1 Available online at Cognition 107 (2008) Brief article Seeing is believing: The effect of brain images on judgments of scientific reasoning q,qq David P. McCabe a, *, Alan D. Castel b a Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Campus Box 1876, Fort Collins, CO , USA b Department of Psychology, University of California, 1285 Franz Hall, Box , CA , Los Angeles, USA Received 19 December 2006; revised 25 July 2007; accepted 25 July 2007 Abstract Brain images are believed to have a particularly persuasive influence on the public perception of research on cognition. Three experiments are reported showing that presenting brain images with articles summarizing cognitive neuroscience research resulted in higher ratings of scientific reasoning for arguments made in those articles, as compared to articles accompanied by bar graphs, a topographical map of brain activation, or no image. These data lend support to the notion that part of the fascination, and the credibility, of brain imaging research lies in the persuasive power of the actual brain images themselves. We argue that brain images are influential because they provide a physical basis for abstract cognitive processes, appealing to people s affinity for reductionistic explanations of cognitive phenomena. Ó 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Scientific communication; fmri; Brain imaging; Persuasion; Cognitive neuroscience q This manuscript was accepted under the editorship of Jacques Mehler. qq We would like to thank Chelsea Beman for assistance in running the participants in this study. * Corresponding author. Tel.: ; fax: addresses: (D.P. McCabe), (A.D. Castel) /$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi: /j.cognition
2 344 D.P. McCabe, A.D. Castel / Cognition 107 (2008) Introduction Understanding scientific data is often a complex process for both scientists and the lay public alike. Scientific communication is facilitated by presenting summaries of data, summaries that often take the form of tables, graphs, or images, and convey information about the quality or importance of the scientific data. For example, physical sciences such as chemistry and physics use graphs to represent data far more often than social sciences, such as sociology and economics, which use tables to a greater degree (Smith, Best, Stubbs, Archibald, & Roberson-Nay, 2002). Thus, to the extent that physical sciences are perceived as more credible than social sciences, visual displays are associated with a greater degree of scientific credibility (Smith et al., 2002). Data from cognitive research is usually summarized using tables and/or graphs, but other methods of presentation are often used. For example, in cognitive neuroscience, brain activity measured using fmri (functional magnetic resonance imaging) or PET (positron emission tomography) is sometimes presented in tables or graphs, but is often represented using images of the brain with activated areas highlighted in color. These brain images have been portrayed in the media as localizing brain areas associated with a wide range of cognitive, emotional, and spiritual functions, including lying, being in love, and believing in God, among other things (Nicholson, 2006). Furthermore, both scientists and the media have suggested that using brain images to represent brain activity confers a great deal of scientific credibility to studies of cognition, and that these images are one of the primary reasons for public interest in fmri research (Carey, 2006; Dobbs, 2005; Racine, Bar-Ilan, & Illes, 2005). The excitement about brain imaging research has not been without controversy. Many scientists, particularly cognitive neuroscientists and ethicists, are concerned about how the data from fmri studies are being interpreted, particularly by the lay media and the general public, both of whom have shown a tendency to oversimplify and misrepresent conclusions from brain imaging studies. Racine et al. (2005) have argued that popular press coverage of brain imaging research has led to a type of neuro-realism, such that the phenomena under study become, uncritically real, objective or effective in the eyes of the public (p. 160). Similarly, Dumit (2004) has argued that brain images naturally communicate that different kinds of people (e.g., normal or depressed) are represented by different patterns of brain activation, and that these images are intuitively interpreted as being credible representations of cognitive activity. This tendency to interpret brain images as credible may be related to people s natural affinity for reductionistic explanations of cognitive phenomena (cf., Weisberg, Keil, Goodstein, Rawson, & Gray, in press), such that physical representations of cognitive processes, like brain images, are more satisfying, or more credible, than more abstract representations, like tables or bar graphs. The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether brain images actually do have a particularly powerful persuasive influence on the perceived credibility of cognitive neuroscience data. In order to achieve this goal, ratings of the quality of articles summarizing cognitive neuroscience data were examined for articles that were accompanied by brain images, and those that were accompanied by other representations of data, or no representation at all.
