STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE RISE ON LOSS FACTOR AND EFFICIENCY OF A CONDENSER FOR A 210 MW THERMAL POWER UNIT

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1 International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Volume 3, Special Iue 3: ICERTSD 2013, Feb 2013, page An ISO 9001:2008 certified Int. Journal, ISSN , available online at STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE RISE ON LOSS FACTOR AND EFFICIENCY OF A CONDENSER FOR A 210 MW THERMAL POWER UNIT A. Dutta 1*, A. K. Da 2, S. Chakrabarti 3 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hooghly Engineering and Technology College Society, Pipulpati, Hooghly , Wet Bengal, India, 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Modern Intitute of Engineering and Technology, Bandel, Hooghly , Wet Bengal, India, 3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science Univerity, Shibpur, Howrah , Wet Bengal, India, + Correponding author ABSTRACT In thi paper an attempt ha been taken to perform a thermodynamic tudy and it analyi on the effect of cooling temperature rie on Lo Factor and Efficiency of a condener ued in 210 MW thermal power unit. A new concept of Lo Factor ha been introduced in thi work and it i defined a the ratio of the heat releaed by the team entering the condener to the heat gained by it cooling. The tudy ha been carried out for the load of 210 MW, for fixed value of condener preure, ma flow rate of team entering the condener, ma flow rate of cooling, total urface area of the tube and material property repectively. The rie in cooling temperature ha been varied from 5 0 C to 19 0 C. The outcome of the tudy i that the efficiency increae and the Lo Factor decreae with increae in temperature rie in cooling. Keyword: Lo Factor (LF), Temperature Rie in Cooling Water, Condener Preure, Efficiency of the Condener. 1. INTRODUCTION A condener, where the exhaut team from the turbine i condened, operate at a preure lower than the atmophere. There are mainly two objective of uing a condener in a team power plant, firt i to reduce the turbine exhaut preure o a to increae the pecific work output of the turbine and econd i to recover high quality feed in the form of condenate and feed it back to the team generator without any further treatment. Surface condener are motly ued in thermal power plant. In a conventional condener of a thermal power plant, team from the low preure turbine exhaut enter into the hell and tube type urface condener and flow over the condener tube. Cooling pae through the tube of the condener. Finally team get condened and condenate i collected in reervoir, called hot well. A implified chematic diagram of conventional condener ued in a thermal power plant i hown in Fig.1. The concept of Lo Factor ha been incorporated to undertand the loe inide the condener. The temperature rie of the cooling i having impact on Lo Factor and efficiency of a condener which finally affect condener performance. Preented at International Conference on Energy Reource and Technologie for Sutainable Development, February 2013, Howrah, India. Fig. 1: Schematic diagram of a hell and tube type urface condener A number of tudie have been carried out in the field of hell and tube type urface condener. From the urvey, it i oberved that everal activitie have been carried out motly in the area of hell and tube heat exchanger deign, optimization of heat exchanger, enhancement of heat tranfer uing different type of fin etc. But till now, probably, no work ha been done on IJETAE2013

