8-1 Adding and Subtracting Polynomials

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1 Determine whether each expression is a polynomial. If it is a polynomial, find the degree and determine whether it is a monomial, binomial, or trinomial. 1. 7ab + 6b 2 2a 3 yes; 3; trinomial 2. 2y 5 + 3y 2 yes; 2; trinomial 3. 3x 2 4. yes; 2; monomial No; a monomial cannot have a variable in the denominator. 5. 5m 2 p yes; 5; binomial 6. 5q 4 + 6q No; variable in the denominator., and a monomial cannot have a Write each polynomial in standard form. Identify the leading coefficient. 7. 4d d 2 4d 4 d 2 + 1; x x 9. 4z 2z 2 5z 4 5z 4 2z 2 + 4z; a + 4a 3 5a 2 1 4a 3 5a 2 + 2a 1, 4 Find each sum or difference. 11. (6x 3 4) + ( 2x 3 + 9) 4x (g 3 2g 2 + 5g + 6) (g 2 + 2g) g 3 3g 2 + 3g (4 + 2a 2 2a) (3a 2 8a + 7) a 2 + 6a (8y 4y 2 ) + (3y 9y 2 ) 13y y 15. ( 4z 3 2z + 8) (4z 3 + 3z 2 5) 8z 3 3z 2 2z ( 3d d) + (4d 12 + d 2 ) 2d 2 + 6d (y + 5) + (2y + 4y 2 2) 4y 2 + 3y + 3 2x 5 + 3x 12 ; 2 esolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 1

2 18. (3n 3 5n + n 2 ) ( 8n 2 + 3n 3 ) 9n 2 5n 19. CCSS SENSE-MAKING The total number of students T who traveled for spring break consists of two groups: students who flew to their destinations F and students who drove to their destination D. The number (in thousands) of students who flew and the total number of students who flew or drove can be modeled by the following equations, where n is the number of years since T = 14n + 21 F = 8n + 7 a. Write an equation that models the number of students who drove to their destination for this time period. b. Predict the number of students who will drive to their destination in c. How many students will drive or fly to their destination in 2015? a. D(n) = 6n + 14 b. 116,000 students c. 301,000 students Determine whether each expression is a polynomial. If it is a polynomial, find the degree and determine whether it is a monomial, binomial, or trinomial. No; a monomial cannot have a variable in the denominator. 22. c 4 2c yes; 4; trinomial 23. d + 3d c No; the exponent is a variable. 24. a a 2 yes; 2; binomial 25. 5n 3 + nq 3 yes; 4; binomial Write each polynomial in standard form. Identify the leading coefficient x x 5x 2 + 3x 2; y + 7y 3 7y 3 + 8y; c 5c 2 5c 2 3c + 4; y 3 + 3y 3y y 3 3y 2 + 3y + 2; t + 2t t 5 t 5 + 2t t 3; 1 yes; 0; monomial esolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 2

3 r r 3 r 3 + r + 2; b b b 6 b 6 9b b; 1 Find each sum or difference. 34. (2c 2 + 6c + 4) + (5c 7) 7c 2 + 6c (2x + 3x 2 ) (7 8x 2 ) 11x 2 + 2x (3c 3 c + 11) (c 2 + 2c + 8) 3c 3 c 2 3c (z 2 + z) + (z 2 11) 2z 2 + z (2x 2y + 1) (3y + 4x) 2x 5y (4a 5b 2 + 3) + (6 2a + 3b 2 ) 2b 2 + 2a (x 2 y 3x 2 + y) + (3y 2x 2 y) x 2 y 3x 2 + 4y 41. ( 8xy + 3x 2 5y) + (4x 2 2y + 6xy) 7x 2 2xy 7y 42. (5n 2p 2 + 2np) (4p 2 + 4n) 6p 2 + 2np + n 43. (4rxt 8r 2 x + x 2 ) (6rx 2 + 5rxt 2x 2 ) 3x 2 rxt 8r 2 x 6rx PETS From 1999 through 2009, the number of dogs D and the number of cats C (in hundreds) adopted from animal shelters in the United States are modeled by the equations D = 2n + 3 and C = n + 4, where n is the number of years since a. Write an equation that models the total number T of dogs and cats adopted in hundreds for this time period. b. If this trend continues, how many dogs and cats will be adopted in 2013? a. T(n) = 3n + 7 b dogs and cats Classify each polynomial according to its degree and number of terms x 3x quadratic trinomial z 3 cubic monomial esolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 3

4 y 4 quartic binomial 52. CCSS REASONING The perimeter of the figure shown is represented by the expression 3x 2 7x + 2. Write a polynomial that represents the measure of the third side x 3 7 cubic binomial 49. 2x 5 x 2 + 5x 8 quintic polynomial t 4t 2 + 6t 3 cubic trinomial 51. ENROLLMENT In a rapidly growing school system, the numbers (in hundreds) of total students N and K-5 students P enrolled from 2000 to 2009 are modeled by the equations N = 1.25t 2 t and P = 0.7t t + 3.8, where t is the number of years since a. Write an equation modeling the number of 6-12 students S enrolled for this time period. b. How many 6-12 students were enrolled in the school system in 2007? a. b x 53. GEOMETRY Consider the rectangle. a. What does (4x 2 + 2x 1)(2x 2 x + 3) represent? b. What does 2(4x 2 + 2x 1) + 2(2x 2 x + 3) represent? a. the area of the rectangle b. the perimeter of the rectangle Find each sum or difference. 54. (4x + 2y 6z) + (5y 2z + 7x) + ( 9z 2x 3y) 9x + 4y 17z 55. (5a 2 4) + (a 2 2a + 12) + (4a 2 6a + 8) 10a 2 8a (3c 2 7) + (4c + 7) (c 2 + 5c 8) 2c 2 c + 8 esolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 4

