The MAX IV Laboratory - We make the invisible visible. Scanditronix users meeting OSLO /15 Jonny Ahlbäck

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1 The MAX IV Laboratory - We make the invisible visible Scanditronix users meeting OSLO

2 MAX IV Laboratory; My view Physics; Synchrotron light Laboratory with two parts 1. MAX-lab; The existing facility Lab evolution The use of synchrotron radiation 2. MAX IV; The future light source Technical highlights 2

3 Properties: Physics; Synchrotron light More on High Brightness Pulsed structure Wide spectral range Production High Energy Electrons give off light when forced to change direction by magnetic fields Bending magnet Undulator Wiggler 3

4 Physics; using the synchrotron light Example of test set up (Beamline, Swedish Strålrör) I811- X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) XAFS: X-ray absorption fine structure See Wikipedia 4

5 The two; MAX-lab and MAX IV Gun Linac SPF Operating facility Construction project 0.55 GeV 0.7 GeV 1.5 GeV 5

6 MAX-lab evolution As per 2011 Has served users for 26 years. 931 researchers visited the lab. The users came from 160 universities and institutes in 35 different countries. The visiting researchers wrote (in average) one article per day of operation time. In average, one PhD thesis was written per week of operation time. MAX I 1985 MAX II 1995 MAX III

7 MAX-lab in use 40 weeks per year 6 days a week 24 hrs a day Studies in average 3½ days 3½ persons 7

8 Uses of Synchrotron Light Understanding of chemical processes What happened in the wood and bolts of the Ship Vasa BIOCHEMISTRY Mapping of complex protein geometries Robert J. Lefkowitz, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA, and Brian K. Kobilka, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA for studies of G-protein coupled receptors. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry

9 Understanding biology and medicine The sarcolipin-bound calcium pump stabilizes calcium sites exposed to the cytoplasm Published at the Nature webpage March 2013 Crystallographic data in this research were collected in part at the MX beamline I911-3 at MAX IV 9

10 New material discovered with light from MAX-lab ARPES studies of the (001) surface of Pb 0.77 Sn 0.23 Se monocrystals Topological crystalline insulator states in Pb 1 x Sn x Se Nature Materials; Volume: 11; 2012; Pages: The new material has many similarities with topological insulators, a family of materials discovered approximately 5 years ago which has the unique property that they cannot conduct electrical current in the bulk but can do so on the surface. Topological crystalline insulators however, are an entirely new family of topological insulators and only few researchers are privileged to be involved in such a discovery. By comparison, it is as if a geographer would find a new continent. Contact Balasubramanian Thiagarajan Beamline scientist, I4 10

11 Unveiling the colors of 50 million year old animals Molecular preservation of the pigment melanin in fossil melanosomes Johan Lindgren, Per Uvdal, Peter Sjövall, Dan E. Nilsson, Anders Engdahl, Bo Pagh Schultz & Volker Thiel Nature Communications 3, Article number: 824 Published 08 May

12 MAX IV the coming light 12

13 MAX IV concept basis Scientific Case calls for high brightness radiation over a wide spectral and time range: IR to Hard R- rays, Short X-Ray Pulses. Need for high brightness: low emittance and optimized insertion devices. This is hard to achieve in a single machine: higher electron beam energy harder photons lower electron beam energy softer photons 13

14 MAX IV Approach Different machines for different uses: A high energy ring with ultra-low emittance for hard X-ray users. A low emittance low energy ring for soft radiation users. A LINAC based source for generating short pulses and allowing for future development of FEL source. 14

15 Building the new 3 GeV ring (528 m) Photo: Perry Nordeng March 15, 2013 WEB camera on 15

16 Principal Linac Structure Pulse generators from Scandinova Waveguides under vacuum Ion pumps All metal First acceleration after gun(s) 17 x One klystron per 2 accelerating structures 16

17 3 GeV considerations Compact Magnet Design. High precision, Low price. High vibration frequencies Full Energy Injector LINAC: Short Pulses Multipurpose Strong Magnets Small Magnet Apertures Large Number of Magnets Ultra Low Emittance Robust Lattice Design. High Stability. Large Momentum Aperture Low Cost IBS Low RF frequency Narrow vacuum Chambers Wake-Fields Long Bunches Landau Cavities 100 % NEG Coating Low Vacuum Conductance High Heat Load Density Copper Chambers 17

18 The 3 GeV ring magnets 140 bending magnets divided in 20 cells 1320 magnets 5800 coils 6840 yoke parts Scanditronix Magnet Danfysik 18

19 One of 20 sections 7 magnet blocks and about 20 vacuum chambers 19

20 3 GeV vacuum chamber 1 Almost 700 chambers 20

21 NEG coating NEG coating: sputtered NEG material (normally Ti-Zr-V) on the vacuum chamber surface The surface of the vacuum chamber, normally an outgassing source, becomes a vacuum pump! Very useful for narrow chambers (e.g. ID chambers) Coating thickness 1-0.5μm. 21

22 RF systems Main Cavities (100 MHz Capacity loaded, Max-lab design): Replace energy lost by the beam as it generates synchrotron light Low frequency design favors long bunches. Concept previously tested in MAX in MAX II and MAX III Design Issues RF Thermal EB welding Tuning mechanism Tuning Mechanism Tuning plate 22

23 The 1.5 GeV ring Magnet block and vacuum 13/15 Jonny Ahlbäck 23

24 Cuts Cut through the magnet block and vacuum chamber at the first crotch absorber Cut 100 mm upstream the first (upper picture) 13/15 Jonny Ahlbäck 24

25 Looking forward for new light 25

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