Numeracy Research Review

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1 Numeracy Research Review

2 IPC Curriculum The International Preschool Curriculum (IPC) shares the prevailing worldwide view that numeracy understanding is an important skill that preschool children should develop. The IPC reveals its commitment to this prevailing view by including Numeracy as one of the eight (8) Core Content Learning Areas that constitutes the hallmark of its curricula. The International Preschool Curriculum was researched by a multidisciplinary team of researchers and educators in several countries. A primary goal at the heart of the IPC mission is the enhancement of child learning opportunities and outcomes. The primary justification for the inclusion of numeracy as a core area of exploration and study in early childhood is its ability to develop and support cognitive thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving skills in young children. These are each essential cognitive skills that are called into play far beyond the preschool curriculum and have applicable relevance throughout a child s lifespan. The IPC offers a clear approach and framework for the instruction of numeracy lessons contained in the curricula. The framework for teacher presentation of numeracy lessons suggests that these lessons should be offered regularly in a developmentally appropriate manner and environment that supports children at all levels of understanding. The role of the teacher is highlighted and reinforced throughout the curricula and accompanying teacher trainings on curricula IPC implementation and delivery. The IPC appreciates that parents have a wide choice in preschooling options. However, the IPC is distinguished in that it is recognized as providing a clear framework for all of areas of learning as part of its curriculum: A fully researched and reviewed curriculum encompassing proven traditional teaching approaches whilst embracing the latest educational methods. A bilingual approach to learning by ensuring that member schools offer at least one second language to promote bilingual learning and to integrate a second language in its tuition, play and activities; The IPC is the first curriculum to encourage local cultural traditions and promote internationalism as a theme throughout its teaching. The curriculum also includes current affairs themes such as ecology and conservation; The IPC engages its member school teachers in professional development programs, workshops and discussion forums. IPC teachers are trained to the highest levels in teaching and professionalism; 435

3 The IPC publishes the majority of its resources to ensure that teaching costs are kept to a minimum without jeopardizing the value of cutting edge content. Alignment for Numeracy & Mathematics IPC has aligned the curriculum research for each of its 8 curriculum learning areas with more than 15 learning themes such as cognitive development, mechanics and current affairs. These IPC modules are designed to develop a well-rounded preschool education. The core learning areas are reinforced with fun activities with an outcome based learning structure. Much of what has been developed with numeracy can transcend into the classroom as well as home based education. Mathematic instruction in the curriculum is intended to produce young children with confidence in learning number sequencing. IPC has evaluated what children are expected to learn in pre-kindergarten and preschool levels and has accordingly designed a learning curve that aligns multiple skill sets for standard expectations for preschool years. Therefore, IPC has a realistic view on the appropriate and most effective approach to teaching, and promoting early numeracy understanding that will prepare children for their mathematical future. Students will be able to count to 20 with ease; advanced students will be taught how to count to 100. There will be an understanding of tens and units and how to count in tens. The concept of more or less will be explored in detail and students will be able to distinguish which double digit number is more or less or the same. Students will be able to make basic estimates. There will be an understanding of denominations of money. The student will be able to solve basic sums of addition and subtraction. Patterns and sequences will be easily identifiable. Parental Involvement Early intervention and parental involvement are important steps in early childhood development of numeracy, and preschool achievement - experiences that help children in preschool mould strong concepts of numeracy concepts and operations. IPC research has found that parental involvement provides a positive impact on early childhood educational achievement. Parental involvement in early learning affects cognitive development, literacy and number skills in the future. Encouraging children to questions, or solve a problem assist them in: Communication: talking and listening to them suggest their thoughts on finding words, symbols or numbers to solve problems. At the same time it promotes their vocabulary and helps develop literacy and early reading skills.

