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1 Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date: 1. At STP, fluorine is a gas and bromine is a liquid because, compared to fluorine, bromine has 1) stronger covalent bonds 2) stronger intermolecular forces 3) weaker covalent bonds 4) weaker intermolecular forces 2. Which statement explains why low temperature and high pressure are required to liquefy chlorine gas? 1) Chlorine molecules have weak covalent bonds. 2) Chlorine molecules have strong covalent bonds. 3) Chlorine molecules have weak intermolecular forces of attraction. 4) Chlorine molecules have strong intermolecular forces of attraction. 3. Molecules in a sample of NH3( ) are held closely together by intermolecular forces 1) existing between ions 2) existing between electrons 3) caused by different numbers of neutrons 4) caused by unequal charge distribution 4. Which of these substances has the strongest intermolecular forces? 1) H2O 2) H2S 3) H2Se 4) H2Te 5. In aqueous solution, a chloride ion is attracted to which end of the water molecule? 1) the hydrogen end, which is the positive pole 2) the hydrogen end, which is the negative pole 3) the oxygen end, which is the positive pole 4) the oxygen end, which is the negative pole 6. At 50. C and standard pressure, intermolecular forces of attraction are strongest in a sample of 1) ethanoic acid 2) ethanol 3) propanone 4) water 7. At standard pressure, CH4 boils at 112 K and H2O boils at 373 K. What accounts for the higher boiling point of H 2O at standard pressure? 1) covalent bonding 2) ionic bonding 3) hydrogen bonding 4) metallic bonding 8. Hydrogen bonding is a type of 1) strong covalent bond 2) weak ionic bond 3) strong intermolecular force 4) weak intermolecular force 9. In which liquid is hydrogen bonding strongest? 1) HF( ) 2) H2( ) 3) CH4( ) 4) NH3( ) 10. Which kinds of bonds are found in a sample of liquid H2O? 1) covalent bonds, only 2) hydrogen bonds, only 3) both covalent and hydrogen bonds 4) both ionic and hydrogen bonds 11. Based on intermolecular forces, which of these substances would have the highest boiling point? 1) He 2) O2 3) CH4 4) NH3 12. Using your knowledge of chemistry and the information in Reference Table H, which statement concerning propanone and water at 50 C is true? 1) Propanone has a higher vapor pressure and stronger intermolecular forces than water. 2) Propanone has a higher vapor pressure and weaker intermolecular forces than water. 3) Propanone has a lower vapor pressure and stronger intermolecular forces than water. 4) Propanone has a lower vapor pressure and weaker intermolecular forces than water. 13. Which statement explains why Br2 is a liquid at STP and I2 is a solid at STP? 1) Molecules of Br2 are polar, and molecules of I2 are nonpolar. 2) Molecules of I2 are polar, and molecules of Br2 are nonpolar. 3) Molecules of Br2 have stronger intermolecular forces than molecules of I2. 4) Molecules of I2 have stronger intermolecular forces than molecules of Br2.

2 14. Which represents a sample containing molecule-ion attractions? 1) CH4(g) 2) NaCl(aq) 3) H2O(g) 4) Hg(l) 15. What happens when NaCl(s) is dissolved in water? 1) Cl ions are attracted to the oxygen atoms of water molecules. 2) Na + ions are attracted to the oxygen atoms of water molecules. 3) Cl ions are repelled by the hydrogen atoms of water molecules. 4) Na + ions are repelled by the oxygen atoms of water molecules. 16. In an aqueous solution of Ca(NO3)2, which kind of attraction exists between the solute and the solvent? 1) molecule-ion attraction 2) molecule-molecule attraction 3) hydrogen bond 4) van der Waals force 17. As the distance between two bromine molecules increases, the magnitude of the atractive forces between them 1) decreases 2) increases 3) remains the same 18. Intermolecular attractions strength affect a substances 1) nuclear charge 2) melting point temperature 3) spectral lines 4) chemical properties 19. The strongest attractions exist between molecules of...? (Hint: The mass of these elements is presented on the Periodic Table) 1) I2 2) Br2 3) Cl2 4) F2