3 D.P. McCabe, A.D. Castel / Cognition 107 (2008) Experiment 1 In the first experiment participants read fictional articles summarizing cognitive neuroscience research, modeled after news service articles, that either included no image, a brain image, or a bar graph depicting the critical results. After reading the article, participants were asked to rate the soundness of the scientific reasoning in the article. This design allowed an examination of whether presenting brain images would lead people to be more persuaded by cognitive neuroscience research, which would be indicated by higher ratings of scientific reasoning when brain images were present, compared to when they were absent, or when a bar graph was presented. Moreover, because bar graphs are a particularly effective way to communicate scientific data (Latour, 1990), and brain imaging data are often presented using bar graphs in research articles, a comparison between the brain image and bar graph conditions allowed a straightforward test of the hypothesis that there is something particularly persuasive about using brain images to convey neuroscientific data, relative to a realistic alternative visual representation of the data Methods Participants One-hundred fifty-six Colorado State University undergraduates between the ages of 18 and 25 participated for course credit Materials and procedure Participants read three brief articles, each summarizing the results of fictitious brain imaging studies. The articles made claims that were not necessitated by the data (e.g., reverse inference errors; Poldrack, 2006), giving participants some basis for skepticism in their ratings. For example, in the article entitled, Watching TV is Related to Math Ability, it was concluded that because watching television and completing arithmetic problems both led to activation in the temporal lobe, watching television improved math skills. This similarity in activation was depicted in a bar graph or brain image (shown in Fig. 1a), or was only explained in the text (the control condition). The other articles, entitled, Meditation Enhances Creative Thought, and, Playing Video Games Benefits Attention, also included errors in scientific reasoning, and preceded the Watching TV article (in that order). Each article was approximately 300 words long presented on a single page, with the rating questions below the article on the bottom of the page, and the image embedded in the text. Whether the article included a brain image, a bar graph, or only text was manipulated within-subjects, and the order of these conditions was counterbalanced. After reading each article, participants were asked to rate their agreement with three statements: (1) The article was well written, (2) The title was a good description of the results, and (3) The scientific reasoning in the article made sense. Responses were made on a four-point Likert scale, with response options including strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree (coded 1, 2, 3, or 4, respectively, for purposes of data analysis).
4 346 D.P. McCabe, A.D. Castel / Cognition 107 (2008) a temporal lobe activation TV Watching Arithmetic b Rating of the Statement: The Scientific Reasoning in the Article Made Sense Rating control bar graph brain image Fig. 1. (a) Examples of the bar graph and brain image used for the article entitled, Watching TV is Related to Math Ability, in which watching television and completing arithmetic problems led to similar levels of temporal lobe activation. (b) Mean ratings of scientific reasoning for the articles as a function of experimental condition (control, bar graph, and brain image). Error bars represent standard errors of the mean Results and discussion Results of statistical tests were significant at p <.05. A one-way within-subjects ANOVA was conducted separately for each question, with image type (control (no image), bar graph, brain image) as the independent variable. There was no significant effect of image type on the title question (M range = ; all F 0 s < 1), but there were significant effects for both the writing, F(1, 155) = 3.68, MSE = 1.06, and reasoning questions, F(1,155) = 4.09, MSE = Planned comparisons revealed that both the brain image (M = 2.92, SEM =.04) and bar graph (M = 2.90, SEM =.04) conditions were rated as better written than the control condition (M = 2.77, SEM =.05), F(1, 155) = 5.82, MSE = 1.82; F(1, 155) = 3.92, MSE = 1.28, respectively. Critically, as shown in Fig. 1b, texts accompanied by a brain image were given the highest ratings of scientific reasoning, differing reliably from both the control, F(1,155) = 5.87, MSE = 1.70, and bar graph conditions, F(1, 155) = 8.38, MSE = 1.85.
