Faidherbia albida + CF = CA

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1 No Farmers no Future Conservation Farming Unit CFU established in 1996 Faidherbia albida + CF = CA A long term solution for sustainable cereal production in regions of mono-modal rainfall Establishment of Faidherbia equates SSA with reforestation as opposed to de-forestation

2 Faidherbia albida & Conservation Farming Only known tree that exhibits reverse phrenology Research dating back 60 years suggests that on each hectare, mature trees supply the equivalent of 300kg of complete fertiliser and 250kg of lime.

3 Distribution Faidherbia is widely distributed with high ecological adaptability. Across the Sahel from the Atlantic to the Red Sea. Across Namibia and Southern Angola. From Natal across Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia to Yemen, Israel and Jordan. Altitude Faidherbia is found 270m below sea level near the Dead Sea and up to 2,300 m in Jebel Mara in the Sudan.

4 Climate & Soils Grows in a wide range of climatic conditions, the only constant feature being a long and clear cut dry season. Highly efficient in its use of water as demonstrated by its vegetative vigour in the dry season when rain is absent, humidity is low and evapotranspiration at its maximum. The tap root will grow to a depth of over 40 metres in search of the water table. Ecological optimum is on sites with deep sandy soils, with a distinct dry season and rainfall of mm.

5 Botanical Features First botanical determination made by Delille in 1813 named it Acacia albida. Due to its distinctive characteristics and other unique features Chevalier in 1934 proposed that the species be excluded from the genus Acacia and placed in the monospecific genus Faidherbia. The discussion among taxonomists continues! For agriculturalists very important features of the tree are: Its unique reverse phrenology. Its deep rooting & non competitive habit. Its value as a nutrient pump and soil regenerator.

6 Faidherbia and Small-scale Agriculture History In Senegal, Mali, Niger, northern Nigeria, and elsewhere in the Sahel, crop and livestock farmers have for centuries recognised the benefits of the Gao. To this day headmen often encourage farmers to establish the trees. Wildlings are nurtured and during the last century draconian punishments were metered out to protect Faidherbia. In 1860 the Fulani Sultan Tanimoun of Zinder decreed that: Anyone mutilating a tree would have his arm severed. Anyone who cut a Gao down without permission would be decapitated! As the proverb went A Gao is worth more than seven maternal uncles.

7 Faidherbia trees at GART in Zambia over Hoe CF Planted by CFU in 1999/2000 season Combination of CF + Faidherbia - best climate change adaptation technology

8 How to Plant and Look After Faidherbia Method developed by TLC Malawi Plant Musangu to make your own natural fertiliser to increase soil fertility and crop yields. Make your nursery in October. Get plastics and seed from CFU. The nursery must be above ground. Fill plastics with rich top soil. Before sowing rub one end of best seeds on a stone. Sow in early November and water regularly hectare needs 100 seedlings. Sow 125 to be sure of enough. Nursery size is about 1m x 1m. Seedling are ready to plant in 5 weeks. Don t delay or roots will twist up Dig all holes inside the crop row deeper than length of plastic. Spacing in the field is 10m x 10m.

9 7 8 9 Mix some manure with soil if available or 2 cups of D Before planting place all seedlings beside planting holes. 2 cups of D is only 2kg/ha Carefully cut off plastic with knife. Don t disturb soil round roots. Plant in hole after rain and firm in seedling level with field. Starting in May apply 1 litre of water a week to each plant. Use a knapsack with the nozzle removed. This will speed growth and reduce losses Stake seedlings to mark them. Put mulch and protect from goats with thorns for first 2 years. If some seedlings die, fill any gaps in next rainy season so you have a full stand of 100 plants per hectare. Think of the future. Fertiliser is getting more and more expensive.

