ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast"

Transcription

1 ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 2: OCTOBER 6, 2015

2 In the News India submits climate action plan Will have 40% renewable energy by 2030 Cut emissions intensity of its economy by 35% by 2030 Now all major emitters have pledged Draft of UN agreement released For the Paris meeting in Dec Extreme weather Hurricane Joaquin in SC, Bahamas French Riviera flooding

3 Other News UW Student Chapter of the American Meteorological Society has its first meeting today ATG 610, 5-7 PM Come by if you re interested in weather, climate, and air quality Extra credit assignment (very quick turnaround!): Send me your comments on this article by Thursday 4 PM South Carolina flooding is the type of event climate scientists have warned about for years by Andrew Freedman

4 Last time Shortwave radiation (AKA solar radiation) Radiation from the Sun Mostly visible light Mostly gets absorbed at the surface or reflected back to space Longwave radiation Radiation emitted by the Earth Infrared (invisible) radiation Greenhouse effect makes it harder for longwave radiation to escape to space

5 The Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse effect is intuitive if you pay attention to the weather! Cloudy nights cool less quickly Old mariner saying: Stars bright, cold night

6 Energy Balance Energy balance occurs when heating equals cooling When shortwave radiation in equals longwave radiation out If the Earth is out of energy balance, temperatures must change

7 Outline What are the main greenhouse gases? And which are changed by human activity? Global warming potential: a way to compare how bad different gases are for the climate How a tiny fraction of the atmosphere controls its temperature Connections to the ozone depletion problem Ozone itself and the chemicals that caused it

8 Atmospheric composition Our atmosphere is mostly nitrogen (N 2, 78%), oxygen (O 2, 21%), and argon (Ar, 0.9%) But these are not greenhouse gases Molecules with 1 atom or 2 of the same atoms aren t greenhouse gases The primary gases in our atmosphere are thus transparent to longwave radiation

9 Greenhouse Gases Polyatomic molecules are greenhouse gases Water vapor (H 2 O) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Methane (CH 4 ) Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) Ozone (O 3 ) Chlorofluorocarbons (the ozone depleting chemicals which have been banned) The fact that they can rotate and vibrate means they can absorb the right frequencies of longwave

10 Greenhouse Gases All greenhouse gases are a rather small fraction of the atmosphere! Water vapor has the highest concentration: 0.4% CO 2 : 0.04% Methane: % Trace gases have a remarkable effect on the atmosphere E.g., ozone is less than % of the atmosphere, but absorbs essentially all harmful UV-B and UV-C radiation Let s discuss each gas separately

11 Water Vapor Gas form of water AKA humidity Not the same as clouds clouds are tiny droplets of water or ice crystals suspended in air The number one greenhouse gas! Not controlled by humans! It s a feedback not a forcing (topic of the next lecture) Observed to be increasing with global warming

12 Carbon Dioxide CO 2 It s what we breathe out, what plants breathe in The primary contributor to the anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse effect Over 55% of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect so far Increases primarily due to fossil fuel burning (90%) and deforestation (10%) Preindustrial value: 280 ppm Current value: 400 ppm

13 Carbon Dioxide CO 2 will also be the main problem in the future It s extremely long-lived in the atmosphere Around 50% of what we emit quickly gets taken up by the ocean or land We ll discuss this more later Most of the rest sticks around for over 100 years Some of what we emit will still be in the atmosphere over 1000 years from now!

14 Methane CH 4 Natural gas like in stoves/heating systems Much more potent on a per molecule basis than CO 2 Only 1.7 ppm though much smaller concentration than CO 2 Natural sources from marshes (swamp gas) and other wetlands Video of methane release from tundra lakes in Alaska & Siberia Increases anthropogenically due to farm animals (cow burps), landfills, coal mining, gas leakage, rice farming

15 Methane The lifetime of CH 4 is significantly shorter than carbon dioxide Breaks down in the atmosphere in chemical reactions Lifetime of methane is only 8 years Methane leveled off for a few years (droughts in high latitude wetlands?) Starting to rise again though

16 Global Warming Potential CO 2 lifetime > 100 years Methane lifetime = 8 years But methane is a much stronger greenhouse gas How to put these on similar terms? Global warming potential (GWP) Global warming potential is how much greenhouse effect emissions of a given gas causes over a fixed amount of time (usually 100 years) Measured relative to CO 2 (so CO 2 = 1) Methane s global warming potential is 25 Much more potent than CO 2 even though it doesn t stay as long

17 Nitrous Oxide N 2 O Laughing gas Also more potent on a per molecule basis than CO 2 Global warming potential: 310 Comes from agriculture, chemical industry, deforestation Small concentrations of only 0.3 ppm