2 the effect of cooling temperature rie on the performance of a condener viewed from Lo Factor. Among thee, J. Arman and A. K. Ghohal [1] have uggeted an optimum deign problem for the different contraint involved in the deigning of a hell and tube heat exchanger coniting of longitudinally finned tube. They have found out that the optimum fin height increae linearly with the increae in tube outer diameter. Min-Soo kim et al. [2] have preented numerical evaluation of the flow ditribution and thermal performance of a multi pa, multi channel heat exchanger a function of the number of pae of inlet diameter. To determine the optimal number of pae for a fixed ize of heat exchanger, they have invetigated the JF factor by varying the number of pae and the inlet diameter of the tube. S. Chakrabarti [3] ha tudied on the variou availability loe in the condener for five different load of a 210MW thermal power unit by uing econd law of thermodynamic. The effect of flow of in cooling tower on the thermal efficiencie of turbine and condener of a paper mill power plant have been tudied by Jinon Tao et al. [4]. Baed on the model of turbine, condener and cooling tower the optimization wa made. A. Dutta et al. [5] have tudied the performance of a condener ued in thermal power plant. With repect to our review of literature, in thi paper, an endeavour ha been made to tudy the effect of cooling temperature rie on lo factor and efficiency of a condener for a 210 MW thermal power unit of Kolaghat thermal power tation. 2. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION Fig. 2 how the energy balance diagram of the condener. m c T (2) cw Where, m Ma flow rate of cooling (kg/ec.). cw c Specific heat of (KJ/kg). p p T Temperature difference in cooling ( 0 C). The LF i defined a, team LF (3) The temperature ditribution of the condened team and cooling along the length of the condener are hown in Fig. 3. Fig. 3 T-L diagram of the condener The efficiency of the condener i computed by, T co ci (4) T T T ci where, T Temperature of the cooling outlet ( 0 C). co T Temperature of the cooling inlet ( 0 C). ci T Saturation temperature of the team ( 0 C). Fig. 2: Energy balance of a condener From the Figure 2, heat rejected by the exhaut team inide the condener can be written a, m (1) team h fg where, m Ma flow rate of exhaut team (kg/ec.). h Latent heat of evaporation (KJ/kg). fg and heat gained by the cooling can be written a, 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In thi tudy, the effect of cooling temperature rie on Lo Factor and efficiency of a condener ha been carried out. All the calculation during analyi have been performed on the bai of available plant data [6]. The intention of thi reearch i to oberve the effect of cooling temperature rie on Lo Factor and efficiency of a condener. The analyi ha been carried out on the bai of Firt law of thermodynamic. The load conidered during analyi i 210 MW. The rie in cooling temperature ha been varied from 5 0 C to 19 0 C. IJETAE

3 3.1 Effect of Temperature Difference in Cooling Water on Condener Efficiency Effect of temperature rie in cooling on the condener efficiency ha been tated in Fig. 4. At a particular load and condener preure, the heat rejection by the exhaut team i fixed. The range of the cooling temperature rie ha been taken from 5 0 C to 19 0 C. If the rie in cooling temperature i higher and reache nearly to the aturation temperature (Fig. 3) of the team, then it give higher efficiency. Similarly, when the temperature rie in cooling i le, it give le efficiency. Thee happen becaue the terminal temperature difference i inverely related to the condener efficiency. Fig. 4: Condener efficiency with the temperature difference in cooling In Fig. 4, the contant and variable have been tated in Table Effect of Temperature Difference in Cooling Water on the Lo Factor The effect of temperature difference in cooling at a fixed load (i.e. 210MW) on the Lo Factor ha been hown in Fig. 5. Lo Factor i the ratio of heat rejection by the exhaut team to the heat gained by the cooling. Actually at a particular condener preure, when the exhaut team releae the heat, the cooling become unable to gain the whole amount of heat and that why the Lo Factor concept ha been introduced in thi tudy. In accordance with our thought, the Lo Factor include all the relevant poible loe of the condener. If it i aumed that the whole amount of heat i tranferring from team to the cooling (though it i practically impoible), the rie in cooling temperature i maximum, e.g. at load 210MW the maximum theoretically poible temperature rie i 19 0 C repectively. The value of cooling temperature rie in no lo condition (when Lo Factor i equal to 1) i 19 0 C. In thi tudy, intentionally the temperature difference in cooling ha been varied from 5 0 C to 19 0 C becaue, in practice, the temperature rie of the cooling ha been noted to be more or le of around 11 0 C when the plant operate at 210MW load. From Fig. 5 it i noted that at a particular load, LF increae with decreae in temperature rie in cooling or LF decreae with increae in temperature rie in cooling. Table 1: Lit of contant and variable Contant Variable Tube diameter (inner and outer). Tube thickne. Tube length. Tube material. Condener preure (abolute) at a particular load. Ma flow rate of cooling. Ma flow rate of team entering the condener. Number of tube. Load (MW). Temperature rie in cooling From the obervation it may be concluded that the higher temperature rie in cooling offer higher efficiency and the lower temperature rie in cooling offer lower efficiency. It may be recommended to allow the higher temperature rie in cooling, during operation of the plant, to obtain higher efficiency of the condener. Fig. 5: Lo Factor v. temperature difference in cooling In Fig. 5, the contant and variable have been tated in Table 1. From the obervation, it may be concluded that the condener i alway recommended to operate under high temperature rie in cooling, to achieve lower Lo Factor. IJETAE