4 Reasoning: allows children to ask question, and think of answers. By asking simple questions such as why an early learner starts to develop the skill of thinking for themselves. Connections: for math and numeracy which involves day-to-day activities such as pouring juice for breakfast allows child to use estimation, measurement, and spatial sense. Think of your home as a learning place. The kitchen is great for teaching math and science through cooking. (Armstrong, 2010). Multicultural Mathematics and numeracy are considered non-cultural subject IPC has developed ways to invite teachers, as well as parents to make them more comprehensive for all students. The numeric achievement of woman to the construction of the geometric model of pyramids in Egypt civilization is based on math. IPC Application Approach IPC s approach to a comprehensive and cohesive curriculum is developed for early learners, and to provide core concentration on how, what, when and why to implement numeracy techniques. Students learn guideline principles for relating math to everyday life, and the curriculum also accommodates the best practice for translating, conceptualizing and implementation of numbers. Research Numeracy is the ability to reason with numbers, while problem solving is the key element to mathematics. Early learners are shown various ways to solve problems, and there is more than just one answer. Given the ability to explore, utilize imagination, along with reasoning children will build the language and social skills needed to build strong numeracy and math aptitude. IPC Application International Preschool Curriculum materials, resources and Thematic Units offer teachers multiple activities appropriate for use with 3, 4 and 5 year olds that support children s understanding and practice of number concepts and operations. The International Preschool Curriculum has over 15 (20) Thematic Units, each containing and devoted to Numeracy lessons that incorporate activities and experiences that teach the four core skill sets: Number and operations Spatial relationships Shapes, comparing and measuring Pattern recognition 437

5 IPC Alignment with NAEYC Standards Numeracy Research IPC Application NAEYC Standards Numeracy is the ability to reason with numbers, while problem solving is the key element to mathematics. Early learners are shown various ways to solve problems, and there is more than just one answer. Given the ability to explore, utilize imagination, along with reasoning children will build the language and social skills needed to build strong numeracy and math aptitude. International Preschool Curriculum materials, resources and Thematic Units offer teachers multiple activities appropriate for use with 3, 4 and 5 year olds that support children s understanding and practice of number concepts and operations. The International Preschool Curriculum has 20 Thematic Units, each containing and devoted to Numeracy lessons that incorporate activities and experiences that teach the four core skill sets: Number and operations Spatial relationships Shapes, comparing and measuring Pattern recognition 2.F.02 Children are provided varied opportunities and materials to build understanding of numbers, number names, and their relationship to object quantities and to symbols. 2.F.03 Children are provided varied opportunities and materials to categorize by one or two attributes such as shape, size and color. 2.F.04 Children are provided varied opportunities and materials that encourage them to integrate mathematical terms into everyday conversation. 2.F.05 Children are provided varied opportunities and materials that help them understand the concept of measurement by using a. Standard b. Non-standard units of measurement 2.F.06 Children are provided varied opportunities and materials to understand basic concepts of geometry by, for example, naming and recognizing two-and three-dimensional shapes and recognizing how figures are composed of different shapes. 2.F.08 Children are provided varied opportunities and materials that help them recognize and name repeating patterns. 2.F.11 Kindergartners and preschools are provided varied opportunities and materials that encourage them to use written mathematical representations in everyday experiences. 2.F.12 Kindergartners and preschools are provided varied activities and materials to use numerical symbols and to explore operations on quantities, such as adding, taking away, and dividing into equal and unequal subsets

