External and intra-european Union trade

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1 ISSN External and intra-european Union trade Data This pocketbook provides an overview of the characteristics of the European Union s trade in goods. Data are provided for the European Union as a whole (EU-27), the euro area (EA-15) and the single Member States, with a breakdown by main partners and by major product groups, according to the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC). Trade flows for the 27 Member States are presented with both other EU countries (intra-eu trade) and non-eu partners (extra-eu trade). The source of these statistics is Comext, the Eurostat database containing detailed external trade data for the EU and its Member States. KS-CV EN-C External and intra-european Union trade Data Pocketbooks External and intra-european Union trade Data edition ISBN

2 How to obtain EU publications Our priced publications are available from EU Bookshop ( where you can place an order with the sales agent of your choice. The Publications Office has a worldwide network of sales agents. You can obtain their contact details by sending a fax to (352)

3 Pocketbooks External and intra-european Union trade Data edition

4 Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union Freephone number (*): (*) Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to numbers or these calls may be billed. More information on the European Union is available on the Internet ( Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2009 ISBN ISSN DOI /19351 Cat. No KS-CV EN-C Theme: External trade Collection: Pocketbooks European Communities, 2009 Cover photo: European Communities Printed in Belgium Printed on white chlorine -free paper

5 EUROSTAT L-2920 Luxembourg Tel. (352) website Eurostat is the Statistical Office of the European Communities. Its mission is to provide the European Union with high-quality statistical information. For that purpose, it gathers and analyses figures from the national statistical offices across Europe and provides comparable and harmonised data for the European Union to use in the definition, implementation and analysis of Community policies. Its statistical and services are also of great value to Europe s business community, professional organisations, academics, librarians, NGOs, the media and citizens. Eurostat's publications programme consists of several collections. News releases provide recent information on the Euro-Indicators and on social, economic, regional, agricultural or environmental topics. Statistical books are larger A4 publications with statistical data and analysis. Pocketbooks are free-of-charge publications aiming to give users a set of basic figures on a specific topic. Statistics in focus provides updated summaries of the main results of surveys, studies and statistical analysis. Data in focus present the most recent statistics with methodological notes. Methodologies and working papers are technical publications for statistical experts working in a particular field. Eurostat publications can be ordered via EU Bookshop: All publications are also downloadable free of charge in PDF format from the Eurostat website ( Furthermore, Eurostat s databases are freely available there, as are tables with the most frequently used and demanded short- and long-term indicators. Eurostat has set up, with the members of the European statistical system (ESS), a network of user support centres which exist in nearly all Member States as well as in some EFTA countries. Their mission is to provide help and guidance to Internet users of European statistical data. Contact details for this support network can be found on Eurostat s website.

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7 Contents Contents Preface...7 Abbreviations The European Union and world trade Extra-European Union trade EU trade by geographical zone EU trade by main partner countries EU trade by product EU trade in food and beverages EU trade in crude materials EU trade in energy EU trade in chemicals EU trade in machinery and vehicles EU trade in other manufactured Euro area trade Euro area trade by geographical zone Euro area trade by main partner countries Euro area trade by product External trade by Member State Overview Data...46 Belgium...46 Bulgaria...48 Czech Republic...50 Denmark...52 Germany...54 Estonia...56 Ireland...58 Greece...60 Spain...62 France...64 Italy...66 Cyprus...68 Latvia...70 Lithuania...72 External and intra-european Union trade 5

8 Contents Luxembourg...74 Hungary...76 Malta...78 Netherlands...80 Austria...82 Poland...84 Portugal...86 Romania...88 Slovenia...90 Slovakia...92 Finland...94 Sweden...96 United Kingdom Methodological notes External and intra-european Union trade

9 Preface Preface Eurostat s mission is to provide the European Union with a highquality statistical information service. Within this framework, Eurostat makes available trade statistics of the European Union as a whole and of its Member States. The aim of this publication is to provide an overview of the main characteristics of the European Union s trade. All the series between 2002 and 2007 have been recalculated to include all the Member States; therefore, the figures published here concern the 27 EU members. Chapter 1 shows the place of the European Union in global trade. Chapter 2 focuses on the structure and evolution of the external trade of the European Union as a whole. Chapter 3 highlights some key facts of euro area trade. Chapter 4 covers the trade of each Member State, including the trade between Member States. More detailed data and methodology can be found on the Eurostat website at: This website offers free access to Eurostat s dissemination database, predefined tables, methodological documents and publications. External and intra-european Union trade 7

