Chapter 7: Chemical Equations. Name: Date: Period:

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1 Chapter 7: Chemical Equations Name: Date: Period: 7-1 What is a chemical reaction? Read pages a) Explain what a chemical reaction is. b) Distinguish between evidence that suggests a chemical reaction may have occurred and conclusive proof of a chemical change. c) Use word equations to describe a chemical reaction. d) Explain why some reactions are endothermic and some reactions are exothermic. e) Relate conservation of mass and the rearrangement of atoms in a chemical equation. f) Explain why reactants must be brought into contact for a reaction to occur. Word Bank: law of conservation of energy, exothermic, release, chemical change, endothermic, absorb 1. Light, heat, formation of a gas, color change, noise created, and formation of a precipitate are all evidence that a has taken place. 2. Chemical reaction or energy. 3. According to the, energy cannot be created or destroyed. 4. reactions are reaction that give off more energy than they take in, and reactions are reactions that take in more energy than they give off. Look at the two reactions below, which one is endothermic and which one is exothermic. When the word energy is written on the reactants side of the equation this indicates an endothermic reaction, if it s written on the product side you have an exothermic reaction. Hydrogen + Oxygen > Water + Energy Reactants Products Water + Energy > Hydrogen + Oxygen Reactants Products Energy and the water reaction Synthesis of Water Electrolysis (top of page 236 in our textbooks) (bottom of the page 236)

2 2 Electrolysis of water In all chemical reactions the particles on the reactant side of the equation must collide for a reaction to occur. Atoms rearrange in a chemical reaction. Example of a chemical reaction potassium chlorate (s) +phosphorus (s) --->potassium chloride (s) +phosphorus (V) oxide (s) + energy Atoms do not rearrange in a physical reaction. Example of a physical reaction hydrogen oxide (s) > hydrogen oxide (l) Answer the questions 1-7 on page 237 below.

3 7-2 How are reactions written? Read pages a) Translate word equations into formula equations. b) Relate conservation of mass to a balanced equation. c) Distinguish between coefficients in a chemical equation and subscripts in a chemical formula. d) Properly balance formula equations. 3 Balancing a chemical equation is much like the work of an accountant who has to show where every penny has come from and where it has gone. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass is neither created nor destroyed in any chemical reaction. Therefore balancing of equations requires the same number of atoms on both sides of a chemical reaction. The mass of all the reactants (the substances going into a reaction) must equal the mass of the products (the substances produced by the reaction). Steps to Balancing a Chemical Equation 1. Write all reactants on the left and all products on the right side of the equation arrow. Make sure you write the correct formula for each element. 2. Use coefficients in front of each formula to balance the number of atoms on each side. 3. Multiply the coefficient of each element by the subscript of the element to count the atoms. Then list the number of atoms of each element on each side. 4. It is often easiest to start balancing with an element that appears only once on each side of the arrow. These elements must have the same coefficient. Next balance elements that appear only once on each side but have different numbers of atoms. Finally balance elements that are in two formulas in the same side. Example NH 3 + O > NO + H 2 O N appears once on both sides in equal numbers, so the coefficient for NH3 is the same as for NO. Next look at H, which appears only once on each side but has different numbers of atoms, 3 on the left and 2 on the right. The least common multiple of 3 and 2 is 6, so rewrite the equation to get 6 atoms of H on both sides: 2NH 3 + O > NO + 3H 2 O There are 2 oxygen atoms on the left and 5 on the right the least common multiple of 2 and r is 10, so rewrite the equation as: 5 2NH 3 + 5O > 4NO + 6H 2 O Now count the atoms on each side: 2 N ----> 4 N 6 H -----> 12 H 10 O -----> 10 O If you double the N and H on the left the equation will be balanced: 4NH 3 + 5O > 4NO + 6H 2 O Double-check: 4 N -----> 4 N 12 H -----> 12 H 10 O > 10 O

4 4 There are 7 elements on the periodic table that must be written as diatomics. They are H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, and I 2 1. H 2 + O 2 => H 2 O 2. K + B 2 O 3 => K 2 O + B 3. HCl + NaOH => NaCl + H 2 O 4. NaCl => Na + Cl 2 5. N 2 + O 2 => N 2 O 5 6. H 3 PO 4 + Mg(OH) 2 => Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + H 2 O 7. NaOH + H 2 CO 3 => Na2CO3 + H2O 8. KOH + HBr => KBr + HOH 9. H 2 O 2 => H 2 O + O Al(OH) 3 + H 2 CO 3 => Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 + H 2 O 11. Al + S 8 => Al 2 S Cs + N 2 => Cs 3 N 13. Rb + RbNO 3 => Rb 2 O + N C 6 H 6 + O 2 => CO 2 + H 2 O 15. N 2 + H 2 => NH C 3 H 8 + O 2 => CO 2 + H 2 O Practice writing equations from words. Very difficult to do. We will try some of these. Translate and balance the following equations 1. lead II nitrate and sodium iodide react to make lead (II) iodide and sodium nitrate. 2. ammonia gas (NH 3 ) when it is pressed into water will make ammonium hydroxide. 3. zinc sulfide and oxygen become zinc oxide and sulfur. 4. sulfur burns in oxygen to make sulfur dioxide. 5. copper metal and silver nitrate react to form silver metal and copper II nitrate. 6. sodium metal and chlorine react to make sodium chloride.

