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1 : JSP Basics JSP Basics JSP Translation Predefined Variables Expressions Scriptlets Declarations Other JSP Issues Page Context Installing a JSP JSP Errors SKILLBUILDERS

2 : JSP Basics 2.2 JSP Basics 2.2 Server translates a JSP into a servlet: An HTTP servlet Key method is service( ) Static content translates to statements of this form: out.println( out.println( String String / char char constant constant ) For example: The snoop JSP from Java Web Server It displays request information See notes for: Original JSP Resulting servlet

3 : JSP Basics 2.3 The Original JSP <html> <body bgcolor="white"> <H1 align="center">javaserver Pages 1.0</H1> <H2 align="center">snoop Example</H2> <P> </P><P> </P> <h1> Request Information </h1> <font size="4"> JSP Request Method: <%= request.getmethod() %> <br> Request URI: <%= request.getrequesturi() %> <br> Request Protocol: <%= request.getprotocol() %> <br> Servlet path: <%= request.getservletpath() %> <br> Path info: <%= request.getpathinfo() %> <br> Path translated: <%= request.getpathtranslated() %> <br> Query string: <%= request.getquerystring() %> <br> Content length: <%= request.getcontentlength() %> <br> Content type: <%= request.getcontenttype() %> <br> Server name: <%= request.getservername() %> <br> Server port: <%= request.getserverport() %> <br> Remote user: <%= request.getremoteuser() %> <br> Remote address: <%= request.getremoteaddr() %> <br> Remote host: <%= request.getremotehost() %> <br> Authorization scheme: <%= request.getauthtype() %> <hr> The browser you are using is <%= request.getheader("user-agent") %> <hr> </font> </body> </html>

4 : JSP Basics 2.4 The Generated Servlet public class _snoop extends HttpJspBase { static char[][] _jspx_html_data = null; final String DATAFILE = "E:\\java\\JavaWebServer2.0\\tmpdir\\default" + "\\pagecompile\\jsp\\_examples\\_jsp\\_samples\\_snoop" + "\\pagecompile.jsp._examples._jsp._samples._snoopsnoop.dat" public _snoop( ) { private static boolean _jspx_inited = false; public final void _jspx_init() throws JspException { ObjectInputStream oin = null; int numstrings = 0; try { FileInputStream fin = new FileInputStream(DATAFILE); oin = new ObjectInputStream(fin); _jspx_html_data = (char[][]) oin.readobject(); catch (Exception ex) { throw new JspException("Unable to open data file"); finally { if (oin!= null) try { oin.close(); catch (IOException ignore) { public void _jspservice(httpservletrequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException, ServletException { boolean _jspx_cleared_due_to_forward = false; JspFactory _jspxfactory = null; PageContext pagecontext = null; HttpSession session = null; ServletContext application = null; ServletConfig config = null; JspWriter out = null; Object page = this; String _value = null; // Continued...

5 : JSP Basics 2.5 try { if (_jspx_inited == false) { _jspx_init(); _jspx_inited = true; _jspxfactory = JspFactory.getDefaultFactory(); response.setcontenttype("text/html"); pagecontext = _jspxfactory.getpagecontext(this, request, response, "", true, 8192, true); // Initialize various variables... out = pagecontext.getout(); // Print output out.print(_jspx_html_data[0]); out.print( request.getmethod() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[1]); out.print( request.getrequesturi() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[2]); out.print( request.getprotocol() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[3]); out.print( request.getservletpath() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[4]); out.print( request.getpathinfo() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[5]); out.print( request.getpathtranslated() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[6]); out.print( request.getquerystring() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[7]); out.print( request.getcontentlength() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[8]); out.print( request.getcontenttype() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[9]); out.print( request.getservername() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[10]); out.print( request.getserverport() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[11]); out.print( request.getremoteuser() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[12]); out.print( request.getremoteaddr() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[13]); out.print( request.getremotehost() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[14]); out.print( request.getauthtype() ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[15]); out.print( request.getheader("user-agent") ); out.print(_jspx_html_data[16]); // Continued...