10 Abbreviations Abbreviations EU EU-27 EA-15 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK SITC European Union European Union of 27 Member States from 1 January 2007 (BE, BG, CZ, DK, DE, EE, IE, EL, ES, FR, IT, CY, LV, LT, LU, HU, MT, NL, AT, PL, PT, RO, SI, SK, FI, SE, UK) Euro area of 15 members from 1 January to 31 December 2008 (BE, DE, IE, EL, ES, FR, IT, CY, LU, MT, NL, AT, PT, SI, FI) Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom Standard International Trade Classification 0 Zero or figure less than half the unit used Billion million EUR Euro n.e.s. Not elsewhere specified 8 External and intra-european Union trade

11 1The European Union and world trade

12 1 The European Union and world trade The main players in the world market of goods (billion EUR) Exports EU-27 USA China Japan Canada Imports Balance External and intra-european Union trade

13 The European Union and world trade 1 Share in world trade, 2007 (imports and exports) EU % Others 44 % USA 16 % Canada 4 % Japan 7 % China 11 % Trade exchanges in value, 2007 Billion EUR EU-27 USA China Japan Canada Exports Imports Balance The value of world trade in goods, excluding intra-eu-27 trade, was about EUR billion in The European Union is the leading trader, accounting for 18 % of total world trade. The USA was the second biggest trader with a share of 16 %, followed by China (11 %), Japan (7 %) and Canada (4 %). The EU is the biggest exporter and the second biggest importer in the world. In 2007, the value of extra-eu-27 exports was EUR billion and the value of imports EUR billion. The USA is the biggest importer in the world. It also records the biggest trade deficit, almost EUR 624 billion in China has become a major global trader in recent years. In 2004, China overtook Japan as the third biggest trader in the world. External and intra-european Union trade 11

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15 2Extra-European Union trade

16 2 The European Union and world trade 2.1. EU trade by geographical zone (billion EUR) Total extra-eu Other European countries Africa North America Central and South America Asia Oceania Non-specified Total extra-eu Other European countries Africa North America Central and South America Asia Oceania Non-specified Total extra-eu Other European countries Africa North America Central and South America Asia Oceania Non-specified External and intra-european Union trade

17 The European Union and world trade 2 EU trade, Billion EUR Exports Imports Balance EU trade by geographical zone, 2007 Billion EUR Asia Other European countries North America Exports Africa Imports Central and South America Oceania Starting from 2003, the European Union recorded a steady growth in both imports and exports. From 2003 to 2007, the average annual growth rate was more than 9 % for exports and more than 11 % for imports. EU trade is characterised by a permanent but generally limited trade deficit. In 2007, the deficit reached EUR 192 billion, which was slightly lower than in the previous year but more than four times higher than in In 2007, over 40 % of EU imports came from Asian countries while the other European countries accounted for more than a quarter. The main destination of EU exports in 2007 was Asia with a 30 % share, followed by other European countries (28 %) and North America (24 %). The EU has a considerable deficit in trade with Asian countries, which more than doubled between 2002 and The largest surplus is recorded in trade with North America. External and intra-european Union trade 15

18 2 The European Union and world trade 2.2. EU trade by main partner countries (billion EUR) Total extra-eu USA China Russia Switzerland Japan Norway Turkey South Korea India Brazil Total extra-eu USA China Russia Switzerland Japan Norway Turkey South Korea India Brazil Total extra-eu USA China Russia Switzerland Japan Norway Turkey South Korea India Brazil External and intra-european Union trade

19 The European Union and world trade 2 Main trading partners shares of EU exports, % 25 % 20 % 15 % 10 % 5 % 0 % USA China Russia Switzerland Japan Main trading partners shares of EU imports, % 20 % 15 % 10 % 5 % 0 % USA China Russia Switzerland Japan The USA has traditionally been the EU s most important trading partner but its relative significance has declined in recent years, in particular in imports. Between 2002 and 2007, the US proportion of total EU exports fell from 28 % to 21 % and of imports from 19 % to 13 %. In 2007, the surplus with the USA fell for the first time since the turn of the century and reached EUR 80 billion. China has become a main player in world trade in recent years. EU trade with China has more than quadrupled since China currently ranks first among EU import suppliers, after overtaking the USA in Since 2000, the EU has recorded the largest bilateral deficit in trade with China. Other large deficits were measured in trade with Russia, Japan and Norway. The EU posts the only large-scale trade surplus in trade with the USA. External and intra-european Union trade 17

