5 Norm-referenced Tests Norm-referenced tests compare the student s results against those of other students who have previously taken the test. Student results are reported in raw scores, percentile ranking, or grade equivalent.
6 Uses of norm-referenced tests Standardized achievement tests enable educators to compare the students results from one year to another within the same building. Teachers can evaluate their student s progress from year to year. Teachers can evaluate their teaching effectiveness. On a district level, the effectiveness of the reading instruction, program or curriculum can be evaluated.
7 Criterion-referenced tests Criterion-referenced tests compare a student s results against a set performance or criterion. Benchmarks set the criteria for mastery and often the time period in which the level of mastery should be achieved. Rubric can use the criteria of beginning, developing, proficient to assist in determining a student s progress.
8 Uses of criterion-referenced tests Used to determine whether a student or a group of students have learned a specific set of skills. Readiness tests results can be used to determine the emergent literacy skills of a young student. Diagnostic tests can provide insight into a student s difficulty with reading skills. Instruction can be planned based upon the results of the criterion-referenced test.
9 Reliability The test will measure the same way every time it is administered Validity The test measures what it (the company) claims it measures. Bias in testing Testing demonstrates a provable and systematic difference in the results of people from differing groups. one particular gender or race consistently has statistically different results from the rest of the testing population
10 Yopp-Singer Test of Segmentation Hallie Yopp Consists of 22 words that the student segments The Phonological Awareness Test (PAST)-- Robertson & Salter Rhyming Segmentation Isolation Deletion Substitution Blending Graphemes Decoding
11 PALS Assessment Print and Word Awareness Nursery Rhyme Awareness Name Writing Rhyme Awareness Beginning Sound Awareness Alphabet Recognition Letter Sounds Concept of Word Blending Sound-to-Letter Match Spelling/phonics Word Recognition in Isolation Oral Reading in Context (accuracy, fluency, rate and comprehension)
12 Informal Reading Inventories are comprised of a series of graded passages which are used to determine a student s: reading level strengths instructional needs Informal Reading Inventories assess both decoding and comprehension.
13 Informal Reading Inventories: Individually administered Composed of graded word lists graded passages comprehension questions
14 Graded word lists Consist of 10 to 20 words for each grade level Students read the lists until they reach a point where they no longer recognize or can decode the words. Purpose: Assists in determining the passage level to begin the oral reading Assists the teacher in determining the decoding skills the student uses for words in isolation
15 Graded passages Both narrative and informational text is used. The student reads the passage orally and silently. The student then responds to a series of comprehension questions. The teacher records the student s performance and analyzes it on the basis of: Strategy use Identification of unknown words Comprehension
16 Student scores used to determine: Independent reading level student can read with fluency, understanding, accuracy Instructional reading level student needs some assistance or instruction from the teacher as it presents some difficulties Frustration reading level the material is so difficult for the student that errors are frequent, comprehension is minimal and the experience is frustrating for the reader
18 Advantages to the use of IRI Authentic text is used to determine how well a student can read. The student s ability to analyze words is observed in context. Most contain some form of miscue analysis to determine the students oral reading errors.
19 It has been more than 40 years since Ken and Yetta Goodman introduced educators to the belief that miscues (oral reading errors) are a natural part of the reading process. A miscue is often defined as an oral response differing from the one in the text being read. Miscue Analysis is based on the analyzing of errors a reader makes while reading orally to infer which strategies a student is using or not using. The first miscue analysis inventory was developed by Yetta Goodman and Carolyn Burke in 1972.
20 Sample Recording Sheet Recording Sheet
21 Omissions student is not using strategies to decode the print or is not monitoring for meaning High frequency of initial letter attempts or substitutions student has developed some strategies for decoding, consider more instruction in using the whole word or word families Errors on basic sight words instruction to develop automaticity of high frequency sight words. Self-Corrections the student is self-monitoring and realizes when things do not make sense or sound correct.
22 M Meaning semantics Does this make sense? S Syntax grammar Does this sound right? V Visual graphophonics Does this look right?
23 Running Records are a system of recording a student s oral reading. Developed by Marie Clay, Similar to miscue analysis.
24 Running records are taken to guide teaching Consistent notations are important Written record of reading on any material Assessment for analyzing students strengths and needs
25 Guide to choosing appropriate reading material Assessment to determine focus of instruction Assessment for monitoring student progress
26 Running record sample
27 Check comprehension based on a reader s A. Comments during and after reading B. Self-corrections C. Retelling of the story after reading.
28 Show how students process print Appropriateness of text Instructional placement Grouping students Monitoring progress
29 Determines lesson focus Choice of book level Long-term documentation Helps teachers look/listen with new eyes/ears Focus on strategies used
31 The Cloze Procedure is used to determine a student s reading level, use of context clues, and vocabulary. May be used to determine if a student is able to read and comprehend a particular content area text.
32 Preparation Select a passage of about 100 words. Reproduce the page leaving the first and last sentences as complete. Starting with the second sentence, replace every seventh word with a blank.