6 : JSP Basics 2.6 catch (Throwable t) { if (out.getbuffersize()!= 0) out.clear(); throw new JspException("Unknown exception: ", t); finally { if (!_jspx_cleared_due_to_forward) out.flush(); _jspxfactory.releasepagecontext(pagecontext);

7 : JSP Basics Predefined Variables JSP engine recognizes some predefined variables: Request response in out session config The HttpServletRequest object The HttpServletResponse object The BufferedReader returned by ServletRequest#getReader( ) The PrintWriter returned by ServletResponse#getWriter( ) The HttpSession for this page The ServletConfig object for this page Returned by getservletconfig( ) Application The ServletContext for this page. Returned by getservletconfig().getservletcontext() See examples in notes... In your JSP syntax you can use a number of predefined variables (shown above) representing basic servlet objects. These variables simplify your JSP markup considerably. For example, the snoop JSP made extensive use of the request variable representing the HttpServletRequest object passed to the service( ) method: JSP Request Method: <%= request.getmethod() %> Request URI: <%= request.getrequesturi() %> Request Protocol: <%= request.getprotocol() %>

8 : JSP Basics 2.8 JSP Expressions 2.8 JSP Expressions: Special markup that evaluates to some value Value is converted to a String, included in output Two syntax versions: JSP syntax: XML syntax: <%= <%= expression %> %> <jsp:expr> expression </jsp:expr> expression is any valid Java expression Server name: name: <%= <%= request.getservername() %> %> User User ID: ID: <%= <%= request.getparameter("uid") %> %> Password: <%= <%= request.getparameter("pwd") %> %> Today Today is: is: <jsp:expr> new new java.util.date() </jsp:expr>

9 : JSP Basics 2.9 JSP Scriptlets: Scriptlets Special markup containing snippets of Java code JSP can have multiple scriptlets Server assembles them into single service( ) method Intervening HTML becomes out.println( ) statements Two syntax versions: JSP syntax: <% <% Java Javacode %> %> XML syntax: <jsp:scriptlet> Java Java code code </jsp:scriptlet> Must contain valid Java code when translated Can declare local variables 2.9

10 : JSP Basics 2.10 A Scriptlet Example A scriptlet example in 3 versions: A simple Greeting JSP Version 1: Uses a single scriptlet Contains a complete Java if / else structure Version 2: Uses scriptlets mixed with expressions and static text Each scriptlet is a code fragmen. Together they make a complete structure Version 3: Same as 2, but declares a local variable See notes

11 : JSP Basics 2.11 Greeting JSP, Version 1 This version of the Greeting JSP uses a single scriptlet: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Greeting</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <% if(request.getparameter("name") == null) { out.println("you must supply a name!"); else { out.println("greetings, " + request.getparameter("name")); %> </BODY> </HTML> Greeting JSP, Version 2 This version of the Greeting JSP uses several scriptlets and an expression: <BODY> <% if(request.getparameter("name") == null) { %> You must supply a name! <% else { %> Greetings, <%= request.getparameter("name") %> <% %> </BODY> Greeting JSP, Version 3 This version is the same as 2 but declares a local string variable for the name to avoid calling getparameter( ) more than once: <BODY> <% String strname = request.getparameter("name"); if(strname == null) { %> You must supply a name! <% else { %> Greetings, <%= strname %> <% %> </BODY>

12 : JSP Basics 2.12 JSP Declarations: Declarations Special markup containing class level code Can declare instance / static variables Can declare additional methods for servlet Called from expressions & scriptlets Two syntax versions: JSP syntax: XML syntax: Order: <%! <%! Java Java code code %> %> <jsp:declaration> Java Java code code </jsp:declaration> Declarations can go after expressions & scriptlets 2.12

13 : JSP Basics 2.13 A Declaration Example A hit count JSP in 3 versions: Each uses an instance var for count All produce the same output Version 1: A simple expression increments and uses the instance variable Version 2: A separate declaration defines a private method for hit display Expression calls the method Version 3: Declarations at end of JSP See code in notes