5 57. (3n 3 + 3n 10) (4n 2 5n) + (4n 3 3n 2 9n + 4) 7n 3 7n 2 n FOOTBALL The National Football League is divided into two conferences, the American A and the National N. From 2002 through 2009, the total attendance T (in thousands) for both conferences and for the American Conference games are modeled by the following equations, where x is the number of years since a perimeter of 400 feet. b. Tabular Record the width and length of each rectangle in a table like the one shown below. Find the area of each rectangle. T = 0.69x x x + 10,538 A = 3.78x x x Determine how many people attended National Conference football games in ,829,000 people 59. CAR RENTAL The cost to rent a car for a day is $15 plus $0.15 for each mile driven. c. Graphical On a coordinate system, graph the area of rectangle 4 in terms of the length, x. Use the graph to determine the largest area possible. d. Analytical Determine the length and width that produce the largest area. a. a. Write a polynomial that represents the cost of renting a car for m miles. b. If a car is driven 145 miles, how much would it cost to rent? b. c. If a car is driven 105 miles each day for four days, how much would it cost to rent a car? d. If a car is driven 220 miles each day for seven days, how much would it cost to rent a car? c. a m b. $36.75 c. $123 d. $ MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS In this problem, you will explore perimeter and area. a. Geometric Draw three rectangles that each have d. The length and width of the rectangle must be 100 esolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 5

6 feet each to have the largest area. 61. CCSS CRITIQUE Cheyenne and Sebastian are finding (2x 2 x) (3x + 3x 2 2). Is either of them correct? Explain your reasoning. 64. WRITING IN MATH Why would you add or subtract equations that represent real-world situations? Explain. Sample answer: When you add or subtract two or more polynomial equations, like terms are combined, which reduces the number of terms in the resulting equation. This could help minimize the number of operations performed when using the equations. 65. WRITING IN MATH Describe how to add and subtract polynomials using both the vertical and horizontal formats. Neither; neither of them found the additive inverse correctly. All terms should be multiplied by REASONING Determine whether each of the following statements is true or false. Explain your reasoning. a. A binomial can have a degree of zero. b. The order in which polynomials are subtracted does not matter. a. False; sample answer: a binomial must have at least one monomial term with degree greater than zero. b. False; sample answer: (2x 3) (4x 3) = 2x, but (4x 3) (2x 3) = 2x 63. CHALLENGE Write a polynomial that represents the sum of an odd integer 2n + 1 and the next two consecutive odd integers. 6n + 9 Sample answer: To add polynomials in a horizontal format, you combine like terms. For the vertical format, you write the polynomials in standard form, align like terms in columns, and combine like terms. To subtract polynomials in a horizontal format you find the additive inverse of the polynomial you are subtracting, and then combine like terms. For the vertical format, you write the polynomials in standard form, align like terms in columns, and subtract by adding the additive inverse. 66. Three consecutive integers can be represented by x, x + 1, and x + 2. What is the sum of these three integers? A x(x + 1)(x + 2) B x C 3x + 3 D x + 3 C 67. SHORT RESPONSE What is the perimeter of a square with sides that measure 2x + 3 units? 8x + 12 units esolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 6

7 68. Jim cuts a board in the shape of a regular hexagon and pounds in a nail at each vertex, as shown. How many rubber bands will he need to stretch a rubber band across every possible pair of nails? 70. COMPUTERS A computer technician charges by the hour to fix and repair computer equipment. The total cost of the technician for one hour is $75, for two hours is $125, for three hours is $175, for four hours is $225, and so on. Write a recursive formula for the sequence. F 15 G 14 H 12 J 9 F 69. Which ordered pair is in the solution set of the system of inequalities shown in the graph? Determine whether each sequence is arithmetic, geometric, or neither. Explain , 32, 128, 512,... Geometric; the common ratio is , 8, 9, 26, Arithmetic; the common difference is 17. Neither; there is no common ratio or difference , 52, 61, 70,... Arithmetic; the common difference is , 16, 5, 6,... Arithmetic; the common difference is 11. A ( 3, 0) B (0, 3) C (5, 0) , 100, 50, 25, Geometric; the common ratio is. D (0, 5) C esolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 7

8 77. JOBS Kimi received an offer for a new job. She wants to compare the offer with her current job. What is total amount of sales that Kimi must get each month to make the same income at either job? Simplify. 84. t(t 5 )(t 7 ) 85. n 3 (n 2 )( 2n 3 ) 2n (5t 5 v 2 )(10t 3 v 4 ) $80,000 Determine whether each sequence is an arithmetic sequence. If it is, state the common difference , 16, 8, 0, yes; 8 79., 13, 26, no 80. 7, 6, 5, 4, yes; , 12, 15, 18, no , 11, 7, 3, 50t 8 v ( 8u 4 z 5 )(5uz 4 ) 40u 5 z [(3) 2 ] [(2) 3 ] (2m 4 k 3 ) 2 ( 3mk 2 ) 3 108m 11 k (6xy 2 ) 2 (2x 2 y 2 z 2 ) 3 288x 8 y 10 z 6 yes; , 0.2, 0.7, 1.2, yes; 0.5 esolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 8

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