33 Administration The student first reads the passage inserting the word blank at the blank. The student then reads the passage writing in a word for each blank.
34 Evaluation Count the number of exact, correct words the student placed on the blanks. Determine a percentage of correct replacements. Independent Level 60% or higher Instructional Level between 40-59% Frustrational Level between 0 and 39%
35 Performance Assessments (assessments of authentic tasks) require students to demonstrate their knowledge and skills through performance of real life tasks. Makes assessment an important component of the instruction.
36 Students may combine their literacy skills with content area learning to create projects or books, reports, research observations, posters, maps, plays, etc. Identify the specific skills, strategies, and knowledge you want the students to demonstrate. Construct a task that requires students to demonstrate these selected items. Develop a rubric to evaluate the task.
37 Rubrics are a set of guidelines or acceptable performances for a given task. Rubrics may be used to determine a student s development in a particular area of literacy.
38 They make the analysis assessment process more reliable and consistent. Rubrics can be general or very specific and can be tailored to your expectations. They can be used to assess one or several aspects of students instructional product.
39 Typically a chart is established with descriptors on a scale of 1 to 4 with four being the highest score or target. The individual descriptor closest to describing the student s performance is highlighted. Students may have individual descriptors in several columns. The column with the most highlighted areas would determine the final score.
40 Rubric Sample
41 A portfolio is an orderly collection of a student s work. They may include such things as writing, lists of books read, projects, reflections, goals, etc. They serve as a means to evaluate a student s effort, progress, improvement, achievements, strengths and needs.
42 Portfolio assessment encourages students to reflect, become selfevaluators and aware of their development as a reader and writer. Materials may be added by the student, teacher or both.
43 Periodically, students are encouraged to select materials for their portfolio. They may conference with their peers about their selections or make comments about why the particular piece was selected. They reflect upon what has been learned or what they would like to establish as their next goal. The student conferences with the teacher. New goals are set.
44 Retellings use the student s unprompted recall of a passage to assess construction of meaning. Retellings may be done orally or in writing.
45 Analyzing the retelling enables the teacher to see: what a student remembers what a student thinks is important to remember what a student thinks should be retold how a student does or does not organize and sequence information the student s ability to infer from the text the student s connect from text to self the student s language development how the student constructs meaning (Benson, V. and Cummins, C., The Power of Retelling, 2000)
46 Retelling Rubrics Retelling Scoring Guides
47 Predictability The quality of a narrative text that enables the reader to predict how it will develop and end. Predictable Text A text with a repeated pattern that allows the reader to anticipate what is to appear on the following pages.
48 Fountas and Pinnell are perhaps the best known duo for leveling of texts. Tradebooks of all kinds have been organized along a continuum of increased difficulty. Individual book companies may also have their own leveling systems.
49 A few examples of the criteria they ve indicated they have used: Level A: One line of print Few words in the line Ample space between words Sentences are not too long Repeated patterns Very easy high frequency words Print placement is consistent Simple punctuation Pictures provide high support for the text
50 Level B: Similar criteria as Level A, but slightly more challenging Two or more lines of print per page Repeating words or sentence patterns Commas may now appear Simple dialogue More high frequency words Word endings ed, ing, s Stories are set in the present Setting is not important to the story plot Inferences are not really prevalent Books are about 8 pages
51 Level C: Topics are familiar to students children, families, everyday life, animal fantasies Stories are longer More action is involved Still few characters Sentence length is increasing and may include imbedded clauses Compound sentences Dialogue is more frequent Punctuation variety has increased Lines and words per page have increased Books are about 8 pages Compound words Readers can no longer depend on illustrations or sentence patterns to read the book with accuracy. More words must be solved using regular spelling patterns.
52 Level F: Books are 10 to 30 pages in length Language is more that of written language than spoken Punctuation is used to enhance meaning Concepts no longer center on everyday life Some texts may be short, but contain unusual language patterns or technical terms More abstract ideas Much greater variety in vocabulary Genres folktales, fantasy, realistic fiction, simple informational books
53 Level I: Narrative and informational texts One main plot with a solution Multiple events to follow Characters and events require interpretation Books extend to 40 pages Layouts vary Text features include maps and charts Use a great deal of dialogue Illustrations enhance meaning, but little support for word solving and meaning Multisyllabic words Complex word solving is required Illustrations still appear on nearly every page Chapter-like books begin to appear Readers may find it necessary to read over a period of time.
54 Level L: Picture books are longer and lend themselves to guided reading group discussions Many chapter books Illustrations present, but readers rely on them less Genres realistic fiction, biography fantasy, historical fiction Several characters in which to follow actions and characteristics Some stories have abstract or symbolic themes More sophisticated plots Characters develop through the story Stories may take place over a long period of time Events build upon each other increasing the readers need for recall and organization Dialogue becomes more complex Books are 70 to 80 pages in length Introduction of more conventions italics, indentations Complex sentences with multisyllable words and technical words Vocabulary is more content specific and may need pre-reading support
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