14 : JSP Basics 2.14 Hit Count JSP, Version 1: Here s the JSP that produced the picture on the slide. It has a simple declaration for the instance variable that retains the hit count. The variable is then used in a JSP expression: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Hit Count JSP</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <%! private int _ihitcount; %> <CENTER> <H1>Hit Count JSP</H1> <P>This JSP tracks the number of hits to this page using a declaration to declare an instance variable. <P>Hits as of <%= new java.util.date() %>: <%= ++_ihitcount %> </CENTER> </BODY> </HTML> Hit Count JSP, Version 2: Here is the same JSP declaring and calling a private function to compose the display message. The output is identical: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Hit Count JSP</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <%! private int _ihitcount; %> <%! private String gethitcountmessage() { return "Hits as of " + new java.util.date() + ": " + ++_ihitcount; %> <CENTER> <H1>Hit Count JSP</H1> <P>This JSP tracks the number of hits to this page using a declaration to declare an instance variable. <P><%= gethitcountmessage() %> </CENTER> </BODY> </HTML>

15 : JSP Basics 2.15 Hit Count JSP, Version 3: Here is a variation on version 2 that has the declarations at the end of the JSP. The result is the same: <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Hit Count JSP</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <CENTER> <H1>Hit Count JSP</H1> <P>This JSP tracks the number of hits to this page using a declaration to declare an instance variable. <P><%= gethitcountmessage() %> </CENTER> </BODY> </HTML> <!-- Notice that these JSP declarations come after the JSP expression above that uses the function. That doesn't matter; the resulting servlet behaves the same way. --> <%! private int _ihitcount; %> <%! private String gethitcountmessage() { return "Hits as of " + new java.util.date() + ": " + ++_ihitcount; %>

16 : JSP Basics 2.16 JSP Translation: Summary 2.16 To summarize how JSPs are translated into servlets: Static text: Fed to out.print( ) in service( ) method JSP expressions: Fed to out.print( ) in service( ) method Scriptlets: Code included in service( ) method Declarations: Class-level code (variables & methods) See example in notes...

17 : JSP Basics 2.17 Another version of snoop.jsp in which a scriptlet declares local arrays and a declaration creates a separate private method. <%! // Private method for composing a label and value private String composeitem(string label, String value) { return label + ": " + value + "<br>"; %> <html> <body bgcolor="white"> <H1 align="center">javaserver Pages 1.1</H1> <H2 align="center">snoop Example</H2> <P> </P> <P> </P> <h1> Request Information </h1> <font size="4"> <% String[] strlabels = { "JSP Request Method", "Request URI",... ; String[] strvalues = { request.getmethod(), request.getrequesturi(),... ; for(int i = 0; i < strlabels.length; i++) %> <%= composeitem(strlabels[i], strvalues[i] %> </font> </body> </html>

18 : JSP Basics 2.18 And the resulting servlet: public class _snoop extends HttpJspBase { static char[][] _jspx_html_data = null; final String DATAFILE =...; public _snoop( ) { private static boolean _jspx_inited = false; public final void _jspx_init() throws JspException { //... // Private method for composing a label and value private String composeitem(string label, String value) { return label + ": " + value + "<br>"; public void _jspservice(httpservletrequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException, ServletException { // Declare variables as before... try { // Initialize variables as before... String[] strlabels = { "JSP Request Method", "Request URI",... ; String[] strvalues = { request.getmethod(), request.getrequesturi(),... ; From From declaration declaration From From scriptlet scriptlet out.print(_jspx_html_data[0]); for(int i = 0; i < strlabels.length; i++) out.print(composeitem(strlabels[i], strvalues[i]); catch (Throwable t) { /*... */ finally { /*... */

19 : JSP Basics 2.19 Other JSP Issues Commenting out part of JSP: HTML comments do not suppress JSP Contents still part of servlet & output Browser ignores To comment out JSP logic: Use a scriptlet with Java comments: Contents not part of servlet & output Escaping special characters: Use for literals in special places: Static text Scriptlets Attributes 2.19 <!-- <!-- Lines Lines to to suppress --> --> <% <% /* /* Lines Lines to to suppress */ */ %> %> Literal Literal Escaped Escaped <% <% <\% <\% %> %> %\> %\> ' \' \' " \" \" \ \\ \\

20 : JSP Basics Page Context Page context An object giving access to attributes/properties for this page An instance of javax.servlet.jsp.pagecontext All JSPs participating in a page share a PageContext How to get the current PageContext? Available through pre-defined JSP variable page A PageContext can hold data: Use familiar methods: setattribute( ), getattribute( ), etc.