5 D.P. McCabe, A.D. Castel / Cognition 107 (2008) Experiment 2 Experiment 1 established that including brain images, a seemingly direct physical representation of brain activity, with summaries of fictional cognitive neuroscience data, increased ratings of scientific reasoning for those summaries. The control condition including a bar graph representing the data had no influence relative to a control condition with no visual depiction of the data. A possible alternative explanation for the effect of brain images on judgments of scientific reasoning was that they were more visually complex than bar graphs, and that the complexity of the images influenced judgments of scientific reasoning. To address this, in Experiment 2 participants were presented with articles that were accompanied by brain images, and others that were accompanied by topographical maps of brain activation (see Fig. 2; panel a). The topographical map was visually similar to the brain image in terms of represented brain activation in a complex color visual image, but these maps are not typically used in the popular press, and presumably are not as easily identified as representing a brain. Thus, if the effect of brain images in Experiment 1 was due to visual complexity, there should be no difference between the brain image and the topographical map conditions in Experiment Methods Participants One-hundred twenty-eight Colorado State University undergraduates participated for course credit Materials and procedure The articles entitled, Watching TV is Related to Math Ability, and, Playing Video Games Benefits Attention, from Experiment 1, were used in Experiment 2. The brain image and topographical map conditions were within-subject variables, and the order of these conditions was counterbalanced across participants. In Experiment 2, only the statement, The scientific reasoning in the article made sense, was rated following each article Results and discussion As shown in Fig. 2b, texts accompanied by a brain image were given higher ratings of scientific reasoning than those accompanied by a topographical map, t(127) = These data suggest that it was not simply the visual complexity of the brain images that influenced ratings of scientific reasoning, because both the brain image and topographical map were visually complex. 4. Experiment 3 Experiments 1 and 2 established an effect of the presence of brain images on judgments of the soundness of the scientific reasoning, and suggested that this effect was
6 348 D.P. McCabe, A.D. Castel / Cognition 107 (2008) a b Rating of the Statement: The Scientific Reasoning in the Article Made Sense Rating map brain image Fig. 2. (a) Examples of the topographical map and brain image used for the article entitled, Watching TV is RelatedtoMathAbility, inwhichwatchingtelevisionandcompletingarithmeticproblems ledtosimilarlevels of frontal lobe activation. (b) Mean ratings of scientific reasoning for the articles as a function of experimental condition (control, bar graph, and brain image). Error bars represent standard errors of the mean. not simply due to visual complexity. The third experiment was conducted in order to generalize the findings beyond the conditions used in the first two experiments. Experiment 3 used a real news service article taken from the BBC website, entitled, Brain Scans Can Detect Criminals, that summarized cognitive neuroscience data from a study published in the journal Nature. This article was used to extend the previous findings to material that would actually be encountered in the real world. Moreover, there were no errors in scientific reasoning in the article, allowing an examination of whether the effect would generalize beyond conditions in which there were these sorts of errors. Additionally, the critical statement regarding the credibility of the findings was changed to: Do you agree or disagree with the conclusion that brain imaging can be used as a lie detector? Methods Participants One-hundred eight undergraduates from Colorado State University and University of California, Los Angeles participated for course credit.
7 Materials and procedure The materials and procedures were the same as in the first experiment except where noted. The article used was from the BBC website, and was followed by two statements that participants rated: (1) Do you agree or disagree that the title, Brain Scans Can Detect Criminals, is a good summary of the results? and (2) Do you agree or disagree with the conclusion that brain imaging can be used as a lie detector? For half the participants the last paragraph of the article included text of a researcher criticizing the conclusion that brain imaging could be used as a lie detector to detect criminal activity in the real world, but for the other half this text was omitted (this variable was crossed with whether there was a brain image accompanying the article of not) Results and discussion D.P. McCabe, A.D. Castel / Cognition 107 (2008) A 2 (brain image: present, absent) 2 (criticism: present, absent) between-subjects ANOVA for the question regarding whether subjects agreed with the conclusion reached in the article revealed a main effect of brain image, such that the ratings of agreement were higher when the brain image was present, as compared to when it was absent, F(1, 104) = 4.60, MSE = 1.90 (see Fig. 3). However, the effect of criticism was not significant, F(1, 104) = 1.63, MSE = 0.67, and there was no interaction (F < 1). Repeating the ANOVA for the rating of the question regarding the appropriateness of the title revealed no effect of the brain image (F < 1; see Fig. 3), a main effect of criticism, F(1, 104) = 7.21, MSE = 3.05, and no interaction (F < 1). Thus, subjects rated the title, Brain Scans Can Detect Criminals, as more appropriate when the article was not criticized (M = 2.41, SEM =.10) compared to when it was criticized (M = 2.07, SEM =.08), but the presence or absence of a brain image had no effect. The effect of criticism on the title question was not surprising because the text criticizing the research involved experts arguing that the results of the study could not be generalized beyond the lab to situations involving real criminal activity, a criticism directly refuting the claim made in the title of the article. 