# Real Roots of Quadratic Interval Polynomials 1

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1 Int. Journal of Math. Analysis, Vol. 1, 2007, no. 21, Real Roots of Quadratic Interval Polynomials 1 Ibraheem Alolyan Mathematics Department College of Science, King Saud University P.O. Box: 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia Abstract The aim of this paper is to study the roots of interval polynomials. The characterization of such roots is given and an algorithm is developed for computing the interval roots of quadratic polynomials with interval coefficients. Mathematics Subject Classification: 65G40 Keywords: interval analysis, interval polynomials, interval root, boundary real polynomials 1 Introduction Polynomial equations with perturbed coefficients arise in several areas of engineering sciences, for instance, in automatic control theory [16], dynamical systems [13], optimization [14] and in control theory [15]. For such equations it is necessary to study their roots and to establish a priori estimates to define regions containing such roots [5, 6, 7, 8]. Attending to the fact that these equations can be seen as algebraic interval equations?- equations defined by interval polynomials?- the computation of the roots can be made, in certain cases [3, 4], using the interval arithmetic [1, 9, 10]. In [3], several a priori estimates for the zeros of interval polynomials of degree two were established. A recurring problem in interval computations is finding the real roots of polynomial with interval coefficients. In this paper, we give simple procedure for finding real roots of interval polynomials, which are defined as follows: Let 1 Supported by the research center project # (Math/2007/41)

2 1042 I. Alolyan the interval of the polynomial be expressed as P (x) =[p(x), p(x)]. Given a point x for which p(x) 0 p(x), (1) let I be the largest interval containing values of x such that every point in I satisfies (1). We call I an interval root of P (x). In the present paper, we give a simple procedure for finding the interval root of quadratic interval polynomials. The characterization of the roots of the interval polynomials is obtained as a function of their interval coefficients adequately defining certain polynomials with real coefficients. The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we give a review of interval arithmetics. In Section 3, we introduce basic definitions of interval polynomials and their roots. In Section 4, we develop an algorithm to compute interval roots of interval polynomials. Finally, we provide numerical results in Section 5 to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. 2 Interval Arithmetic In this section, a minimum knowledge of interval arithmetic is imported. A through introduction to the whole area of interval arithmetic can be found in [2, 11, 12]. Let [a] = [a, ā], [b] = [b, b] be real compact intervals and one of the basic operations addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, respectively, for real numbers, that is {+,,, }. Then we define the corresponding operations for intervals [a] and [b] by [a] [b] ={a b a [a],b [b]}, where we assume 0 / [b] in case of division. It is easy to prove that the set I(R) of real compact intervals is closed with respect to theses operations. What is even more important is the fact that [a] [b] can be represented by using only the bounds of [a] and [b]. The following roles hold: [a]+[b] =[a + b, ā + b], [a] [b] =[a b, ā b], [a] [b] = [min{ab,a b, āb, ā b}, max{ab,a b, āb, ā b}], [a] [b] =[a, ā][1/ b, 1/b], 0 / [b]. These rules show that substraction and division in I are not the inverse operations of addition and multiplication, respectively, as in the case of R. For example, [0, 1] [0, 1]=[ 1, 1], [1, 2]/[1, 2] = [1/2, 2]. This property is one of

3 Quadratic interval polynomials 1043 the main differences between interval arithmetic and real arithmetic. Another main difference is given by the so called subdistributive law, [a]([b]+[c]) [a][b]+[a][c]. The simple example [ 1, 1](1 + ( 1)) = 0 [ 1, 1] 1+[ 1, 1] ( 1) = [ 2, 2] illustrates this property. The topological properties, and algebraic structure of interval analysis were developed in [2, 11]. 3 Basic definitions In this section, we defined quadratic interval polynomials, their roots and their graphs. Definition 3.1. A quadratic interval polynomial is defined by P (x) =Ax 2 + Bx + C, (2) where A =[a, ā], B=[b, b], and C =[c, c] are intervals. Attending to (2), it is easy to see that P (x) is a family of polynomials p(x) =ax 2 + bx + c, where a A, b B, and c C Using the definition of the graph of a real function, we introduce the graph of a real interval polynomial. Definition 3.2. Let P (x) be a quadratic interval polynomial. The graph of P (x) is denoted by G(P ) and is given by G(P )={(ˆx, ŷ) R 2 : p(x) P (x), ŷ = p(ˆx)}. In the next lemma we characterize the graph of a real interval polynomial P (x) using the graph of certain real polynomial called boundary real polynomials. In order to do that, denote l + (x) =ax 2 + bx + c, u + (x) =āx 2 + bx + c, l (x) =ax 2 + bx + c, u (x) =āx 2 + bx + c.