18 Ozone (O 3 ) Don t confuse ozone with global warming! The ozone depletion problem is essentially solved And the ozone layer will be fully recovered in 50 years or so

19 Ozone (O 3 ) Don t confuse ozone with O-Zone Ozone: O 3, gas in the atmosphere O-Zone: Moldovan pop band

20 Ozone Ozone (O 3 ) occurs in two places in the atmosphere In the ozone layer very high up This is good ozone which protects us from ultraviolet radiation & skin cancer Near the Earth s surface Bad ozone : caused by air pollution Bad ozone is a greenhouse gas, and is more potent on a per molecule basis than CO 2 But it s very very short-lived Global warming potential for bad ozone is wrapped into the other gases which lead to its chemical creation Chlorofluorocarbons: what caused ozone depletion

21 CFCs & Thomas Midgley Thomas Midgley popularized chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the 1920s Worked for General Motors (owned Frigidaire) CFCs first used as a coolant in refrigerators Also used in air conditioners, propellant sprays, foams Midgley was also the inventor of leaded gasoline Tetraethyl lead was used as a fuel additive, only recently banned worldwide One of the most harmful pollutants of the 20 th century

22 CFCs and the Ozone Hole Late 1960s: James Lovelock detected CFCs all over the planet Essentially all CFCs ever emitted were still in the atmosphere! 1974: Molina and Rowland postulated that CFCs could destroy the ozone layer 1984: Ozone hole discovered over Antarctica! Worldwide ban came soon after We now have completely phased out CFCs Mario Molina

23 CFCs CFCs are strong greenhouse gases Global warming potentials of 5000 to 15000! Their phase-out saved significant global warming in addition to the ozone layer Slowly declining but will persist for many decades Some replacements for CFCs (called HFCs) are strong greenhouse gases too Global warming potentials of up to 15,000!

24 The Natural Greenhouse Effect Contributions to the natural greenhouse effect: H 2 O (water vapor): 60% CO 2 (carbon dioxide): 26% All others: 14%

25 The Unnatural Greenhouse Effect Increasing levels of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases leads to a stronger greenhouse effect With more greenhouse gases, it becomes harder for outgoing radiation to escape to space It s like this picture from before, but more

26 The Unnatural Greenhouse Effect Contributors to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect Numbers for the whole world up to this point: Carbon dioxide: 56% Methane: 32% CFCs, HFCs: 6% Nitrous oxide: 6%

27 Current US Contributions Contributors to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect for the United States (2013) CO 2 = 82.5% Methane = 9.5% Nitrous oxide = 5.3% HFCs & related substances = 2.6%

28 Summary Greenhouse gases: Number one is water vapor Number two is CO 2 Also methane, nitrous oxide, CFCs Global warming potential: way to compare different greenhouse gases to CO 2 Many other GHGs are stronger per molecule, but CO 2 remains the biggest problem

ATM S 111: Global Warming Greenhouse Gases. Jennifer Fletcher Day 4: June

ATM S 111: Global Warming Greenhouse Gases. Jennifer Fletcher Day 4: June ATM S 111: Global Warming Greenhouse Gases Jennifer Fletcher Day 4: June 24 2010 What are the Major Greenhouse Gases? Our atmosphere is mostly nitrogen (N 2, 78%), oxygen (O 2, 21%), and argon (Ar, 0.9%)

More information

Plenary 2. All you need to know about Greenhouse Gases. Outline

Plenary 2. All you need to know about Greenhouse Gases. Outline Plenary 2. All you need to know about Greenhouse Gases Outline What drives the Climate? What are Greenhouse Gases and the Greenhouse Effect? How the changes in GHG concentrations produce global warming/climate

More information

The Greenhouse Effect

The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect The Sun, which is the Earth's only external form of heat, emits solar radiation mainly in the form of visible and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. As this radiation travels toward the

More information

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE 1. What is climate change? Climate change is a long-term shift in the climate of a specific location, region or planet. The shift is measured by changes in features associated

More information

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 1: OCTOBER 1, 2015 Outline How exactly the Sun heats the Earth How strong? Important concept

More information

lecture 3: The greenhouse effect

lecture 3: The greenhouse effect lecture 3: The greenhouse effect Concepts from Lecture 2 Temperature Scales Forms of Heat Transfer Electromagnetic Spectrum Planck Law Stefan-Boltzmann Law Inverse Square Law Reflectivity or Albedo Solar

More information

The greenhouse effect and global warming

The greenhouse effect and global warming CA1. The greenhouse effect and global warming. Vicky Wong Page 1 of 7 The greenhouse effect and global warming The sun produces radiation mainly in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (vis) and infrared (IR)

More information

Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases Reading Assignment

Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases Reading Assignment What is global warming? Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases Imagine you live in a timber shack in Alaska. It's chilly up there, so you build yourself a huge log fire and pile on all the wood you can find.