20 2 The European Union and world trade 2.3. EU trade by product (billion EUR) Total extra-eu Primary Food and beverages Crude materials Energy Manufactured goods Chemicals Machinery and vehicles Products n.e.s Total extra-eu Primary Food and beverages Crude materials Energy Manufactured goods Chemicals Machinery and vehicles Products n.e.s Total extra-eu Primary Food and beverages Crude materials Energy Manufactured goods Chemicals Machinery and vehicles Products n.e.s External and intra-european Union trade

21 The European Union and world trade 2 EU exports by product group, 2007 Machinery and vehicles 44 % 25 % Not elsewhere specified 3 % Chemicals 16 % Food and beverages 5 % Crude materials 2 % Energy 5 % EU imports by product group, % Machinery and vehicles 30 % Chemicals 8 % Energy 23 % Not elsewhere specified 2 % Food and beverages 5 % Crude materials 5 % The EU exports mainly manufactured : their share has annually been around 85 % of total EU exports. In 2007, machinery and vehicles made up almost half of total exports while other manufactured accounted for 25 % and chemical for 16 %. Primary account for 12 % of total exports; about half of this is food and beverages. The structure of imports has slightly changed in recent years. Between 2002 and 2007, the share of primary increased from 27 % to 34 % while the respective share of manufactured declined. The main reason behind this is the rapid growth of imports of energy. About two thirds of imports are manufactured goods. The breakdown diverges from exports: machinery and vehicles and chemical account for a smaller share while the share of other manufactured is similar to that for exports. The surplus in trade of manufactured goods grew nearly threefold from 1999 to The trade of primary showed an opposite development, mainly driven by the deficit in energy, which almost quadrupled in the same period. External and intra-european Union trade 19

22 2 The European Union and world trade 2.4. EU trade in food and beverages (billion EUR) Total extra-eu USA Brazil Russia Switzerland Argentina Norway China Turkey Japan Canada Total extra-eu USA Brazil Russia Switzerland Argentina Norway China Turkey Japan Canada Total extra-eu USA Brazil Russia Switzerland Argentina Norway China Turkey Japan Canada External and intra-european Union trade

23 The European Union and world trade 2 Main trading partners shares of EU exports of food and beverages, 2007 USA 18 % Russia 11 % Switzerland 7 % Others 51 % Japan 6 % Norway 4 % Canada 3 % Main trading partners shares of EU imports of food and beverages, 2007 Brazil 12 % Argentina 8 % USA 8 % China 4 % Others 60 % Norway 4 % Turkey 4 % The product group food and beverages (SITC Sections 0 and 1) includes agricultural such as food and live animals, beverages and tobacco. The trade in food and beverages remained fairly stable between 1999 and 2004 but rapidly increased from The EU posted a permanent trade deficit, reaching EUR 13.6 billion in In exports, beverages are the most important individual within the group, accounting for more than a quarter of the total. Other main include fruit and vegetables, cereals and dairy. The USA is the main destination country of EU exports with an 18 % share, followed by Russia, Switzerland and Japan. Coffee and tea, fruit, vegetables and fish make up about 60 % of the imports. The imports of food and beverages are less concentrated than total EU imports. Brazil, Argentina and the USA are the only suppliers accounting for more than 5 % of total imports. External and intra-european Union trade 21

24 2 The European Union and world trade 2.5. EU trade in crude materials (billion EUR) Total extra-eu USA Brazil China Russia Canada Turkey Indonesia Chile Switzerland Australia Total extra-eu USA Brazil China Russia Canada Turkey Indonesia Chile Switzerland Australia Total extra-eu USA Brazil China Russia Canada Turkey Indonesia Chile Switzerland Australia External and intra-european Union trade