4 1044 I. Alolyan Lemma 3.1. Let P (x) be the real interval polynomial given by (2). The graph of P is given by G(P )={(x, y) R 2 : l + (x) y u + (x) if x 0 and l (x) y u (x) if x 0} Proof. The proof is straightforward. Definition 3.3. Let P (x) be a real interval polynomial. The interval root of P (x) is denoted by Ω(P ) and is given by Ω(P )={ x R : p(x) P (x),p( x) =0}. In this paper, our aim is to characterize the interval root of P (x). Similar to a non-interval quadratic, there may be no such interval root, or there may be only one (multiple root), or there may be two such disjoint interval roots. The interval case differs than the non-interval case in that there might be three such disjoint interval roots. However, in the latter case, one interval root extends to and another extends to +. Thus we can think of these interval roots as joined at projective infinity to form a single interval. 4 Zeros of Interval Polynomials In this section our aim is to find zeros intervals for the polynomial P (x). We will assume that aā 0, then we have to study two cases, the first case is aā >0, and the second is aā <0. Subsequent work will deal with finding the roots of quadratic polynomial in the interval [0, ). In the first case where we have aā >0, there are two subcases. We will consider the subcase where a, ā>0, if booth are negative then we need only to change the sign of P (x). The following theorem consider all the solutions of (2) on the interval [0, ). We denote the interval roots by Ω +.Ifl + has two different real roots then we denote them by x + l (1) <x+ l (2), and if u+ has two different real roots then we denote them by x + u (1) <x+ u (2). Theorem 4.1. Let P (x) =Ax 2 + Bx + C, where A =[a, ā], B=[b, b], and C =[c, c] are intervals, and a > 0, then we have the following cases: 1. If b 2 < 4ac, then Ω + = φ.

5 Quadratic interval polynomials If b 2 =4ac, then Ω + = { b/2a}. 3. If b 2 > 4ac, and b 2 4ā c, then Ω + =[x + l (1),x+ l (2)] [0, ). 4. If b 2 > 4ac, and b 2 > 4ā c, then ( Ω + = [x + l (1),x+ u (1)] ) [x + u (2),x+ l (2)] [0, ). Proof. 1. If b 2 < 4ac, then l + (x) > 0 for all x [0, ); therefore P (x) > 0 for all x [0, ). 2. Since a > 0, this implies that c 0; therefore, if b > 0, then by Descartes Rule, l + (x) can not have any positive root, thus b 0. In this case, b/2a 0 is the only solution. 3. If b 2 > 4ac, and b 2 4ā c, then the graph of u + (x) does not cross the x axis, therefore the solution is the nonnegative interval root of l + (x), i.e., Ω + =[x + l (1),x+ l (2)] [0, ). 4. If b 2 > 4ac, and b 2 > 4ā c, then the solution is the nonnegative interval root [x + l (1),x+ l (2)]\(x+ u (1),x + u (2)) i.e., ( Ω + = [x + l (1),x+ u (1)] ) [x + u (2),x+ l (2)] [0, ). In the previous theorem, we found the interval roots on the interval [0, ). Similar rules can be applied to find interval roots on the interval (, 0], or we can consider the functions l + ( x) and u + ( x) and study their roots on the interval [0, ). Now we will consider the second case where aā <0. The following Theorem shows how to compute interval roots on the interval [0, ). Theorem 4.2. Let P (x) =Ax 2 + Bx + C, where A =[a, ā], B=[b, b], and C =[c, c] are intervals, and a < 0 < ā, then we have the following cases: 1. If b 2 > 4ac > 0 and b 0 then Ω + =[r, x + l (1)] [x + l { 0 if c 0 r = x + u (2) if c <0 (2), ), where

6 1046 I. Alolyan 2. If c > 0 then Ω + =[x + l (2), ) if b 2 4ā c, and otherwise. Ω + =[x + l (2), )\(x+ u (1),x+ u (2)), 3. If b 2 4ac, then Ω + =[0, ) if b 2 4ā c, and otherwise. Ω + =[0, )\(x + u (1),x+ u (2)), Proof. 1. If b 2 > 4ac > 0, and b 0, then c 0 and l + (x) has two positive solutions. Now if c 0, then u + (x) does not have any real roots and Ω + =[0,x + l (1)] [x + l (2), ). If c 0, then u+ (x) has one positive real root and therefore, Ω + =[x + u (2),x+ l (1)] [x + l (2), ). 2. If c > 0, then b 2 0 > 4ac; therefore, l + (x) has one positive root, namely, x + l (2). Now if b 2 4ā c, then the graph of the function u + (x) does not cross the x axis; therefore, the solution is Ω + =[x + l (2), ). On the other hand if b 2 > 4ā c, then u + (x) has two roots and the solution is Ω + =[x + l (2), )\(x+ u (1),x+ u (2)). 3. If b 2 4ac, then the graph of l + (x) does not cross the x axis. Now, if b2 4ā c, then the graph of the function u + (x) does not cross the x axis; therefore, the solution is Ω + =[0, ). On the other hand if b 2 > 4ā c, then u + (x) has two roots and the solution is Ω + =[0, )\(x + u (1),x+ u (2)). 5 Numerical Examples Example 5.1. Consider the interval polynomial P (x) =[2, 3]x 2 +[ 4, 6]x +[3, 4]. is Computing the boundary polynomials we can see that the graph of P (x) G(P )={(x, y) R 2 : l + (x) y u + (x), if x 0, and l (x) y u (x), if x 0} where, l + (x) =2x 2 4x +3, u + (x) =3x 2 +6x +4, l (x) =2x 2 +6x +3, u (x) =3x 2 4x +4.