More information

Grantham Briefing Note 6 (Version 2) September 2013 Climate change, greenhouse gases and radiative forcing

Grantham Briefing Note 6 (Version 2) September 2013 Climate change, greenhouse gases and radiative forcing Grantham Briefing Note 6 (Version 2) September 2013 Climate change, greenhouse gases and radiative forcing DR FLORA MACTAVISH AND DR SIMON BUCKLE Overview Human emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and

More information

Geology 1347 Meteorology

Geology 1347 Meteorology Geology 1347 Meteorology Exam 1 Review 1. Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere: a. mainly through the decay of vegetation b. volcanic eruptions c. exhalations of animal life d. burning of fossil fuels

More information

Climate change. Jenny Byrne and Marcus Grace

Climate change. Jenny Byrne and Marcus Grace Climate change Jenny Byrne and Marcus Grace Aims for today To discuss the implications for teaching and learning about climate change by exploring some common misconceptions and myths associated with climate

More information

Climate Change Mini-Simulation: Background Guide

Climate Change Mini-Simulation: Background Guide Climate Change Mini-Simulation: Background Guide United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to creating

More information

ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT. D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113)

ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT. D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113) ENERGY BALANCE AND GREENHOUSE EFFECT D. Stahle, Global Change (ENDY/GEOG 5113) Gedzelman, S.D., 1980. The Science and Wonders of the Atmosphere. Wiley, NY. Huschke, R.E., 1989. Glossary of Meteorology.

More information

Lecture 3: Greenhouse gasses:

Lecture 3: Greenhouse gasses: The Atmosphere Lecture 3: Greenhouse gasses: Absorption and emission of radiation by greenhouse gasses The atmospheric energy balance and the greenhouse effect The vertical structure of the atmosphere

More information

How We Know Global Warming is Real The science behind human-induced climate change Tapio Schneider

How We Know Global Warming is Real The science behind human-induced climate change Tapio Schneider How We Know Global Warming is Real The science behind human-induced climate change Tapio Schneider Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are higher today than at any time in at least the past 650,000

More information

Climate change & the Role of Forests to Climate Change. Yemiru Tesfaye (PhD) SESA Task Force Member

Climate change & the Role of Forests to Climate Change. Yemiru Tesfaye (PhD) SESA Task Force Member Climate change & the Role of Forests to Climate Change Yemiru Tesfaye (PhD) SESA Task Force Member Climate change & the Role of Forests to Climate Change What are the signs that climate change is occurring?

More information

Thickness of the Atmosphere. Composition of the Atmosphere (inside the DRY homosphere) Permanent and Variable Gases

Thickness of the Atmosphere. Composition of the Atmosphere (inside the DRY homosphere) Permanent and Variable Gases Chapter 1: Composition and Structure of the Atmosphere Composition Evolution Vertical Structure Thickness of the Atmosphere (from Meteorology Today) 90% 70% Most of the atmospheric mass is confined in

More information

Lecture 2. What are air pollutants: preliminary review. 1. Air pollution definitions. Objectives:

Lecture 2. What are air pollutants: preliminary review. 1. Air pollution definitions. Objectives: Lecture 2. What are air pollutants: preliminary review Objectives: 1. Air pollution definitions. 2. Air pollution classifications. 3. Major air pollutants: introduction. Readings: Turco: p. 3-7, 111-112;

More information

It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2015 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Montessori Model United Nations. All rights reserved.

It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2015 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Montessori Model United Nations. All rights reserved. Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2015 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. The following pages intend to guide you in the research of the topics that will be debated at MMUN

More information

General Overview of Climate Change Science

General Overview of Climate Change Science General Overview of Climate Change Science Art DeGaetano Associate Professor Department of Earth and Atmospheric Science Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (atd2@cornell.edu) Earth s climate system The

More information

Option C: Energy. Greenhouse effect

Option C: Energy. Greenhouse effect Option C: Energy C.5 Environmental Impact: Global Warming Greenhouse effect Natural greenhouse effect: absorption of infrared radiation by natural greenhouse gases (CO 2 and H 2 O vapour) in the atmosphere

More information

The Greenhouse Effect. Lan Ma Global Warming: Problems & Solutions 17 September, 2007