25 The European Union and world trade 2 Main trading partners shares of EU exports of crude materials, 2007 China 18 % USA 10 % Others 52 % Turkey 9 % Canada 2 % Switzerland 5 % Russia 4 % Main trading partners shares of EU imports of crude materials, 2007 Brazil 14 % USA 13 % Others 50 % Russia 7 % Canada 7 % Chile 4 % Indonesia 5 % Crude materials (SITC Sections 2 and 4) include non-manufactured goods like oilseeds, cork, wood, pulp, textile fibres, ores and other minerals as well as animal and vegetable oils. The EU has an ongoing trade deficit; from 2002 to 2007, imports always more than doubled the value of exports. In 2007, one half of imports were metal ores. Other to record a large share of imports include cork, wood and oilseeds. The USA was the most important supplier of EU imports until 2004 when Brazil took over. Russia and Canada are the other main partner countries. EU exports in crude materials are relatively low as they make up only about 2 % of total exports. Like for imports, metal ores, cork and wood are the main. External and intra-european Union trade 23

26 2 The European Union and world trade 2.6. EU trade in energy (billion EUR) Total extra-eu Russia Norway Libya USA Algeria Saudi Arabia Iran Nigeria Kazakhstan Switzerland Total extra-eu Russia Norway Libya USA Algeria Saudi Arabia Iran Nigeria Kazakhstan Switzerland Total extra-eu Russia Norway Libya USA Algeria Saudi Arabia Iran Nigeria Kazakhstan Switzerland External and intra-european Union trade

27 The European Union and world trade 2 Main trading partners shares of EU exports of energy, 2007 USA 29 % Switzerland 8 % Norway 3 % Nigeria 3 % Others 55 % Libya 1 % Russia 1 % Main trading partners shares of EU imports of energy, 2007 Russia 28 % Norway 13 % Libya 7 % Others 40 % Saudi Arabia 4 % Iran 4 % Algeria 4 % The main goods of energy (SITC Section 3) are crude oil, refined petroleum, coal, gas and electric current. The EU is dependent on imports of energy. This has led to a structural trade deficit, which reached a record level of EUR billion in The value of imports follows closely the price of crude oil. EU imports almost doubled from 1999 to 2001, then remained fairly stable from 2001 to 2004 and rose again strongly from 2004 to Three quarters of imports are petroleum and petroleum, mainly crude oil. Most of the remaining falls to gas and coal. The most important energy providers of the EU are Russia and Norway, which made up about 40 % of the imports in Libya, Saudi Arabia and Algeria also have relevant shares of EU energy imports. The majority of EU exports are refined petroleum. The biggest destination country is the USA, which accounts for more than one quarter of total exports. External and intra-european Union trade 25

28 2 The European Union and world trade 2.7. EU trade in chemicals (billion EUR) Total extra-eu USA Switzerland Russia Japan China Turkey Singapore Canada Norway Brazil Total extra-eu USA Switzerland Russia Japan China Turkey Singapore Canada Norway Brazil Total extra-eu USA Switzerland Russia Japan China Turkey Singapore Canada Norway Brazil External and intra-european Union trade

29 The European Union and world trade 2 Main trading partners shares of EU exports of chemical, 2007 USA 28 % Switzerland 10 % Russia 6 % Others 43 % China 4 % Turkey 5 % Japan 4 % Main trading partners shares of EU imports of chemical, 2007 USA 30 % Switzerland 21 % China 6 % Singapore Others 6 % 28 % Japan 5 % Russia 4 % The chemicals sector (SITC Section 5) contains various chemical goods such as organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, plastics and pharmaceutical. Trade in chemicals has grown steadily every year since 2003 but its share of the total EU trade has remained quite stable: in 2007, chemicals accounted for 16 % of exports and 8 % of imports. Besides machinery and vehicles, the chemicals sector is the only product group where the EU posts a trade surplus. The surplus reached EUR 77.1 billion in The most important within the group, both for exports and imports, are pharmaceutical and organic chemicals. The majority of imports come from a small number of countries: in 2007, the seven biggest suppliers accounted for over three quarters of total EU imports. The USA was the main source, with a proportion of 30 %, followed by Switzerland with 21 %. The USA (28 % in 2007) and Switzerland (10 %) were also the main partner countries for exports. External and intra-european Union trade 27

30 2 The European Union and world trade 2.8. EU trade in machinery and vehicles (billion EUR) Total extra-eu USA China Japan Russia South Korea Switzerland Turkey Taiwan Norway Singapore Total extra-eu USA China Japan Russia South Korea Switzerland Turkey Taiwan Norway Singapore Total extra-eu USA China Japan Russia South Korea Switzerland Turkey Taiwan Norway Singapore External and intra-european Union trade