5. General discussion The use of brain images to represent the level of brain activity associated with cognitive processes influenced ratings of the scientific merit of the reported research, compared to identical articles including no image, a bar graph, or a topographical map. This effect occurred for fictional articles that included errors in the scientific reasoning in the articles, and in a real article in which there were no such errors. The present results lend support to the oft mentioned notion that there is something particularly persuasive about brain images with respect to conferring credibility to cognitive neuroscience data. Brain images may be more persuasive than other representations of brain activity because they provide a tangible physical explanation for cognitive processes that is easily interpreted as such. This physical evidence may appeal to people s intuitive
8 350 D.P. McCabe, A.D. Castel / Cognition 107 (2008) no image brain image 2.80 Rating Title Conclusion Fig. 3. Mean ratings regarding the appropriateness of the title, and whether participants agreed with the conclusions reached in the article, when it was accompanied by a brain image and when it was not. Error bars represent standard errors of the mean. reductionist approach to understanding the mind as an extension of the brain (Weisberg et al., in press). This sort of visual evidence of physical systems at work, which is typical of harder sciences like physics and chemistry, is not typically apparent in studies of cognition, where the evidence for cognitive processes is indirect, by nature. Indeed, it is important to note that while brain images give the appearance of direct measurement of the physical substrate of cognitive processes, techniques like fmri measure changes in relative oxygenation of blood in regions of the brain, which is also indirect. Of course, it is unlikely that this subtlety is appreciated by lay readers. The present data provide support for the notion that there is, indeed, something special about the brain images with respect to influencing judgments of scientific credibility. Indeed, the data conveyed by the brain images in the current study were superfluous, providing information that was redundant with the text. In this respect the present data are unlike previous reports showing that more ostensibly relevant factors, such as the institutional affiliation of the scientists, can influence judgments of scientific credibility (Peters, & Ceci, 1982). Moreover, the information depicted in the brain image, the topographical map, and/or the bar graphs, were informationally equivalent, such that the same information could be inferred from all sources of information (Simon, 1978). Thus, the present results lend support to the notion that part of the scientific credibility of brain imaging as a research technique lies in the images themselves. The experiments we report here bear some resemblance to recent research showing that simply mentioning cognitive neuroscience data has an influence on peoples judgments of the quality of scientific reasoning (Weisberg et al., in press). However, Weisberg et al. found that including cognitive neuroscience data with explanations of cognitive phenomena had a more specific effect, by causing introductory psychology students to increase their ratings of satisfaction for poor scientific explanations, but
9 D.P. McCabe, A.D. Castel / Cognition 107 (2008) not good ones. Although we cannot directly compare the present data to the Weisberg et al. findings, the effect of brain images in the current study appears to be a general one, whereby readers infer more scientific value for articles including brain images than those that do not, regardless of whether the article included reasoning errors or not. Although speculative, this difference between our results and those of Weisberg et al. may be the result of different mechanisms being affected in the two studies. The simple addition of cognitive neuroscience explanations may affect people s conscious deliberation about the quality of scientific explanations, whereas the brain images may influence a less consciously controlled aspect of ratings in the current experiments. The recent finding that simply mentioning cognitive neuroscience data influences judgments of scientific reasoning (Weisberg et al., in press) may partly explain why the effect of brain images in the current study was not large. The effect sizes in Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were.26,.20, and.40, respectively (these effects are in the smallmedium range based on Cohen s (1988) criteria). As suggested by Weisberg et al., pre-experimental exposure to brain images in the popular press, which provides a physical explanation for cognitive phenomena, likely influences the allure of cognitive neuroscience data. This pre-exposure to brain images in the real world likely had an effect on ratings in the both the baseline and experimental conditions of the present experiments, and may therefore have precluded the possibility of finding larger effects of brain images in our experiments. The finding that brain images influenced the perceived credibility of cognitive neuroscience research also has ethical