Potassium + Chlorine. K(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 KCl(s)

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1 Types of Reactions Consider for a moment the number of possible chemical reactions. Because there are millions of chemical compounds, it is logical to expect that there are millions of possible chemical reactions. It would be very difficult to memorize the s for all the different chemical reactions that occur so chemists have grouped them according to the similarities in the way they react. It is not quite as simple as this though because some chemical reactions can belong to more than one type. One method groups nearly all the chemical reactions into five main types. 1. synthesis (or combination) 2. decomposition 3. single replacement (or single displacement) 4. double replacement (or double displacement) 5. combustion 1. Synthesis reactions When two reactants combine to form one product. For example: Chlorine K(s) Cl 2 (g) 2 KCl(s) 2. Decomposition reactions When one reactant breaks down into two or more products or two of more of the same molecules. It is hard to predict the products of decomposition reactions. For example: 1. Calcium carbonate Calcium Oxide CaCO 3 (s) CaO(s) CO 2 (g) 2. Mercury oxide Mercury Oxygen 2 HgO(s) 2 Hg(l) O 2 (g) Write a word and balanced symbol for the decomposition reaction you observed. 1

2 3. Single Replacement reactions Occur between a metal element and a compound. The metal element replaces an element in the compound. Common elements that swap are two metals or a metal and hydrogen. For example: 1. Zinc Zinc Mg(s) Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Zn(s) The element magnesium, Mg is replaced by the element zinc, Zn in the compound zinc. Zinc becomes the product. 2. magnesium Hydrochloric acid chloride Hydrogen Mg (s) 2 HCl (aq) MgCl 2 (aq) H 2 (g) In this reaction the element magnesium is replaced by the element hydrogen, H in hydrochloric acid. Hydrogen gas, H 2 becomes the product. Write a word and balanced symbol for the single replacement reaction you observed. 4. Double Replacement reactions Occur between two compounds. The two positive metal ions in each reactant swap places with one another. For example: 1. ate Barium Barium carbonate K 2 CO 3 (aq) BaCl 2 (aq) 2 KCl (aq) BaCO 3 (s) ions K, CO 3 Ba 2, Cl K, Cl Ba 2, CO 3 Ionic Equation CO 3 (aq) Ba 2 (aq) BaCO 3(s) 2

3 2. sulfide sulfide Na 2 S(aq) Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) NaNO 3 (aq) MgS(s) ions Na, S Mg 2, NO 3 Na, NO 3 Mg 2, S Ionic S (aq) Mg 2 (aq) MgS Equation (s) In these reactions the two positive metal ions swap places with one another to form two new compounds. In most double displacement reactions the reactants are aqueous solutions. The products formed are a solid and another aqueous solution. The solid product formed when two aqueous solutions react is called a precipitate. To identify the precipitate solubility rules are used. The ionic show the ions involved in the formation of the precipitate only. Solubility Rules 1. All s are soluble 2. All chlorides, bromides and iodides are soluble except those of Pb 2, Ag and Hg 2 3. All sulfates are soluble except those of Ba 2, Sr 2, and Pb 2. CaSO 4, Ag 2 SO 4, Hg 2 SO 4 are slightly soluble. 4. All hydroxides are insoluble except those of Group I in the periodic table, NH 4, and Ba 2. Ca(OH) 2 and Sr(OH) 2 are slightly soluble. 5. All carbonates and phosphates are insoluble except those in Groups 1 and 2 in the periodic table and NH 4. Write a word and balanced symbol, plus the overall ionic for one of the double displacement precipitation reactions you observed. 3

4 Reactions between acids and bases are also double displacement reactions. They are also called neutralization reactions. For example the reaction between nitric acid and the base sodium hydroxide. Nitric acid hydroxide water HNO 3 (aq) NaOH (aq) NaNO 3 (aq) H 2 O(l) Write a word and balanced symbol for the acid base neutralization reaction you observed. 5. Combustion reactions Reactions that involve the reactant reacting with oxygen are called combustion reactions by scientists. We commonly called these reactions burning. For example paper burning in oxygen in the air is a combustion reaction. Combustions reactions are all exothermic because they release large amounts of heat. Energy because it is produced is written on the product side of the chemical reaction. For example if an element is burned in oxygen the element and oxygen combine to form on product like in a synthesis reaction. Oxygen C(s) O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) If a compound burns in oxygen the products are either carbon and water or carbon monoxide and water. methane Oxygen water CH 4 (s) 2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(g) 4

5 Write a word and balanced symbol for the combustion reaction you observed. Now that you have an understanding of different reaction types, can write chemical formulae and can balance chemical s it is possible to predict the products of a chemical reaction. Exercises 1. For the following unbalanced chemical reactions i) Identify as a synthesis, combustion, decomposition, single replacement or double replacement reaction. iii) Write a balanced chemical for the reaction. a) Ag (s) Cl 2 (g) AgCl 3 (s) b) N 2 O 4 (g) NO 2 (g) c) KCl (aq) ZnSO 4 (aq) K 2 SO 4 (aq) ZnCl 2 (aq) d) Cu (s) ZnO (s) Cu 2 O 3 (s) Zn (s) e) C 2 H 6 (g) O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) H 2 O (l) f) H 2 O 2 (aq) O 2 (g) H 2 O (l) 2. Prepare your own balanced single replacement and double displacement reaction. Be sure all compound formula are correct and all elements are in their proper pure form. The reactions must be different to the ones shown in this packet. [4 marks each: 2 for formula, 1 for balancing, 1 for proper reaction type] 5

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