31 The European Union and world trade 2 Main trading partners shares of EU exports of machinery and vehicles, 2007 USA 20 % Russia 8 % China 8 % Switzerland 5 % Others 51 % Turkey 4 % Norway 4 % Main trading partners shares of EU imports of machinery and vehicles, 2007 Taiwan 4 % Others 25 % Switzerland 4 % South Korea 8 % China 26 % Japan 14 % USA 19 % Machinery and vehicles (SITC Section 7) includes power generating and industrial machinery, computers, electric and electronic parts and equipment, road vehicles and parts, ships, airplanes and railway equipment. Machinery and vehicles is the most important individual product group in the external trade of the EU, accounting for 44 % of total EU exports and 30 % of imports in The group records also the largest surplus in EU trade: EUR 125 billion in The main exported within the group are road vehicles, industrial machinery and electrical machinery, while the imports are dominated by electrical machinery, IT and telecommunications equipment. The USA is by far the biggest destination country of EU exports, although its proportion diminished from 29 % to 20 % between 2002 and Concerning the other main partner countries, exports to Russia and China increased strongly during the same period while the share of EU exports to Switzerland decreased. The USA and Japan are still two of the top three source countries in imports although their importance has decreased. In 2002, they covered 46 % of EU imports but only 33 % in During the same period China s share increased from 11 % to 26 %. External and intra-european Union trade 29

32 2 The European Union and world trade 2.9. EU trade in other manufactured (billion EUR) Total extra-eu China USA Switzerland Russia Turkey India Japan Norway Hong Kong South Africa Total extra-eu China USA Switzerland Russia Turkey India Japan Norway Hong Kong South Africa Total extra-eu China USA Switzerland Russia Turkey India Japan Norway Hong Kong South Africa External and intra-european Union trade

33 The European Union and world trade 2 Main trading partners shares of EU exports of other manufactured, 2007 USA 19 % Switzerland 10 % Russia 7 % Norway 4 % Others 52 % China 4 % Turkey 4 % Main trading partners shares of EU imports of other manufactured, 2007 China 29 % USA 10 % Others 41 % India 4 % Switzerland 6 % Turkey 6 % Russia 4 % (SITC Sections 6 and 8) is a heterogeneous group consisting of manufactured which range from basic semi-manufactured such as leather, rubber, wood, paper, textiles, metals, building fixtures and fittings to more labour-intensive like clothes, shoes and accessories, scientific instruments, clocks, watches and cameras. The structure of exports and imports, in terms of, differs to some extent. The EU exports more semi-manufactured such as metals and metal while, for imports, manufactured are more relevant, in particular clothing. After a fall in 2003, the value of both imports and exports rose continuously in the following years. The EU trade deficit has risen in the last few years, reaching EUR 72 billion in After overtaking the USA in 2001, China has been the biggest supplier of the EU in this product group, reaching a share of 29 % in Other important suppliers include the USA, Switzerland and Turkey. The main destinations of exports are the USA, Switzerland and Russia. External and intra-european Union trade 31

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35 3Euro area trade

36 3 Euro area trade 3.1. Euro area trade by geographical zone (billion EUR) Total extra-ea Other European countries Africa North America Central and South America Asia Oceania Non-specified Total extra-ea Other European countries Africa North America Central and South America Asia Oceania Non-specified Total extra-ea Other European countries Africa North America Central and South America Asia Oceania Non-specified External and intra-european Union trade

37 Euro area trade 3 Euro area trade, Billion EUR Exports Imports Balance Euro area trade by geographical zone, 2007 Billion EUR Other European countries Asia North America Exports Africa Imports Central and South America Oceania Euro area trade has followed the same pattern as EU trade in recent years: the value of trade increased strongly from 2003 to 2007, with an average annual growth rate of about 10 %. In 2007, the value of both imports and exports was just below EUR billion. About half of euro area trade is carried out with other European countries. In 2007, they accounted for 53 % of exports and 46 % of imports. The respective shares of Asian countries were 20 % and 30 %. Unlike the EU as a whole, the euro area has posted a trade surplus in all recent years except for The euro area runs a surplus in trade with other European countries and North America while a deficit is recorded in trade with Asian countries. External and intra-european Union trade 35

