# Chem 338 Homework Set #2 solutions September 12, 2001 From Atkins: 2.8, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.21, 2.23, 2.26

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1 Chem 8 Homework Set # solutions September 1, 001 From Atkins:.8,.15,.16,.17,.18,.1,.,.6.8) A sample of methane of mass 4.50 g occupies 1.7 L at 10 K. (a) Calculate the work done when the gas expands isothermally against a constant external pressure of 00 Torr until its volume has increased by. L. (b) Calculate the work that would be done if the same expansion occurred isothermally and reversibly. (a) For an expansion against constant pressure, w = p ex V, w = ( 00 Torr )(. L) = 660 Torr L 1. 1 Pa dm 1 m -660 Torr L = 88 J Torr L 10 dm V f (b) For an isothermal, reversible expansion of a perfect gas: w = nrt ln, Vi 450. g n = = moles g / mol w = ( )(8.1451)(10 K )ln = 167 J 1. 7 Note that you get more work out of a reversible process!.15) When 9 J of energy is supplied as heat to.00 mol Ar(g) at a constant volume, the temperature of the sample increases by.55 K. Calculate the molar heat capacities at constant volume and constant pressure of the gas. at constant volume: q = qv = Cv T = ncv, m T q C v 9 J vm, = = = 9. 9 n T ( 00. )( 55. K) Remember that Cpm, Cvm, = R, (perfect gas only) so Cpm, = Cvm, + R = = 8. J mol K J mol K

2 .16) The heat capacity of air at room temperature and pressure is approximately 1 J K -1 mol -1. How much energy is required to raise the temperature of a room of dimensions 5.5m x 6.5m x.0m by 10ºC? If losses are neglected, how long will it take a heater rated at 1.5 kw to achieve that increase given that 1 W = 1 J s -1? The volume of the room is: (5.5m)(6.5m)(.0m) = m Standard ambient temperature and pressure is 5ºC (98.15 K) and 1 bar (10 5 Pa) First calculate the # moles of air in the room: 5 pv n = RT = ( 10 Pa )( m ) (. )(. ) = moles K q= nc T then: pm, = ( 46. 4)( 1 J K mol )(10 ) = J = 910 kj 1 s at 1.5 kj/s: kj = s 610 s 1.5 kj.17) A sample of food was burned in an oxygen atmosphere and the temperature rose by.89ºc. When a current of 1.7 A from a 1.5 V source flowed through the same calorimeter for 157 s, the temperature rose by.88ºc. What is the heat released by the combustion? First find the heat capacity of the calorimeter: q = IVt = ( 1. 7 A )( 1. 5 V )( 157 s ) = J C= q =. = J deg -1 T 88 Then for our unknown sample, q = C T = ( 64. 4)(. 89 ) = 1857 J = kj

3 .18) Calculate the heat needed to be supplied to a parcel of air containing 1.00 mol air molecules to maintain its temperature at 00 K when it expands reversibly and isothermally from.0 L to 0.0 L as it ascends. For a perfect gas, U = 0, so from the 1st law of thermodynamics, q = w V f 0. 0 q = w = nrt ln = ( 1. 00)( )( 00) ln Vi. 0 = J = 774 J (rev, isotherm., perf.).1) (a) Calculate the difference between the molar enthalpy and the molar internal energy of carbon dioxide regarded as a perfect gas at K. (b) Is the molar enthalpy increased or decreased when intermolecular forces are taken into account? For the latter calculation, treat carbon dioxide as a van der Waals gas and use the data in Table 1.5. (a) H = U + pv, so for a perfect gas H = U + nrt and H m = U m + RT Hm Um = RT = ( )( ) = J mol -1 RT (b) for a van der Waals gas, p = a Vm b 1 V m So, how does pv m differ between a van der Waals gas and a perfect gas (where it equals RT)? There are probably a few different ways to get at this question, but for a given pressure we can simplify this by looking then just at the molar volume, V m. Rearranging the van der Waals eqn.: Vm = RT a p + V m + b (1) where for CO, a=.59 L atm mol -, b=0.04 L mol -1 While we can t solve this directly, we can use the method of successive RT ( )( ) approximations. For a perfect gas, Vm = = = L p 1 atm Substituting this value in as an initial guess into eqn.(1):

4 V m = L ( ) Substituting this new value back into (1): V m = L ( 4. 66) on comparison we see we are converged to sufficient accuracy to say that pv m (vdw) < pv m (perfect) and hence that the molar enthalpy decreases when intermolecular interactions are included in the case of CO..) When.0 mol of O (g) is heated at a constant pressure of.5 atm, its temperature increases from 60 K to 85 K. Given that the molar heat capacity of O at constant pressure is 9.4 J K -1 mol -1, calculate q, H, and U. a) at constant pressure, q = ncpm, T = (. 0)( 9. 4)( 5) = 05 J =. b) since we re at constant pressure, H = q =. kj c) H = U + ( pv) = U + nr T (perfect gas) U = H nr T = 05 (. 0)( )( 5) = 1581 J = 1.6 kj kj

5 .6) The heat capacity of a substance is often reported in the form c Cpm, = a+ bt + T Use this expression to make a more accurate estimate of the change in molar enthalpy of carbon dioxide when it is heated from 15ºC to 7ºC given a = 44. J K -1 mol -1, b = 8.79 x 10 - J K - mol -1, and c = 8.6 x 10 5 J K mol -1. For infinitessimal temperature changes: dh = C pdt, or dhm = C pm, dt Finite changes (T = K to K) are then given by: Tf Tf c Hm = C pm, dt = a + bt + dt T T T i i T b c f at T = + T Ti b = at ( f Ti) + T ( f T 1 1 i ) c T f T i b = a( ) + (. ) c = 818 J mol -1

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