4 Lo Factor Int. J Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering 3.3 Effect of Efficiency of the condener on the Lo Factor The effect of efficiency of the condener on it Lo Factor ha been illutrated in Fig.6. At a particular load and condener preure, Lo Factor decreae with increae in efficiency. It ha been alo noted that the efficiency i maximum when the Lo Factor equal to one Efficiency of the Condener 210 MW Fig.6. Lo Factor with the efficiency of the condener. In Fig.6, the contant and variable have been tated in Table 2. Table 2: Lit of contant and variable Contant Tube diameter (inner and outer). Tube thickne. Tube length. Tube material. Condener preure (abolute) at a particular load. Ma flow rate of cooling. Ma flow rate of team entering the condener. Number of tube. Load (MW). Variable Temperature rie in cooling Lo Factor. The obervation motivate u to conclude to operate the condener at higher efficiency to obtain lower Lo Factor. 4. CONCLUSIONS The tudy in thi paper preent the effect of cooling temperature rie on Lo Factor and efficiency of a condener ued in 210MW thermal power plant on the bai of firt law of thermodynamic. The effect of variation in cooling temperature rie on the Lo Factor and condener efficiency have been aeed. A new term Lo Factor ha been defined. The relation between the Lo Factor and efficiency of the condener ha been etablihed. The reult of thee analye provide the following concluion. At a particular load and condener preure, with the decreae in temperature rie in cooling the condener efficiency decreae. Similarly, at higher temperature rie in cooling the condener offer higher efficiency. At a particular load and condener preure, Lo Factor (LF) increae with decreae in temperature rie in cooling. At a particular load and condener preure, Lo Factor decreae with increae in efficiency. It ha been alo noted that the efficiency i maximum when the Lo Factor equal to one. 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The upport by the authority of Kolaghat Thermal Power Station, W.B.P.D.C.L., Wet Bengal, India, in providing the relevant data of it 210MW Unit to the author i acknowledged. REFERENCES 1. Arman J. and Ghoal A. K., 2007, Performance analyi of finned tube and unbaffle hell and tube heat Exchanger, International Journal of Thermal Science, 46: Kim M. S., Lee K. S and Song S., 2008, Effect of pa arrangement and optimization of deign parameter on the thermal performance of a multi pa heat exchanger, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 29: Chakrabarti S., 2005, A cae tudy on availability loe in a condener for a 210MW thermal power unit in india, Journal of Energy & Environment, 5: Tao J., Liu H., Li J., Yin Y., Zhou Y. and Jia J., 2010, Optimization analyi of multiple team turbine and condener in paper mill power plant, Proc. International Conference on Renewable Energie and Power ualitie (ICREP2010). 5. Dutta A., Mandal D. K., Da A. K. and Chakrabarti S., 2011, Study on the performance of a condener ued in 210 MW thermal power unit, Proc. International Conference on Deign and Advance in Mechanical Engineering (ICDAAME2011), pp Technical Manual of 210MW Unit of Kolaghat Thermal Power Station, W.B.P.D.C.L., Wet Bengal, India. NOMENCLATURE Symbol C p Specific heat of KJ/kg h Enthalpy KJ/kg LF Lo Factor m Ma flow rate Kg/ec T Temperature 0 C η Efficiency Subcript ci Cooling inlet co Cooling outlet cw Cooling IJETAE

5 Steam AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY conference. Mr. ABHIJIT DUTTA i an Aitant Profeor at Department of Mechanical Engineering in Hooghly Engineering And Technology College, Hooghly, India. He ha 2 year teaching experience. He ha reearch intert in Thermal Engineering, bio engineering etc.. He ha publication in national and international journal and Dr. ALOK DAS i an Ex Faculty at Department of Mechanical Engineering in Bengal Engineering And Science Univerity, Shibpur, India. He ha 38 year of teaching experience. He wa coordinator of The Intitution of Engineer for both in UG & PG for everal year. He ha reearch intert in heat tranfer, refrigeration and air conditioning, engine combution etc. He ha everal publication in variou national and international journal. Preently he i the HOD of Mechanical Engineering department at MIET, Bandel. Dr. SOMNATH CHAKRABARTI i a Profeor at Department of Mechanical Engineering in Bengal Engineering And Science Univerity, Shibpur, India. He ha 20 year of teaching experience and 11 year of indutry experience. He ha reearch intert in Thermal Engineering, Bio engineering etc. He ha everal publication in variou national and international journal. IJETAE

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