21 : JSP Basics Installing & Using JSPs To install a JSP: Simply copy file to designated server directory Or package in J2EE WAR file Often, no need to inform server of JSP s presence Invoking the JSP: Invoke via URL of JSP file First invocation is slow; server is writing servlet Developer can invoke it to trigger servlet creation Product-specific details follow...

22 : JSP Basics 2.22 If JSP Has Errors 2.22 If JSP has syntax errors: JSP engine cannot create servlet Invoking JSP returns HTML error page Resulting page should say where error occurred For example: Here is WebLogic s page Syntax error in Hit Count JSP. See notes...

23 : JSP Basics 2.23 Here is a JSP with a syntactical error that triggered (in WebLogic) the translation error page shown on the slide: <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 3.2 Final//EN"> <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Hit Count JSP</TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <CENTER> <%! private int _ihitcount; %> <%! private String gethitcountmessage() { return "Hits as of " + new java.util.date() + ": " + ++_ihitcount; Error: Error: No No closing closing %> %> <H1>Hit Count JSP</H1> <P>This JSP tracks the number of hits to this page using a declaration to declare an instance variable. <P><%= gethitcountmessage() %> </CENTER> </BODY> </HTML>

24 : JSP Basics Where We've Been JSP recognizes certain predefined variables request, response, in, out, session, etc. Expressions: Let you embed values in output Scriptlets: Contain code snippets for service( ) method Declarations: Contain code for class level

25 : JSP Basics 2.25 Using Basic JSP Constructs Workshop 2.25 Your Objective In this workshop you will create a JSP using expressions and scriptlets. The lab consists of two files: 1. register.html presents a customer registration form. The user fills in fields for name, address, phone and credit card number, then clicks the Submit button. This button triggers the JSP. 2. welcome.jsp displays a welcome screen containing the information passed by register.html as request parameters. A. Examine the Files 1. The two files have been started for you. Locate them in the labs\initial\basic directory under your course directory. Copy these files, together with web.xml, to the labs directory 2. Open register.html and examine it. You will see that it creates several INPUT boxes with specific names. When the Submit button is clicked, the contents of these boxes are passed as request parameters with the respective names. Continues

26 : JSP Basics 2.26 B. Complete register.html 1. In register.html, find the ACTION attribute of the FORM tag. For the value, fill in a relative URL that points to welcome.jsp. The URL must start from the root server directory where the file is located, or the name of the war file. For example, if welcome.jsp is in the root directory of a war file named Labs.war, use the URL /labs/welcome.jsp (use forward slashes). 2. Save your work. C. Use Expressions in the Welcome Page 1. Use JSP expressions to display the following request parameters in welcome.jsp (look for comments in the file indicating where to put the expressions): a. In the Welcome heading, the customer s name. b. In the table, the customer s name, address, city, state, zip and credit card number. 2. Save your work. 3. Deploy your web application by running ant - make sure you are in the \jspcourse\labs directory - type: ant and press Enter 4. Test your work by invoking register.html through the Web server. For example, if you are running Java Web Server locally, the URL might look something like this: Fill in values and click Submit. Continues

27 : JSP Basics 2.27 D. Add Conditional Display Use JSP scriptlets to add a conditional display to the welcome page: If the user enters a credit card number, display it in the table. If not, display the paragraph about paying cash. Hints: 1. The request parameter will always be a valid string. If the user doesn t enter a value, the parameter value will be an empty (zero-length) string. 2. You will need three separate scriptlets for your if / else block. Note: In your code you will have to refer to the credit card parameter value at least twice. Rather than call getparameter( ) more than once, declare a local variable to capture the value, then use the variable.

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