the European Union: the power of example

The fifth enlargement of the European Union: the power of example The fifth enlargement of the European Union: the power of example Eneko LANDABURU, Director-General, DG Enlargement, European Commission for the Fordham International Law Journal Con la autorización de

More information

Ad-Hoc Query on Residence Permit Cards and biometric identifiers. Requested by SE on 6 th November Compilation produced on 11 th February 2013

Ad-Hoc Query on Residence Permit Cards and biometric identifiers. Requested by SE on 6 th November Compilation produced on 11 th February 2013 Ad-Hoc Query on Residence Permit Cards and biometric identifiers Requested by SE on 6 th November 2012 Compilation produced on 11 th February 2013 Responses from Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic,

More information

Chairman's Summary of the Outcomes of the G8 Justice and Home Affairs Ministerial Meeting. (Moscow, 15-16 June 2006)

Chairman's Summary of the Outcomes of the G8 Justice and Home Affairs Ministerial Meeting. (Moscow, 15-16 June 2006) Chairman's Summary of the Outcomes of the G8 Justice and Home Affairs Ministerial Meeting (Moscow, 15-16 June 2006) At their meeting in Moscow on 15-16 June 2006 the G8 Justice and Home Affairs Ministers

More information

COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. Brussels, 2 May 2011 9564/11. Interinstitutional File: 2010/0210 (COD)

COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. Brussels, 2 May 2011 9564/11. Interinstitutional File: 2010/0210 (COD) COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Brussels, 2 May 2011 Interinstitutional File: 2010/0210 (COD) 9564/11 SOC 372 MIGR 99 CODEC 714 DRS 64 WTO 187 SERVICES 66 NOTE from: Council General Secretariat to: Delegations

More information

Benelux Summit. Schengen, 3 rd October Joint Communiqué

Benelux Summit. Schengen, 3 rd October Joint Communiqué Benelux Summit Schengen, 3 rd October 2016 Joint Communiqué Prime ministers Xavier Bettel, Luxembourg, Mark Rutte, the Netherlands and Charles Michel, Belgium, met today in Schengen for the annual Summit

More information

COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. Brussels, 17 December 2003 (OR. en) 14994/03. Interinstitutional File: 2002/0043 (CNS) MIGR 101

COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. Brussels, 17 December 2003 (OR. en) 14994/03. Interinstitutional File: 2002/0043 (CNS) MIGR 101 COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Brussels, 17 December 2003 (OR. en) Interinstitutional File: 2002/0043 (CNS) 14994/03 MIGR 101 LEGISLATIVE ACTS AND OTHER INSTRUMTS Subject : Council Directive on the residence

More information

Ad-Hoc Query on Residence Permit Cards and biometric identifiers. Requested by SE on 6 th November Compilation produced on 8 th January 2013

Ad-Hoc Query on Residence Permit Cards and biometric identifiers. Requested by SE on 6 th November Compilation produced on 8 th January 2013 Ad-Hoc Query on Residence Permit Cards and biometric identifiers Requested by SE on 6 th November 2012 Compilation produced on 8 th January 2013 Responses from Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic,

More information

Migration policy of the Slovak Republic. Perspective until the year 2020

Migration policy of the Slovak Republic. Perspective until the year 2020 Migration policy of the Slovak Republic Perspective until the year 2020 The Government of the Slovak Republic Resolution No. 574 as of 31 August 2011 Due to the fact that migration will objectively affect

More information

UPC Agreement Ratification Process and Local or Regional Divisions

UPC Agreement Ratification Process and Local or Regional Divisions Ausschuss für Streitregelung Litigation Committee Commission Procédure Judiciaire Update 7 December 2015 (original document dated 20 July 2015) UPC Agreement Ratification Process and Local or Regional

More information

Legal protection of children from sexual exploitation: The Lanzarote Convention and the ONE in FIVE campaign

Legal protection of children from sexual exploitation: The Lanzarote Convention and the ONE in FIVE campaign PARLIAMENTS UNITED in combating sexual violence against children Legal protection of children from sexual exploitation: The Lanzarote Convention and the ONE in FIVE campaign Tanja Kleinsorge Head of the

More information

EU Lesson Plan. Name of Teacher: Sharon Goralewski School: Oakland Schools Title of Lesson Plan: The European Union: United in Diversity

EU Lesson Plan. Name of Teacher: Sharon Goralewski School: Oakland Schools Title of Lesson Plan: The European Union: United in Diversity EU Lesson Plan Name of Teacher: School: Oakland Schools Title of Lesson Plan: The European Union: United in Diversity Grades: 6th or 7 th Description: This lesson introduces the students to the countries

More information

No Recourse to Public Funds Newtork Conference A8 Nationals Since 1 May June 2011

No Recourse to Public Funds Newtork Conference A8 Nationals Since 1 May June 2011 No Recourse to Public Funds Newtork Conference A8 Nationals Since 1 May 2011 15 June 2011 The AIRE Centre Mission: To promote awareness of European law rights and assist marginalised individuals and those

More information

Visa options for Sporting Events

Visa options for Sporting Events Visa options for Sporting Events Visa information While this fact sheet provides an outline of the most common visa options for those travelling to Australia to participate in a sporting event, please

More information

Human Rights Council UPR for Jordan

Human Rights Council UPR for Jordan P a g e 1 Human Rights Council UPR for Jordan Jordan praised for improvement of women s rights, upbraided on administrative detention, prisons, torture, the media, and discrimination against foreign workers

More information

The impact of the Lisbon Treaty on climate and energy policy - an environmental perspective

The impact of the Lisbon Treaty on climate and energy policy - an environmental perspective ClientEarth legal briefing, January 2010 The impact of the Lisbon Treaty on climate and energy policy The Lisbon Treaty, signed in Lisbon on 13 December 2007 and designed to change the workings of the

More information

Ad-Hoc Query on Registration at Accommodation Establishments. Requested by EE EMN NCP on 25 th January 2012

Ad-Hoc Query on Registration at Accommodation Establishments. Requested by EE EMN NCP on 25 th January 2012 Ad-Hoc Query on Registration at Accommodation Establishments Requested by EE EMN NCP on 25 th January 2012 Compilation produced on 27 th February 2012 Responses from Austria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia,

More information

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT 2009-2014. Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs. Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT 2009-2014. Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs. Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs EUROPEAN PARLIAMT 2009-2014 Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs 17.12.2013 2013/2183(INI) REPORT on the EU Roadmap against homophobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation

More information