38 3 Euro area trade 3.2. Euro area trade by main partner countries (billion EUR) Total extra-ea United Kingdom USA China Russia Switzerland Poland Sweden Czech Republic Japan Turkey Total extra-ea United Kingdom USA China Russia Switzerland Poland Sweden Czech Republic Japan Turkey Total extra-ea United Kingdom USA China Russia Switzerland Poland Sweden Czech Republic Japan Turkey External and intra-european Union trade

39 Euro area trade 3 Main trading partners shares of euro area exports, % 15 % 10 % 5 % 0 % United Kingdom USA China Russia Switzerland Main trading partners shares of euro area imports, % 15 % 10 % 5 % 0 % United Kingdom USA China Russia Switzerland The most important trading partner of the euro area is the United Kingdom, followed by the USA. In 2007, the United Kingdom accounted for 15 % of exports and 11 % of imports, while the USA recorded 13 % and 9 % respectively. The euro area is running a stable surplus in trade with the United Kingdom and the USA. In 2007, the surplus with the United Kingdom reached EUR 60 billion, up from 49 billion in The surplus with the USA fell from EUR 74 billion to 63 billion during the same period. Trade with China has grown strongly in recent years. In 2007, China became the largest supplier of the euro area. As imports from China grew at a faster pace than exports, the trade deficit deepened to EUR 111 billion in Besides China, large deficits are also recorded in trade with Russia and Japan. External and intra-european Union trade 37

40 3 Euro area trade 3.3. Euro area trade by product (billion EUR) Total extra-ea Primary Food and beverages Crude materials Energy Manufactured goods Chemicals Machinery and vehicles Products n.e.s Total extra-ea Primary Food and beverages Crude materials Energy Manufactured goods Chemicals Machinery and vehicles Products n.e.s Total extra-ea Primary Food and beverages Crude materials Energy Manufactured goods Chemicals Machinery and vehicles Products n.e.s External and intra-european Union trade

41 Euro area trade 3 Euro area exports by product groups, % Not elsewhere specified 2 % Food and beverages 6 % Crude materials 2 % Energy 4 % Machinery and vehicles 45 % Chemicals 15 % Euro area imports by product groups, % Not elsewhere specified 1 % Food and beverages 6 % Crude materials 5 % Machinery and vehicles 32 % Energy 20 % Chemicals 10 % The structure of euro area trade, in terms of, is very similar to that of the EU. Exports are concentrated on manufactured. In 2007, machinery and vehicles represented 45 % and other manufactured 26 % of total exports. For imports, the primary accounted for 30 % of total imports. A major share of this was made up by energy. The euro area is running a substantial surplus in manufactured. In 2007, the surplus was EUR 262 billion. The majority of this was generated by machinery and vehicles while other manufactured showed a deficit for the first time in Trade of primary is running a sizeable deficit. While trade in food and beverages posts a small surplus, there is a permanent deficit in energy and crude materials. External and intra-european Union trade 39

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43 4External trade by Member State

44 4 External trade by Member State 4.1. Overview Member States share of extra-eu-27 exports, 2007 DE IT FR UK NL BE ES SE AT IE FI DK PL HU CZ PT RO SI EL SK BG LT EE LU LV MT CY 7.1 % 6.0 % 4.4 % 3.8 % 2.6 % 2.6 % 2.3 % 1.8 % 1.7 % 1.2 % 1.1 % 0.7 % 0.7 % 0.5 % 0.5 % 0.5 % 0.4 % 0.4 % 0.2 % 0.2 % 0.1 % 0.1 % 0.0 % 11.5 % 11.4 % 10.8 % 27.4 % 0 % 5 % 10 % 15 % 20 % 25 % 30 % Member States share of extra-eu-27 imports, 2007 DE UK NL IT FR ES BE PL SE AT EL FI HU DK IE CZ RO PT SK BG SI LT LU LV EE CY MT 2.3 % 2.2 % 1.7 % 1.6 % 1.5 % 1.5 % 1.4 % 1.3 % 1.2 % 1.0 % 1.0 % 0.8 % 0.6 % 0.4 % 0.4 % 0.4 % 0.2 % 0.2 % 0.1 % 0.1 % 7.3 % 6.1 % % 9.8 % 12.5 % 14.3 % 19.0 % 0 % 5 % 10 % 15 % 20 % 42 External and intra-european Union trade