implications. Some have argued that cognitive neuroscientists should become more involved in the dissemination of their data, in an effort to enhance the understanding of techniques such as fmri (Beaulieu, 2002; Illes, DeVries, Cho, & Schraedley-Desmond, 2006). Indeed, many cognitive neuroscientists have expressed frustration at what they see as the oversimplification of their data, and have suggested that efforts be made to influence media coverage of brain imaging research to include discussion of the limitations of fmri, in order to reduce the misrepresentation of these data. Although there may potentially be some negative consequences of brain images in terms of artificially inflating the credibility of cognitive neuroscience research, there are also benefits to the persuasive power of brain images. In particular, including brain images with data is likely to have the effect of lending greater credibility to, and accessibility of, cognitive neuroscience research, and likely, for cognitive research more generally. Since public perception of science can play an important role in funding decisions and the direction of scientific discovery, the public s fascination with brain imaging may have a positive impact on public perception of research on cognition. References Beaulieu, A. (2002). Images are not the (only) truth: Brain mapping, visual knowledge, and iconoclasm. Science, Technology, and Human Values, 27,
10 352 D.P. McCabe, A.D. Castel / Cognition 107 (2008) Carey, B. (2006). Searching for the person in the brain. New York Times. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Dobbs, D. (2005). Fact or phrenology? Scientific American Mind, 16, Dumit, J. (2004). Picturing personhood: Brain scans and biomedical identity. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Illes, J., DeVries, R., Cho, M. K., & Schraedley-Desmond, P. (2006). ELSI priorities for brain imaging. American Journal of Bioethics, 6, W24 W31. Latour, B. (1990). Drawing things together. In M. Lynch & S. Woolgar (Eds.), Representation in scientific practice (pp ). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Nicholson, C. (2006). Thinking it over: fmri and psychological science. APS Observer, 19. Peters, D. P., & Ceci, S. J. (1982). Peer-review practices of psychological journals: The fate of published articles, submitted again. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5, Poldrack, R. A. (2006). Can cognitive processes be inferred from neuroimaging data? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, Racine, E., Bar-Ilan, O., & Illes, J. (2005). fmri in the public eye. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, Simon, H. A. (1978). On the forms of mental representations. In Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science. In C. W. Savage (Ed.). Perception and cognition: Issues in the foundations of psychology. Minneapolis (Vol. 9). MI: University of Minnesota Press. Smith, L. D., Best, L. A., Stubbs, D. A., Archibald, A. B., & Roberson-Nay, R. (2002). Constructing knowledge: The role of graphs and tables in hard and soft psychology. American Psychologist, 57, Weisberg, D. S., Keil, F. C., Goodstein, J., Rawson, E., & Gray, J. (in press). The seductive allure of neuroscience explanations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.
MIND, BRAIN, AND EDUCATION Consumers Favor Right Brain Training: The Dangerous Lure of Neuromarketing Annukka K. Lindell 1 and Evan Kidd 2 ABSTRACT Over the past decade the neuromarketing of educational
LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR THE PSYCHOLOGY MAJOR Goal 1. Knowledge Base of Psychology Demonstrate familiarity with the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, empirical findings, and historical trends in psychology.
THE GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CS 6795 Introduction to Cognitive Science Spring 2012 Homework Assignment 3 Mason Nixon 23rd February, 2012 Assignment In class we discussed some of your ideas designing
PSY101: GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY SYLLABUS LECTURE HOURS/CREDITS: 3/3 CATALOG DESCRIPTION Prerequisite: RDG099 Introduction to College Reading III This is an introduction to the study of behavior. The scientific
Int-Sousa (BIB)-45631:Int-Sousa (BIB)-45631 6/17/2008 7:10 PM Page 1 Introduction ARE BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS ON THE RISE? Teachers today face many challenges. Not only must they present curriculum content in
Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology Demonstrate familiarity with the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, empirical findings, and historical
CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FRESNO DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM GOALS AND OBJECTIVES FOR UNDERGRADUATE PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS Goals -- Knowledge, skills and values unique to psychology 1.
Applied Psychology Dr. Marya Howell-Carter, Acting Chair Psychology Dept. Bachelor of Science Degree The Applied Psychology program leads to a Bachelor of Science degree with a concentration in Industrial/Organizational
CHAPTER 2: CLASSIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY KEY TERMS ABC chart An observation method that requires the observer to note what happens before the target behaviour occurs (A), what the
The guide contains the following sections and information: s Scoring Components Evaluation Guideline(s) The curricular requirements are the core elements of the course. Your syllabus must provide clear
How are Parts of the Brain Related to Brain Function? Scientists have found That the basic anatomical components of brain function are related to brain size and shape. The brain is composed of two hemispheres.
Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Vol. 8, No. 3, October 2008. pp. 29-35. Impact of attendance policies on course attendance among college students Tiffany Chenneville 1 and Cary Jordan
The Behavior Analyst 2008, 31, 61 66 No. 1 (Spring) An Initial Survey of Fractional Graph and Table Area in Behavioral Journals Richard M. Kubina, Jr., Douglas E. Kostewicz, and Shawn M. Datchuk The Pennsylvania
Department: PSYC Course No.: 132 Credits: 3 Title: General Psychology I. Contact: David B. Miller Content Area: CA 3 Science and Technology Catalog Copy: 132. General Psychology I Course Information: (a)
9.63 Laboratory in Visual Cognition Fall 2009 Single factor design Textbook Chapters Chapter 5: Types of variables Chapter 8: Controls Chapter 7: Validity Chapter 11: Single factor design Single design
Cognitive History Timeline Review of Cognitive Psychology : History 1 Philosophical Considerations Schools of Thought Mind = the entity that can process information and display intelligence Brain = the
Experimental Research David Arnott Aim of the Session Understand the nature of experimental research Be able to understand IS journal papers that use an experimental method Terms & concepts Experimental
NORTHERN VIRGINIA COMMUNITY COLLEGE PSYCHOLOGY 211 - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FOR THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES Dr. Rosalyn M. King, Professor DETAILED TOPICAL OVERVIEW AND WORKING SYLLABUS CLASS 1: INTRODUCTIONS
Investigating the Effectiveness of Virtual Laboratories in an Undergraduate Biology Course Lawrence O. Flowers, Assistant Professor of Microbiology, Fayetteville State University, USA ABSTRACT In the last
Look Again: Effects of Brain Images and Mind Brain Dualism on Lay Evaluations of Research Cayce J. Hook and Martha J. Farah Abstract Brain scans have frequently been credited with uniquely seductive and
Foundations of Science and Technology Studies (STS) Prof. David Ribes dribes [at] uw.edu http://davidribes.com Human Centered Design and Engineering (HCDE) University of Washington Overview Experts speak
Writing the Empirical Social Science Research Paper: A Guide for the Perplexed Josh Pasek University of Michigan January 24, 2012 Correspondence about this manuscript should be addressed to Josh Pasek,
AP Psychology 2013 2014 Ms. Samuelson Per 6 Contact Ms. S firstname.lastname@example.org Wscacademy.org The school s website has a homework tracking system that will send email reminders to students and
One important educational outcome should be for students to develop accurate perceptions of the disciplines they study DONALD E. ELMORE, JULIA C. PRENTICE, AND CAROL TROSSET Do Students Understand Liberal
1 Levels of Analysis and ACT-R LaLoCo, Fall 2013 Adrian Brasoveanu, Karl DeVries [based on slides by Sharon Goldwater & Frank Keller] 2 David Marr: levels of analysis Background Levels of Analysis John
Relevant Concreteness and its Effects on Learning and Transfer Jennifer A. Kaminski (email@example.com) Center for Cognitive Science, Ohio State University 210F Ohio Stadium East, 1961 Tuttle Park Place
A Study on the Actual Implementation of the Design Methods of Ambiguous Optical Illusion Graphics. Chiung-Fen Wang *, Regina W.Y. Wang ** * Department of Industrial and Commercial Design, National Taiwan
Strategic Plan Proposal: Learning science by experiencing science: A proposal for new active learning courses in Psychology Contacts: Jacob Feldman, (firstname.lastname@example.org, 848-445-1621) Eileen Kowler
Mount Mercy University 1 Psychology The psychology major presents a scientific approach to the study of individual behavior and experience. The goal of the major is to provide an empirical and theoretical
Psychology - pathways & 1000 Level modules School of Psychology Head of School Degree Programmes Single Honours Degree: Joint Honours Degrees: Dr V. J. Brown Psychology Neuroscience (see Biomedical Sciences)
DRAFT TJ PROGRAM OF STUDIES: AP PSYCHOLOGY COURSE DESCRIPTION AP Psychology engages students in a rigorous appraisal of many facets of our current understanding of psychology. The course is based on the
Lecture 7 Methods of Scientific Observation and Analysis in Behavioral Psychology and Neuropsychology 1.Obtaining Knowledge 1. Correlation 2. Causation 2.Hypothesis Generation & Measures 3.Looking into
Spring 2016 UNC Department of Psychology Undergraduate Courses *For the complete list of undergraduate Psychology courses, please refer to the 2015-2016 Undergraduate Bulletin* First-Year Seminars (FYS)
PROPOSED PENNSYLVANIA STATEWIDE PROGRAM-TO-PROGRAM ARTICULATION AGREEMENT IN PSYCHOLOGY As required by Act 50 of 2009 and the Commonwealth s Transfer and Articulation Oversight Committee (TAOC), the Pilot
The General Education Program at Sweet Briar College Introduction The purpose of the General Education Program at Sweet Briar College is to provide all students with a common pattern of skills, experiences
PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM LEARNING GOALS AND OUTCOMES BY COURSE LISTING Psychology 1010: General Psychology Learning Goals and Outcomes LEARNING GOAL 1: KNOWLEDGE BASE OF PSYCHOLOGY Demonstrate familiarity with
AP PSYCHOLOGY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Psychologists use a variety of research methods to study behavior. Three of the main research methods used are Case study Correlational study, and Experiment.