The Greenhouse Effect. Lan Ma Global Warming: Problems & Solutions 17 September, 2007 The Greenhouse Effect Lan Ma Global Warming: Problems & Solutions 17 September, 2007 What to cover today: How do we calculate the Earth s surface temperature? What makes a gas a greenhouse gas and how

More information

Lecture 5 Ozone, Ozone Hole, and Climate

Lecture 5 Ozone, Ozone Hole, and Climate Lecture 5 Ozone, Ozone Hole, and Climate Molecular Oxygen (O 2, O O) 2 BY (10 9 yrs): atmopheric O 2 reach 1% of present value 700 MY (10 6 yrs): atmospheric O 2 reach 10% of present value 350 MY (10 6

More information

Greenhouse Gas Tag. background: Objectives: vocabulary: TEACHING CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH NATIONAL PARKS

Greenhouse Gas Tag. background: Objectives: vocabulary: TEACHING CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH NATIONAL PARKS Grade Level: 4th grade and up Activity Time: 30 60 min. Subject Area: Science-Climate Change Objectives: Students will: Understand the greenhouse effect. Understand the role greenhouse gases play within

More information

Chapter Meeting Ecological Challenges. Key Questions: 1) How does the average ecological footprint in America compare to the world s average?

Chapter Meeting Ecological Challenges. Key Questions: 1) How does the average ecological footprint in America compare to the world s average? Chapter 6 6.4 Meeting Ecological Challenges Key Questions: 1) How does the average ecological footprint in America compare to the world s average? Ecological Footprint Ecologists refer to the human impact

More information

Global Warming: A Changing Atmosphere

Global Warming: A Changing Atmosphere Global Warming: A Changing Atmosphere Emmett Ientilucci February 7, 1995 Abstract There are a variety of global concerns in the world today dealing with maintaining the planet and environment we live in.

More information

Worksheet A Environmental Problems

Worksheet A Environmental Problems Worksheet A Environmental Problems Vocabulary Can you talk about Environmental issues in English? With a partner, try to explain the terms in the diagram below. Why are the words divided into two groups

More information

EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS

EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS Provided by Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc. for Earthʼs Atmosphere and Its Seasons CD-ROM http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progeas.html 1.The Importance of Weather (wx) The U.S.

More information

Understanding Global Warming. Paul Kushner Department of Physics, University of Toronto. Oraynu Centre February 21, 2008

Understanding Global Warming. Paul Kushner Department of Physics, University of Toronto. Oraynu Centre February 21, 2008 Understanding Global Warming Paul Kushner Department of Physics, University of Toronto Oraynu Centre February 21, 2008 Outline Starting Points What Sets the Earth s Thermostat? Global Warming and Climate

More information

Environmental Science 101 Air Resources. Fall Learning Objectives: Reading Assignment:

Environmental Science 101 Air Resources. Fall Learning Objectives: Reading Assignment: 1 Environmental Science 101 Air Resources Fall 2012 Lecture Outline: 13. GLOBAL WARMING A. Not a Hypothesis Anymore! B. Introduction to Global Warming C. Carbon Dioxide D. Other Greenhouse Gases E. Amount

More information

Materials Needed: Time Needed: Adaptations: 2 flyswatters (optional) Vocabulary Definitions (below) Vocabulary Scramble Sheets (below)

Materials Needed: Time Needed: Adaptations: 2 flyswatters (optional) Vocabulary Definitions (below) Vocabulary Scramble Sheets (below) Vocabulary Slap Game ( Flyswatter Game ) Directions: Project a Vocabulary Scramble sheet on a projection screen or Smart Board. Divide the class into two teams. Each team sends one person up to the screen.

More information

GETTING TO THE CORE: THE LINK BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND CARBON DIOXIDE

GETTING TO THE CORE: THE LINK BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND CARBON DIOXIDE DESCRIPTION This lesson plan gives students first-hand experience in analyzing the link between atmospheric temperatures and carbon dioxide ( ) s by looking at ice core data spanning hundreds of thousands

More information

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2013 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2013 SCORING GUIDELINES AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2013 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 (a) Identify the type of solar radiation that is absorbed by stratospheric ozone and describe one human health benefit that results from the

More information

Molecular Vibrations. Outline Molecular Vibrations Absorbing Gases Effect on Climate Homework

Molecular Vibrations. Outline Molecular Vibrations Absorbing Gases Effect on Climate Homework Greenhouse Gases Heat released from the Earth's surface can be absorbed by certain atmospheric molecules. These molecules later release the heat in all directions, effectively trapping some it. The concentration