5 5 Moles in reactions 1 mole of simple sugar is burned in 6 moles of oxygen it produces 6 moles of carbon dioxide and 6 moles of water. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O > 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O How many mole of water are produced if 2 moles of sugar are burned in oxygen (assuming you have plenty of oxygen). Answer Questions 8-13 on page What information is in an equation? Read pages a) Use information from a chemical equation to describe the energy change involved in a reaction. b) List states of matter for reactants and products. c) Interpret a chemical equation in terms of relative number of molecules involved and the moles of reactants and products. d) Derive mole ratios from balanced equations. e) Use mole ratios and DH values to calculate energy changes in reactions.

6 Exothermic reactions can be written either way. 6 2H 2(g) + O 2(g) > 2H 2 O ((l) + energy 2H 2(g) + O 2(g) > 2H 2 O ((l) kj 2H 2(g) + O 2(g) > 2H 2 O (l) ΔH= kj Endothermic reactions can be written either way. 2H 2 O ((l) + energy > 2H 2(g) + O 2(g) State symbols s or cr means solid or crystal 2H 2 O ((l) kj > 2H 2(g) + O 2(g) 2H 2 O ((l) > 2H 2(g) + O 2(g) ΔH= kj l g aq means liquid means gas means in aqueous solutions or dissolved in water > means yield or produces <=====> means reactants make products and then the products can go back and make reactants. 7-4 How can reactions be used? Read pages We will not do bolded items. a) Categorize reactions as belonging to one (or more) of five basic types of chemical reactions. b) Write chemical equations representing each type of chemical reaction. c) Use the activity series to predict whether a reaction will occur and what its products will be. d) Write total and net ionic equations for double replacement reactions. G e n e r a l T y p e s o f C h e m i c a l R e a c t i o n s COMPOSITION or SYNTHESIS REACTIONS : A + B > A B DECOMPOSITION REACTIONS : A B > A + B SINGLE REPLACEMENT OR DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS : Use activity series on page 259 A (metal) + B C > A C + B A(nonmetal) + B C ----> BA + C

7 7 DOUBLE REPLACEMENT OR DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS : A B + CD > A D + CB COMBUSTION REACTIONS : W h e n h y d r o c a r b o n s b u r n c o m p l e t e l y t h e y f o r m c a r b o n d i o x i d e a n d w a t e r. (H y d r o c a r b o n s a r e c o m p o u n d s m a d e u p o f c a r b o n, h y d r o g e n a n d s o m e t i m e s o x y g e n.) C x H y + O > CO 2 + H 2 O WATER FORMING, NEUTRALIZATION OR ACID-BASE REACTIONS: When an acid and a base react they form a type of salt and water. Balance and classify each of these reactions as synthesis(s), decomposition(d), combustion, single replacement(sr), double replacement(dr) and acid-base(ab) Determine if the reaction is exothermic (EXO) or endothermic(endo). 1. PCl 3(g) + Cl 2(g) ---->PCl 5(g) + energy 2. Sb (s) + I 2(g) + energy ----> SbI 3(s) 3. C 3 H 8(g) + O 2(g) -----> CO 2(g) + H 2 O (g) + energy 4. Fe (s) + CuSO 4(aq) ----> FeSO 4(aq) + Cu (s) + energy 5. NH 3(g) + HCl (g) ----> NH 4 Cl (g) + energy

8 6. CaCO 3(s) + energy ----> CaO (s) + CO 2(g) 8 7. Mg (s) + CrCl 3(aq) -----> MgCl 2(s) + Cr (s) + energy 8. KNO 3(s) + energy -----> KNO 2(s) + O 2(g) 9. KBr (aq) + AgNO 3(aq) ----> AgBr (s) + KNO 3(aq) + energy 10. H 2 SO 4(aq) + NH 4 OH (aq) H 2 O (l) + (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4(aq) = energy Answer question 24 and 25 (only) on page 263

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