I. Prepositional Phrases

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1 Unit 7 Phrases and Clauses A phrase is a group of words, without a subject and verb, that functions in a sentence as one part of speech. There are several types of phrases, among them prepositional, appositive, participial, gerund, and infinitive phrases. I. Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase, such as by the lake or out of gas, is made up of a preposition and a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition. Prepositional phrases function either as adjectives by modifying nouns and pronouns or as adverbs by modifying verbs, adjectives, and adverbs Adjective Phrases An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun by telling what kind or which one. At other times, more than one adjective phrase may be used to modify the same noun. Adverb Phrases An adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb by pointing out where, when, in what way, or to what extent.

2 While an adjective phrase almost always comes directly after the word it modifies, an adverb phrase may be separated from the word it modifies. Two or more adverb phrases may also be used to modify the same word. II. Appositives and Appositive Phrases Appositives An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed near another noun or pronoun to identify, rename, or explain it. Notice in the following example that the appositive is set off by commas, which indicates that it is not essential to the meaning of the sentence and can be removed. In the example below, the appositive is not set off by commas because it is needed to complete the meaning of the sentence. Appositive Phrases An appositive phrase is a noun or pronoun with modifiers, (adjectives, adjective phrases, or other groups of words acting as adjectives), placed next to a noun or pronoun to add information and details. Appositives and appositive phrases also make it possible for a writer to combine sentences with similar ideas. TWO SENTENCES: Navajo is a tribe in the West. They developed silver-working skills for making jewelry. COMBINED: The Navajos, a tribe in the West, developed silver-working skills for making jewelry

3 III. VERBAL PHRASES. Sometimes certain forms of verbs are used not as verbs but as other parts of speech. Verb forms used as other parts of speech are called verbals. Verbals may be used alone or in phrases. A. Participles and Participial Phrases. 1. Participals. A participle is a form of a verb that can act as an adjective. Participles fall into two groups: present participles and past participles. You can identify these two different kinds of participles by their endings. Present participles end in -ing (dancing, playing, waiting). Past participles generally end in -ed (danced, played, waited), but they may also have irregular endings such as -nt or -en (burnt, spoken). (See Section 23.1 for lists of irregular verb endings.) Like adjectives, participles answer the questions What kind? or Which one? The following chart shows how these participles are used as adjectives in sentences. 2. Participial Phrases. A participial phrase is a participle modified by an adverb or adverb phrase or accompanied by a complement entire phrase acts as an adjective. In the following chart, note how the participial phrases are constructed and which words they modify:

4 B. Gerunds and Gerund Phrases. 1. Gerunds. A gerund is a form of a verb that acts as a noun. Gerunds always end in -ing and function as nouns subject, indirect object, direct object, predicate nominative, object of a preposition, or appositive. The following chart shows how a gerund may be used. 2. Gerund Phrases. A gerund phrase is a gerund with modifiers or a complement, all acting together as a noun. Note About Gerunds and Possessive Pronouns: Always use the possessive form of a personal pronoun before a gerund. Mr. Avery disliked him smirking. INCORRECT: CORRECT: Mr. Avery disliked his smirking.

5 C. Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases. 1. Infinitives. An infinitive is a form of a verb that generally appears with the word to and acts as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The following chart shows the different functions that an infinitive can have in a sentence. 2. Infinitive Phrases. An infinitive phrase is an infinitive with modifiers, complements, or a subject all acting together as a noun, adjective, or adverb. *******Sometimes infinitives do not include the word to. After the verbs dare, hear, help, let, make, please, see, and watch, to will usually be understood. EXAMPLE: Slave labor helped build many Aztec buildings

6 Time to practice!!!!! Identifying Adjective and Adverb Phrases Write the phrase(s) from each sentence. Label prepositional phrases either adjective or adverb. Indicate the word each modifies. For appositive phrases, indicate the word that is renamed. 1. Tribes from the Northeast were called the Woodland tribes. 2. One of these, the Powhatan tribe, lived in the Virginia area. 3. They seemed unfriendly, but when the English settlers came to the American continent, the Powhatans saved them more than once. 4. The Native Americans taught the settlers to survive on American foods corn, succotash, and baked beans. 5. Another tribe, the Delaware, was a group of extremely peaceful people. Identifying Verbals Write the verbal phrases in the following sentences. Label them participial, infinitive, or gerund. Identify the word or words the verbals modify or the way each is used in the sentence. 1. Five tribes came together to form the Iroquois nation. 2. This united league was known as The Tree of Peace. 3. In Iroquoian culture, to live peacefully under one roof was expected. 4. The Tree of Peace, based on the same idea, showed that many people could live under one sky in peace. 5. Governing the nation was the job of fifty men from each of the five tribes. Combining Sentence Phrases Combine the following pairs of sentences into one sentence using an appositive or an appositive phrase. 1. The Iroquois were divided into the Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, and Cayuga nations. Each Iroquois nation had its own council. 2. The Council of Fifty made important decisions. The council was made up of fifty men from the five tribes. 3. Mothers of the clan chose the council members. The council members were the decision makers of the tribe. 4. The council was formed to prevent fighting among the nations. It was called the League of the Iroquois. 5. The most powerful people in the Eastern Woodlands were the Iroquois. The Iroquois lived in what is now New York State.

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