3 20. Base your answer to the following question on the information below. Carbon forms molecular compounds with some elements from Group 16. Two of these compounds are carbon dioxide, CO2, and carbon disulfide, CS2. Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas at room temperature. At standard temperature and pressure, CO2(s) changes directly to CO2(g). Carbon disulfide is formed by a direct reaction of carbon and sulfur. At room temperature, CS2 is a colorless liquid with an offensive odor. Carbon disulfide vapors are flammable. Compare the intermolecular forces in CO2 and CS2 at room temperature. 21. Base your answer to the following question on the information below. Naphthalene, a nonpolar substance that sublimes at room temperature, can be used to protect wool clothing from being eaten by moths. Explain, in terms of intermolecular forces, why naphthalene sublimes. 22. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the vapor pressure curves for liquids A and B. Which liquid will evaporate more rapidly? Explain your answer in terms of intermolecular forces. 23. Base your answer to the following question on the information below and on your knowledge of chemistry. Rubbing alcohol is a product available at most pharmacies and supermarkets. One rubbing alcohol solution contains 2-propanol and water. The boiling point of 2-propanol is 82.3 C at standard pressure. Explain in terms of electronegativity differences, why a C O bond is more polar than a C H bond.

4 24. Base your answer to the following question on the information below. State evidence that indicates NH3 has stronger intermolecular forces than CF Base your answer to the following question on the information below. Bond energy is the amount of energy required to break a chemical bond. The table below gives a formula and the carbon-nitrogen bond energy for selected nitrogen compounds. Explain, in terms of charge distribution, why a molecule of hydrogen cyanide is polar. Base your answers to questions 26 through 28 on the table below. 27. Explain, in terms of intermolecular forces, why hydrogen has a lower boiling point than hydrogen bromide. 28. Explain, in terms of electronegativity difference, why the bond in H Cl is more polar than the bond in H I. 26. Explain, in terms of molecular polarity, why hydrogen chloride is more soluble than hydrogen in water under the same conditions of temperature and pressure.

5 Base your answers to questions 29 and 30 on the information below. Each molecule listed below is formed by sharing electrons between atoms when the atoms within the molecule are bonded together. Molecule A: Cl2 Molecule B: CCl4 Molecule C: NH3 29. Explain why NH3 has stronger intermolecular forces of attraction than Cl Explain why CCl4 is classified as a nonpolar molecule.

6 Answer Key Intermolecular Forces Practice Test Examples: Carbon disulfide has stronger intermolecular forces than carbon dioxide. CO2 has weaker intermolecular forces. 21. Acceptable responses: Naphthalene has weak intermolecular forces; They are weak. 22. liquid A Example: The higher vapor pressure of liquid A indicates that the intermolecular forces between its molecules are weaker, allowing the molecules to escape more readily to the vapor phase. 23. There is a greater electronegativity difference in a CO bond than in a CH bond. The CO bond is more polar because the electronegativity difference for a CO bond is 0.8, and the electronegativity difference for a CH bond is 0.4. The CH bond has a smaller difference. The CO is.8 and the CH is Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: At standard pressure, NH 3 has a higher boiling point than CF4. The melting point of CF4 is lower. 25. Examples: The molecule has an asymmetrical charge distribution.; The molecule has an unequal distribution of charge. 26. Examples: HCl's molecular polarity is more similar to water's polarity than H2's polarity compared to water's HCl and water both polar, H2 nonpolar, like dissolves like HCl polarity is more similar to water's polarity 27. Examples: Hydrogen has weaker intermolecular forces than HBr. hydrogen weaker forces. 28. Examples: The electronegativity difference for HCl is 1.1, which is higher than the 0.6 for HI. The difference for HCl is greater. 29. Examples: NH3 has polar molecules that attract each other. NH3 has an unshared pair of electrons around the center atom. NH3 is capable of hydrogen bonding. unequal distribution of electrons in strong attraction 30. Examples: The molecule is symmetrical in shape and/or charge. Electrons are evenly distributed. All polar covalent dipoles cancel no dipole moments. no dipoles

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