1 SENT EAGLY, MANSTEAD, PRISLIN Proposal of chapter for European Review of Social Psychology A Social Identity Theory of Attitudes Joanne R. Smith (University of Queensland, Australia) and Michael A. Hogg
Spring 2013 ISSUE VOLUME YEAR PSYC 3700 Introduction to veli wisi erat de sit era enim erat elitdolore sit amet erat te bndit dius Comparative Comparative Psychology Instructor: Dr. Michael Vigorito, Phone:
Data Visualization How to ensure understandable and sustainable statistical products Sibylle von Oppeln-Bronikowski 1, Christoph Bergmann 2 1 Federal Statistical Office (Destatis), Germany; email@example.com
THE NEUROSCIENTIFIC BASIS 1 THE NEUROSCIENTIFIC BASIS OF CHESS PLAYING: APPLICATIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF TALENT AND EDUCATION WILLIAM M. BART AND MICHAEL ATHERTON UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA Paper Presentation
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing CHAPTER 8 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 1 Identify the four steps of hypothesis testing. 2 Define null hypothesis, alternative
We are often asked the question, What should I do to improve our staff engagement? Culture change is a difficult task to achieve for any leader. Leaders we work with to help transform their organizational
Using Retrocausal Practice Effects to Predict On-Line Roulette Spins Michael S. Franklin & Jonathan Schooler UCSB, Department of Psychology Summary Modern physics suggest that time may be symmetric, thus
233 Psychology Mission The mission of the psychology department is to assist students in the development of lifelong professional, spiritual, scholarly and scientific talents. Talents in psychology involve
Masicampo C.V. 1/6 E. J. Masicampo 805.637.3427 phone Wake Forest University 336.758.4733 fax 415 Greene Hall firstname.lastname@example.org P.O. Box 7778 Reynolda Station Winston-Salem, NC 27109 Website: http://www.wfu.edu/~masicaej/
AP Psychology Course Syllabus and Survival Guide Mr. Koch email@example.com 651 982 8550 Course website: http://hs.forestlake.k12.mn.us/staff_sites/dan_koch_home/koch_ap_psychology/ Wiki page:
Psychology Learning Goals and Outcomes UNDERGRADUATE PSYCHOLOGY MAJOR LEARNING GOALS AND OUTCOMES: A Report (March 2002) American Psychological Association, Task Force Members: Jane S. Halonen, Drew C.
The Learning Brain This organ we call our adult brain is about the size of a cantaloupe. It s wrinkled like a walnut, feels like a ripe avocado, and is pink in color because of the blood flowing through
City Vision College (Course 414): Help for Alcoholics Chapter 4: The Tools of Recovery (pages 65 85) 1. According to your text, how many million Americans currently abuse or are dependent on alcohol? How
The Cheshire Cat Illusion The Cheshire Cat vanished quite slowly, beginning with the end of the tail, and ending with the grin, which remained some time after the rest of it had gone. - Alice s Adventures
BA Psychology (2014 2015) Program Information Point of Contact Marianna Linz (firstname.lastname@example.org) Support for University and College Missions Marshall University is a multi campus public university providing
PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMMES KEY FACTS Programme name Psychology Award BSc (Hons) School School of Arts and Social Sciences Department or equivalent Department of Psychology UCAS Code
THE PRIZE IN ECONOMIC SCIENCES 2012 INFORMATION FOR THE PUBLIC Stable matching: Theory, evidence, and practical design This year s Prize to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth extends from abstract theory developed
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ON AUDITING (UK AND IRELAND) 240 Introduction THE AUDITOR S RESPONSIBILITIES RELATING TO FRAUD IN AN AUDIT OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Effective for audits of financial statements for
Acting humanly: The Turing test Artificial Intelligence Turing (1950) Computing machinery and intelligence : Can machines think? Can machines behave intelligently? Operational test for intelligent behavior:
1 General Psychology PSY 1010-52H CRN 26527 Spring 2015 Instructor & Contact Information Colin Metzger, M.S. Phone: 435.256.7869 Email: email@example.com Lecture: Thursdays 6:00 pm to 8:30 pm, Dixie State
High School Psychology and its Impact on University Psychology Performance: Some Early Data John Reece Discipline of Psychology School of Health Sciences Impetus for This Research Oh, can you study psychology
