B4 Learning Outcome Questions

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1 Question Name 4 collection methods: What is the formula used to estimate the population size of an organism: What assumptions need to be made when using capture-recapture data? What could affect the distribution of organisms in a habitat? What is an ecosystem? What is a habitat? What is a community? What is a population? Why can an eco-system be described as self-supporting? How can you map the distribution of organisms? What does a kite diagram show? What is zonation? What causes zonation? What is biodiversity? Give an example of a natural eco-system Give an example of an artificial eco-system. Which has the higher biodiversity; native woodland or forestry plantations? Why? Which has the lower biodiversity; lake or fish farm? Why? What is the word equation for What is the BALANCED symbol equation for What is the waste product in What did Greek scientists think happened when plants grew? What did Van Helmont s experiments show? What did Priestley s experiments show? What happens in the first stage of What happens in the second stage of Answer pooters nets pitfall traps quadrats. Population size = number in 1 st sample x number in 2 nd sample Number in 2 nd sample previously marked No death, immigration or emigration Identical sampling methods Marking not affecting survival rate Presence of other organisms. Food Shelter Water All the living things in an area and how they interact with each other. A place where an organism lives The living things in an eco-system. The number of individuals in a species. Sun s energy is used by plants in photosynthesis. Animals in a food chain are dependent on plants for food. Carbon and Nitrogen are recycled. Plants and animals dependant on each other for oxygen and carbon dioxide. Transect line The distribution of organisms along a line transect. A gradual change in the distribution of species across a habitat. A gradual change in an abiotic (not living) factor such as water availability, exposure and ph. The variety of different species living in a habitat. Lakes, native woodland, ocean, river Fish farm, greenhouse, garden, forestry plantation. Native woodland. Because a forestry plantation only has a small number of species of trees planted, which limits food supplies resulting in a small number of animal species. Fish farm Only farm one type of fish, discouraging other living organisms. (light energy) Carbon dioxide + water glucose and oxygen (chlorophyll) (light energy) 6CO 2 + 6H 2O - C 6H 12O 6 + 6O 2 (chlorophyll) Oxygen Gained mass only by taking minerals from the soil. Plant growth cannot just be from the soil Oxygen is produced by plants Light energy splits water releasing oxygen gas and H + ions Carbon dioxide combines with the H + ions to for glucose.

2 Experiments using isotopes of oxygen have been used to show what? How is glucose transported and stored? What is glucose converted to and for what are the products used for? Why are insoluble substances used for storage? Why do plants grow faster in the summer? How can photosynthesis be increased? More CO 2 More light Higher temperature What process occurs in plants at all times? Respiration Why must plants carry out respiration? Explain why plants take in CO 2 and give out O 2 during the day and they do the reverse at night. Why are chloroplasts not found in all plant cells? What does chlorophyll do? Where does water enter the plant? Where does CO 2 enter the plant? What features of a leaf means it is adapted for Why? Explain how the cellular structure of a leaf is adapted for efficient photosynthesis. How do plants maximise the use of energy from the sun? What is the name of the process which means substances move in and out of cells? Define diffusion. How can the rate of diffusion be increased? By what process does water move in and out of a cell? Define osmosis That oxygen produced by photosynthesis is produced from the splitting of water not from CO 2 Transported as soluble sugars. Stored as insoluble starch. Glucose Respiration Cellulose cell walls Proteins growth and repair Starch, fats and oils storage Does not move away in solution from storage areas Does not affect the water concentration inside cells. Light Warm To produce energy which is then used for growth. Photosynthesise during the day which produces oxygen, and take in carbon dioxide. During the night, there is no photosynthesis, so carbon dioxide is produced from respiration and oxygen is taken in. Because not all cells are exposed to sunlight so do not require chloroplasts. Found in chloroplasts and absorb light energy for photosynthesis Root hair cells Stomata Broad large surface area Thin short distance for gas diffusion Contain chlorophyll and other pigments so can absorb light from different parts of the spectrum. Vascular bundle for transport Guard cells - open and close the stomata. Transparent epidermis allow sunlight into the leaf. Palisade layer contains most chloroplasts to absorb the most sunlight. Air spaces allow diffusion between stomata and cells gives a large surface area. Internal surface area to volume ratio large. Contain different pigments (chlorophyll a and b, carotene and xanthophyll) so can absorb different parts of the spectrum. Diffusion The net movement of substances from a high concentration to a low concentration. Due to random movement of particles. Shorter distance. Greater concentration difference (gradient) Greater surface area Osmosis The movement of water across a partially-permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration (ie dilute solution) to an area of low water concentration (ie concentrated solution), as a consequence of the random