7 Quadratic interval polynomials Figure 1: Boundary polynomials for P (x) in Example Figure 2: The Graph of P (x) in Example 5.1 In Figures 1 and 2, we plot the boundary polynomials of P (x) and the function P (x), respectively. In order to find the interval roots of P (x) (Ω(P )), we can see that the function does not have any roots in the interval [0, ). On the other hand, l ( x) has two real zeros (3 ± 3)/2 and u ( x) does not have any zeros; therefore, the interval root on the interval (, 0] is [( 3 3)/2, ( 3+ 3)/2] [ 2.366, 0.634]. Example 5.2. Consider the interval polynomial P (x) =[ 2, 1]x 2 +[ 4, 2]x +[1, 2]. Computing the boundary polynomials we can see that the graph of P (x) is G(P )={(x, y) R 2 : l + (x) y u + (x), if x 0, and l (x) y u (x), if x 0}

8 1048 I. Alolyan where, l + (x) = 2x 2 4x +1, u + (x) =x 2 2x +2, l (x) = 2x 2 2x +1, u (x) =x 2 4x +2. In Figures 3 and 4, we plot the boundary polynomials of P (x) and the function P (x), respectively. In order to find the interval roots of P (x), we can see that the function u + (x) does not have any roots in the interval [0, ), and l + (x) has only one positive root, namely, 1+ 3/2; therefore, the interval root in the interval [0, ) is[ 1+ 3/2, ). On the other hand, u ( x) does not have positive zeros and l ( x) has one positive zero (1+ 3)/2; therefore, the interval root on the interval (, 0] is [, ( 1 3)/2] Figure 3: Boundary polynomials for P (x) in Example Figure 4: The Graph of P (x) in Example 5.2

9 Quadratic interval polynomials 1049 References [1] Alefeld, G. and Claudio, D. The basic properties of interval arithmetics, its software realization and some applications, Comput.Struct.67 : 3?8, (1998). [2] Alefeld, G. and Herzberger, J. Introduction Interval Computations, Academic Press, New Yourk. (1983). [3] Claudio, D. and Oliveira, P. Interval approximation, Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 76 (S1) T375?T376, (1996) [4] Dugarova, I. and Smagina, Y. Asymptotic steady-output tracking for plant with interval parameters. Proceedings of the International Workshop Novosibirisk, pp 25?29, (1991). [5] Ferreira, J., Patrício F. and Oliveira, F. On the computation of solutions of systems of interval polynomial equations. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, (173), (2005). [6] Ferreira, J., Patrício F. and Oliveira, F. A priori estimates for the zeros of interval polynomials. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics,136, (2001). [7] Hansen, E. Sharp Bounds on Interval Polynomial Roots. Reliable Computing. 8: , [8] Hansen, E. and Walster, G. Sharp Bounds on Interval Polynomial Roots. Reliable Computing, Springer Netherlands, (8), (2002). [9] Hertling, P. A Lower Bound for Range Enclosure in interval Arithmetic. Theoretical Computer Science, 279, 1-2: (2002). (2002). [10] Lin, Q. and Rokne, J. Methods for Bounding the Range of Polynomial. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics. 58: , (1995). [11] Moore, R. Interval Analysis, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs. (1966). [12] Moore, R. Methods and Applications of Interval Analysis, SIAM, Philadelphia. (1979). [13] Rosembrock, H. State-Space and Multivariable Theory, Nelson, London, (1990).

10 1050 I. Alolyan [14] Schichl, H. and Neumaier, A. Interval Analysis on Directed Acyclic Graphs for Global Optimization, J. of Global Optimization, 33,4, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Hingham, MA, USA. [15] Smagina, Y. Problems of a linear multivariate system analysis using system of zeros, Tomsk University, (1990). [16] Sohn, C. On damping ratio of polynomials with perturbed coefficients, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 37 (2) (1992). Received: July 10, 2007

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