10 Small-scale CA. Re-filling gaps always necessary to get full stand Young Faidherbia trees on CF smallholder farm

11 Establishment of Faidherbia by Farmers Getting farmers to establish Faidherbia is a major challenge: Benefits take at least 12 years to emerge and maybe 16 to 18 for full impact? Not a SSF priority so attention to nursery management & transplanting poor Also mistaken weeding out of young seedlings, predation by livestock and bush fires Over the past 7 seasons the CFU has trained and re-supplied sufficient seed, sleeves to enable 160,000 farmers to establish 100 trees annually (1ha) and to expand their plantings Establishment rates per farmer to date are estimated to be between 18 to 23 trees or less than 4% of the seed supplied. Need to achieve 40 to 50% minimum survival of seedling planted out

12 CFU Faidherbia Trials The CFU has undertaken 4 years of trials under and outside the canopy of 40 mature Faidherbia trees growing on farmers fields to determine yield effects on Maize, Cotton, Groundnuts and Soya Beans with zero fertilizer. Trial design and the final results are presented in the following slides. Trials during years 2, 3 and 4 were well managed and crop yields from each of the 8 treatments accurately recorded. In year 1 several trials had to be abandoned and data considered less robust. Maize yields double under the trees. Groundnut and Soya Bean yields showed no significant difference but marginally lower under trees for former and marginally higher for the latter. Cotton yields significantly lower under the trees.

13 On-farm Trial design mature Faidherbia albida, - ZERO FERTILISER 10.5m Outside Canopy Edge of Canopy 8.1m Detailed Trial Design: Cotton 10 rows x 12 CF basins Groundnuts Maize 32.9m Maize 10 rows x 12 CF basins 10 rows x 12 CF basins 10 rows x 12 CF basins 16.1m Groundnuts Soya + Inoculate Cotton 10 rows x 12 CF basins 10 rows x 12 CF basins 10 rows x 12 CF basins Soya + Inoculate 10 rows x 12 CF basins Maize, Cotton and Groundnuts planted immediately after first planting rains following CF hoe recommendations. Soya planted days later. Fertiliser zero all plots. Same day planting.

14 40 CFU Trials under Mature Trees for 4 seasons 4 Crops. All plots Zero Fertiliser & CF basins Maize outside tree Maize Under tree

15

16 Combined Results of 4 Years of Trials Final Results The results presented in the following slides are extracted from the report:- Analysis of Crop Trials under Faidherbia albida to Victor Shitumbanuma, Department of Soil Science, School of Agriculture, University of Zambia, September Analytical procedures for each season and combined analysis. Yield data checked for errors and entered in Excel and transferred to Statistical Software Analysis SAS v Before carrying out statistical tests data was rechecked. To establish differences in crop yields General Linear Models Procedure (GLMP), was applied. To compare means values of treatments LSD was applied to carry out the t-test. The procedure was also applied when analyzing aggregated yields across 4 programme Regions. The level of significance used to establish whether there were significant differences between treatment means was To assess trends in yields over time, bar graphs of mean yields were generated using Sigma Plot Version 11. Full report also available on CFU website, link: Research CFU Research: CFU Faidherbia Trials Final Results

17 Maize yields under and outside Mature Faidherbia - 4 seasons means Zero Fertilizer

18 Cotton yields under and outside Mature Faidherbia - 4 seasons means Zero Fertilizer

19 Groundnut yields under and outside Mature Faidherbia - 4 seasons means Zero Fertilizer

20 Soya Bean yields under and outside Mature Faidherbia - 4 seasons means Zero Fertilizer

21 CFU s Interpretation of Results Plus Other Observations Nutrient recycling substantial, however there is some shading effect. Rains commence toward end of November but complete defoliation only occurs by 2 nd or 3 rd week December. Good environment for crop establishment. Important to plant Cereals and Groundnuts with first rains. Trees commence leafing up about 3 rd week of February during peak rains, but significant variability exhibited by different trees. Complete canopy recovery by mid March when rains in decline. Not good for Cotton which continues growing until late May early June. Crop becomes etiolated and susceptible to fungal infections. Also N status too high? For Maize highly significant yield benefits. Also Sorghum and Millet as confirmed by many years of research in West Africa. Trees only start making pods after 12 years (+-). Significant variability. Challenge for Researchers: Yield trials under same trees over an extended period of 8 to 10 seasons combined with annual soil analysis to determine nutrient accumulation or depletion

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