45 External trade by Member State 4 Member States contributions to extra-eu-27 trade balance, 2007 Billion EUR Member States cover ratios (exports divided by imports) in extra-eu-27 trade, 2007 EU DE SE IE AT FI DK FR SI MT EE LV LT CY LU BG CZ PT SK RO HU PL BE IT EL ES UK NL IE SE AT FI DE MT DK SI FR EE IT EU-27 BE LT CZ HU PL LV UK PT BG RO ES SK NL LU EL CY % % % % % % 97.5 % 90.4 % 86.5 % 85.3 % 78.2 % 76.7 % 68.8 % 66.9 % 66.3 % 65.1 % 62.5 % 58.2 % 56.1 % 51.4 % 49.7 % 49.1 % 35.1 % 25.7 % 14.8 % % 0 % 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 % 120 % 140 % 160 % 180 % 200 % External and intra-european Union trade 43

46 4 External trade by Member State Shares of intra-eu and extra-eu trade in total trade, 2007 CZ SK LU AT PT PL LV EE HU BE DK SI RO CY FR LT EU-27 IE ES SE NL DE MT FI EL BG IT UK 0 % 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 % Share intra-eu Share extra-eu 44 External and intra-european Union trade

47 External trade by Member State 4 Member States cover ratios (exports divided by imports) in total trade, 2007 IE DE NL SE FI BE DK CZ AT HU IT SK SI FR PL LU UK EE LT MT PT ES BG RO LV EL CY 16 % 31 % 58 % 54 % 65 % 62 % 67 % 66 % 70 % 70 % 70 % 0 % 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 % 120 % 140 % 160 % 85 % 82 % 89 % 97 % 97 % 95 % 104 % 104 % 100 % 100 % 105 % 112 % 112 % 110 % 125 % 145 % External and intra-european Union trade 45

48 4 External trade by Member State 4.2. Data Belgium: Trade by main partner countries (billion EUR) Total Intra-eu Extra-eu Germany Netherlands France United Kingdom USA Italy Spain Ireland China Sweden Total Intra-eu Extra-eu Germany Netherlands France United Kingdom USA Italy Spain Ireland China Sweden Total Intra-eu Extra-eu Germany Netherlands France United Kingdom USA Italy Spain Ireland China Sweden External and intra-european Union trade

49 External trade by Member State 4 Belgium: Trade by product (billion EUR) Total Primary Food and beverages Crude materials Energy Manufactured goods Chemicals Machinery and vehicles Products n.e.s Total Primary Food and beverages Crude materials Energy Manufactured goods Chemicals Machinery and vehicles Products n.e.s Total Primary Food and beverages Crude materials Energy Manufactured goods Chemicals Machinery and vehicles Products n.e.s External and intra-european Union trade 47

50 4 External trade by Member State Bulgaria: Trade by main partner countries (billion EUR) Total Intra-eu Extra-eu Germany Italy Turkey Russia Greece Ukraine Romania France Belgium Austria Total Intra-eu Extra-eu Germany Italy Turkey Russia Greece Ukraine Romania France Belgium Austria Total Intra-eu Extra-eu Germany Italy Turkey Russia Greece Ukraine Romania France Belgium Austria External and intra-european Union trade

51 External trade by Member State 4 Bulgaria: Trade by product (billion EUR) Total Primary Food and beverages Crude materials Energy Manufactured goods Chemicals Machinery and vehicles Products n.e.s Total Primary Food and beverages Crude materials Energy Manufactured goods Chemicals Machinery and vehicles Products n.e.s Total Primary Food and beverages Crude materials Energy Manufactured goods Chemicals Machinery and vehicles Products n.e.s External and intra-european Union trade 49

52 4 External trade by Member State Czech Republic: Trade by main partner countries (billion EUR) Total Intra-eu Extra-eu Germany Slovakia Poland Netherlands Austria France Italy United Kingdom Russia Hungary Total Intra-eu Extra-eu Germany Slovakia Poland Netherlands Austria France Italy United Kingdom Russia Hungary Total Intra-eu Extra-eu Germany Slovakia Poland Netherlands Austria France Italy United Kingdom Russia Hungary External and intra-european Union trade

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