Learning and Instruction 12 (2002) 107 119 www.elsevier.com/locate/learninstruc Aids to computer-based multimedia learning Richard E. Mayer *, Roxana Moreno Department of Psychology, University of California,
COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 2014-2015 Course Definitions, Designators and Format Courses approved at the time of publication are listed in this bulletin. Not all courses are offered every term. Refer to the online
Effects of Automated Transcription Delay on Non-native Speakers Comprehension in Real-time Computermediated Communication Lin Yao 1, Ying-xin Pan 2, and Dan-ning Jiang 2 1 Institute of Psychology, Chinese
Handwriting in the 21st Century? AN EDUCATIONAL SUMMIT Handwriting in the 21st Century? Research Shows Why Handwriting Belongs in Today s Classroom A Summary of Research Presented at Handwriting in the
Training and Development (T & D): Introduction and Overview Recommended textbook. Goldstein I. L. & Ford K. (2002) Training in Organizations: Needs assessment, Development and Evaluation (4 th Edn.). Belmont:
Software Development and Testing: A System Dynamics Simulation and Modeling Approach KUMAR SAURABH IBM India Pvt. Ltd. SA-2, Bannerghatta Road, Bangalore. Pin- 560078 INDIA. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org,
The Psychology Foundation of Australia (Incorporated in NSW) www.psychologyfoundation.org.au President: Prof David Badcock School of Psychology The University of Western Australia 08 6488 3243 email@example.com
CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Learning in High-Tech and Multimedia Environments Roxana Moreno University of New Mexico ABSTRACT When do high-tech environments promote learning? The goal of
1 Advertising in a competitive market [Texto impreso] : the role of product standards, customer learning and switching costs / Eric T. Anderson and Duncan Simester References: p. 502-503 : 27 refs. Abstract:
Sky Academy Skills Studios Livingston: Matrix Sky Academy Skills Studios Topics: summary of topics and curriculum areas 1 Animal Rights = Health and and Science 2 Celebrity Culture = Health and and Social
Course Descriptions Psychology PSYC 1520 (F/S) General Psychology. An introductory survey of the major areas of current psychology such as the scientific method, the biological bases for behavior, sensation
Instructor: Bethany Kok 332 Davie Hall Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Office Hours: To be determined pending class vote, and by appointment Course Web Page: http://sakaipilot.unc.edu/ (login with UNC ONYEN, find
1 Spring 2016 Psychology Course Descriptions PSYC 1010-1: Introduction to Psychology Instructor: Dodson Meeting Time: MW 2:00-3:15 e-mail the professor. Description: Overview of psychology from both the
Tennessee Board of Regents Proposal for the Establishment of a Lower Division General Education Core Created by: The Ad Hoc Committee charged to Establish a Lower Division General Education Core Curriculum
THIS IS THE RUNNING HEAD IN UP TO 50 CHARACTERS 1 (The running head is what gets printed across the top of journal pages. The 50 characters include spaces. It usually contains as much as the title that
PROSPECTIVE MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS KNOWLEDGE IN MATHEMATICS AND PEDAGOGY FOR TEACHING - THE CASE OF FRACTION DIVISION Yeping Li and Dennie Smith Texas A&M University, U.S.A. In this paper, we investigated
Tor Wager Columbia University Department of Psychology 1190 Amsterdam Ave. New York, NY 10027 Lab phone (temp): 212-854-1860 Email: email@example.com http://www.columbia.edu/cu/psychology/tor/ Professional
Chapter 2 Legal view of digital evidence Before developing a model or a theory, it is important to understand the requirements of the domain in which the model or the theory is going to be used. The ultimate
How to get published in Nature (and its sister journals) Ed Gerstner / 印 格 致 Executive Editor Nature Communications March 2014 My background Joined Nature in April 2002. Moved to Shanghai in November 2012
Psychology Minor Proposal 1 Psychology Undergraduate Minor Proposal Approved February 21, 2007 Prepared by the Psychology Department Undergraduate Minor Committee Harold Greene and Douglas MacDonald, Co-Chairs
TEEN REACTIONS TO ANTI-DRINK DRIVING FEAR APPEALS Nicky Shore Lever-Rexona, Sydney Brendan J. Gray University of Otago Abstract The use of a graphic imagery in road safety advertising has become commonplace.
Comparing User Engagement across Seven Interactive and Social-Media Ad Types. A Collaborative Study by ` Executive Summary. Increases in social networking and interactive advertising technology have led