6 IPC Alignment with NAEYC Standards and VPK Numeracy Research IPC Application NAEYC Standards VPK Numeracy is the ability to reason with numbers, while problem solving is the key element to mathematics. Early learners are shown various ways to solve problems, and there is more than just one answer. Given the ability to explore, utilize imagination, along with reasoning children will build the language and social skills needed to build strong numeracy and math aptitude. International Preschool Curriculum materials, resources and Thematic Units offer teachers multiple activities appropriate for use with 3,4 and 5 year olds that support children s understanding and practice of number concepts and operations. The International Preschool Curriculum has 20 Thematic Units, each containing and devoted to Numeracy lessons that incorporate activities and experiences that teach the four core skill sets: Number and operations Spatial relationships Shapes, comparing and measuring Pattern recognition 2.F.02 Children are provided varied opportunities and materials to build understanding of numbers, number names, and their relationship to object quantities and to symbols. 2.F.03 Children are provided varied opportunities and materials to categorize by one or two attributes such as shape, size and color. 2.F.04 Children are provided varied opportunities and materials that encourage them to integrate mathematical terms into everyday conversation. 2.F.05 Children are provided varied opportunities and materials that help them understand the concept of measurement by using a. Standard b. Non-standard units of measurement 2.F.06 Children are provided varied opportunities and materials to understand basic concepts of geometry by, for example, naming and recognizing twoand three-dimensional shapes and recognizing how figures are composed of different shapes. 2.F.08 Children are provided varied opportunities and materials that help them recognize and name repeating patterns. 2.F.11 Kindergartners and preschools are provided varied opportunities and materials that encourage them to use written mathematical representations in everyday experiences. 2.F.12 Kindergartners and preschools are provided varied activities and materials to use numerical symbols and to explore operations on quantities, such as adding, taking away, and dividing into equal and unequal subsets Reference: One Set of Standards for Four- Year-Olds Section V. Cognitive Development and General Knowledge Domain A. Mathematical Thinking DRAFT March

7 IPC Thematic Objectives Numeracy Specific Skill Set IPC Unit IPC Learning Objective Sorting Number Recognition and Counting Comparing Quantities Quantity Measurement Classifying Properties Graphing and Patterns Shapes Distance Count to 10 in Spanish, Chinese, and English Identify Spanish numbers to numerical flashcards Count beads for South African bracelet Make patterns for South African flag Count stars and stripes on American flag Cut out shapes for South African and American flag Identify and name shapes for African and American flag Sorting Charting Counting Ordering by Size Counting Backwards Tally Marks Air Travel Around The World Environments Count groups and compare quantity using words of less, more or equal. Learners will identify the characteristics of different countries. Utilize listening skills. Estimate quantities fewer than or equal to 10. Recognize equivalence in sets and numbers Identify groups that show one to one correspondence with objects.

8 Specific Skill Set IPC Unit IPC Learning Objective Graphing Sorting Patterns Measurements Food & Nutrition Count, understand and recognize how many in a set. Learner will make comparisons of quantities using words such as: more, less, the same. Number Recognition Comparing Quantities Coin Recognition Prediction/Estimation Counting Geometry 1 Geometry 2 Geometry 3 Counting Graphing Classifying and Sorting Measurements Geometry (Parts 1 & 2) Patterns (Parts 1 & 2) Reasoning Data Analysis and Graphing Phonological Awareness Number Geometry Counting Patterns Measurements Money, Shops & Jobs Olympics Shapes & Patterns Under The Sea Learner will develop value of money and trade. Develop and compare quantities for shopping. Learners will identify attributes of basic shapes. Recognize numbers up to 25. Listening skills are developed by following simple instructions. The learner will model simple patterns and sort objects. Recognize the difference between letters, numbers and words. Identify comparative words, most, least and same quantity. Learners will classify sets of objects that belong together using size, color and or characteristics as guides. Explore quantity and number. Understand that numbers represent quantity.

9 References for Numeracy Armstrong, T. (2010). 50 Ways to Bring Out Your Child s Best. thomasarmstrong.com/articles/50_ways.php. Thomas Armstrong, 2011, All rights reserved. National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC. (2005). NAEYC Early Childhood Program Standards and Accreditation Criteria: The Mark of Quality in Early Childhood Education. Redleaf Press. 10 Yorkton Court, St. Paul, MN Tel: ; Fax: ; Web site: redleafpress.org. One Set of Standards for Four-Year-Olds. Section V. Cognitive Development and General Knowledge Domain. March 201. Retrieved online May 11, 2011 from

10 Students at Creative Kids Preschool in Japan learn about the value of currency during the Money, Shops and Jobs preschool unit. 443

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