3 What is the role of the cell wall? What happens when a plant doesn t have enough water? How are plants supported? What happens to the turgor pressure when the plant wilts? Explain the terms: Flaccid Plasmolysed Turgid How does CO 2 and O 2 enter/leave the plant? How are leaves adapted to increase the rate of diffusion? What happens when water moves into an animal cell? What term is used to describe the loss of water and shrinkage of animal cells? What term is used to describe the gain of water and bursting of animal cells? Why is the effect of water movement more extreme in an animal cell compared to a plant cell? What is the pathway of water through a plant? In which plant vessel does transpiration occur? In which plant vessel does translocation occur? How can transpiration be increased? Why does increasing light intensity Why does increasing temperature Why does increasing air movement What does transpiration provide to the plant? How is the structure of a leaf adapted to reduce water loss? How is the cellular structure of a leaf adapted to reduce water loss? What minerals are found in fertilisers? What are the following minerals used for by movement of individual particles Provides support. Wilts. Turgor pressure. Water pressure acts against the cell wall. There is a decrease in turgor pressure, so there is less water pressure on the cell wall, causing the plant to droop. Flaccid net movement of water molecules is out of the cell, so there is less turgor pressure plant wilts Plasmolysed net movement of water molecules is out of the cell, the cytoplasm pulls away from the cell wall and the cell collapses. Turgid more water enters the cell. Diffusion in the leaves. Broad large surface area Thin short distance for gas diffusion Vascular bundle for transport Guard cells - open and close the stomata. It will swell and eventually burst. Crenation Lysis Animal cells do not have a cell wall so are not supported. Enters in the roots, transported through the plant, up the stem to the leaves, evaporates from the leaves. Xylem Phloem Increase light intensity Increase temperature Increase air movement Decrease Humidity Stomata open, water can diffuse out of the leaf. Water molecules have more energy so random movement of water molecules increases and more water escapes. Wind causes water molecules near stomata are removed, this increases evaporation and diffusion of water from inside of the leaf. Cooling Photosynthesis Support Movement of minerals. Waxy cuticle More stomata on the bottom than the top of the leave. Change guard cell turgidity Number, distribution, position and size of stomata. N Nitrogen P Phosphorous K - Potassium Nitrates makes proteins

4 plants? Nitrates, Phosphates, potassium, magnesium How the following elements used in the production of compounds in plants? Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and magnesium What are the consequences of the following mineral deficiencies? Nitrates, Phosphates, potassium, magnesium How are minerals absorbed by plants? By what process are minerals taken up by the plant? What are the key factors in the process of decay: Why decay is important for plant growth? Why does changing temperature, and the amounts of oxygen and water, affect the rate of decay? What are detritivores? How do detritivores help speed up decay? What is a saprophyte? How do saprophytes digest dead material? What kind of digestion do saprophytes carry out? Name the methods of preserving foods and how each one helps to preserve food. What is a pesticide? What does an insecticide do? What does a fungicide do? What does a herbicide do? What are the disadvantages of using pesticides? What is intensive farming? Give examples of intensive farming What is hydroponics? How does intensive farming improve efficiency? Phosphates for respiration and growth Potassium respiration and photosynthesis Magnesium for photosynthesis Nitrogen makes amino acids Phosphorous makes DNA and cell membranes Potassium to help enzymes (in photosynthesis and respiration) Magnesium to make chlorophyll. Nitrates poor growth and yellow leaves Phosphates poor root growth and discoloured leaves Potassium poor flower and fruit growth and discoloured leaves Magnesium yellow leaves. Dissolved in solution. By the root hairs, from the soil Active Transport presence of microorganisms temperature oxygen moisture Minerals are recycled and used by plants for growth. Micro-organisms use oxygen for respiration for growth and reproduction, so more oxygen means more decay. Feed on dead and decaying matter. Increase the surface area of the detritus Organisms (e.g. fungi) which feed of dead and decaying matter Release enzymes which break down it s food and then the food is absorbed. Extracellular digestion Adding sugar or salt kills bacteria Canning food is heated to kill bacteria then food is stored in a vacuum sealed can Cooling Slows down respiration and reproduction of microorganisms Cooking Kills bacteria Drying without water bacteria cannot grow Adding vinegar Bacteria cannot grow in acid conditions. Kill pests, which are any organisms that damage crops Kill insects Kill fungi Kill plants (weeds) pesticides may enter and accumulate in food chains pesticides may harm organisms which are not pests some pesticides are persistent. trying to produce as much food as possible from the land, plants and animals available fish farming glasshouses hydroponics battery farming. Growing plants without soil Reduces energy transfer to pests (including weeds) Reduces heat loss from farm animals by keeping them penned indoors (battery farming) so that they are warm

5 What is organic farming? Give examples of organic farming methods. What are the advantages of organic farming? What are the disadvantages of organic farming? What is biological control? What are the advantages and disadvantages of biological control: and move around less. No artificial fertilisers or pesticides. use of animal manure and compost crop rotation including use of nitrogen-fixing crops weeding by hand varying seed planting times. No expensive chemicals are bought. No chemical build up in food chain Some people think it tastes better. Biological control methods are slow and don t kill all pests. Crop yields are reduced. Products are more expensive Introducing a predator to kill the pests. Advantages: no need for chemical pesticides, does not need repeated treatment Disadvantages: predator may not eat pest, may eat useful species, may increase out of control, may not stay in the area where it is needed.

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