More information

Greenhouse Effect Laboratory Teacher Guide

Greenhouse Effect Laboratory Teacher Guide Greenhouse Effect Laboratory Teacher Guide Greenhouse Effect Laboratory Teacher Guide Driving Question: What impact does the greenhouse effect have on atmospheric temperature? In this activity your students

More information

Lecture 13 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2014 The Ozone hole and Global Warming

Lecture 13 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2014 The Ozone hole and Global Warming Lecture 13 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2014 The Ozone hole and Global Warming A. J. Wagner North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108 Fargo, October 9, 2014 Overview Paris climate conference

More information

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence shows us that our climate is

More information

The atmosphere has a number of gases, often in tiny amounts, which trap the heat given out by the Earth.

The atmosphere has a number of gases, often in tiny amounts, which trap the heat given out by the Earth. The Earth is wrapped in a blanket of air called the atmosphere, which is made up of several layers of gases. The sun is much hotter than the Earth and it gives off rays of heat (radiation) that travel

More information

What is Greenhouse Effect?

What is Greenhouse Effect? Climatological Information Services > Climate Change > Green House Effect What is Greenhouse Effect? The Greenhouse Effect is a term that refers to a physical property of the Earth's atmosphere. If the

More information

How We Know Global Warming is Real

How We Know Global Warming is Real 31 How We Know Global Warming is Real The Science Behind Human-induced Climate Change T A P I O S C H N E I D E R ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE concentrations are higher today than at any time in at least

More information

Chapter 16 Heat Transfer. Topics: Conduction Convection Radiation Greenhouse Effect/Global Warming

Chapter 16 Heat Transfer. Topics: Conduction Convection Radiation Greenhouse Effect/Global Warming Chapter 16 Heat Transfer Topics: Conduction Convection Radiation Greenhouse Effect/Global Warming Radiation Every object at a temperature above absolute zero is an emitted of electromagnetic radiation

More information

Ozone. What is the ozone layer?

Ozone. What is the ozone layer? Ozone What is Ozone? The term itself comes from the Greek word meaning "smell," a reference to ozone's distinctively pungent odor. This odor is noticeable directly after a close lightning strike or when

More information

Global warming and its implications for conservation.

Global warming and its implications for conservation. Global warming and its implications for conservation. 4. Greenhouse gasses and the lapse rate The layer model is a reasonable heuristic model, but it assumes that the atmosphere acts as a perfect blackbody

More information

The Earth s Atmosphere

The Earth s Atmosphere THE SUN-EARTH SYSTEM III The Earth s Atmosphere Composition and Distribution of the Atmosphere The composition of the atmosphere and the way its gases interact with electromagnetic radiation determine

More information

Essential Understandings

Essential Understandings Focus Areas: Biodiversity; Science Focus Skills: Comprehension, observation, critical thinking, scientific experimentation Level of Involvement: MAXIMUM Dedicated to Reducing Pesticides Objective To observe

More information

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Essential Questions How does energy transfer from the sun to Earth and the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns with the atmosphere created? Vocabulary Radiation:

More information

Climate Change In Atlantic Canada

Climate Change In Atlantic Canada DESCRIPTION The climate in Atlantic Canada is changing. Unlike the rest of Canada, this region is undergoing a slight cooling trend. This article discusses the relationship between agriculture and climate

More information

Climate Control and Ozone Depletion. Chapter 19

Climate Control and Ozone Depletion. Chapter 19 Climate Control and Ozone Depletion Chapter 19 Global Warming and Global Cooling Are Not New Over the past 4.5 billion years the climate has been altered by Volcanic emissions Changes in solar input Movement

More information

Understanding weather and climate

Understanding weather and climate Understanding weather and climate Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence

More information

BRSP-7 Page 1. A Open B Covered C Covered / Water. Two different experiments are presented, each experiment using a different pair of models:

BRSP-7 Page 1. A Open B Covered C Covered / Water. Two different experiments are presented, each experiment using a different pair of models: BRSP-7 Page 1 Perhaps you have heard of the greenhouse effect. In a greenhouse, short-wave radiation from sunlight passes freely through the glass and is converted to long-wave radiation inside. But the

More information

Chapter 3. The Greenhouse effect

Chapter 3. The Greenhouse effect Environmental Science 1. The Greenhouse effect 3.1 Greenhouse effect 3.2 Global energy balance 3.3 Anthropogenic Greenhouse effect 3.4 Increase in Greenhouse gases 3.5 Livestock influences on Greenhouse

More information

What is global warming?

What is global warming? What is global warming? Global Warming, A Quick Poll Is global warming real? a) Yes b) No How much has the average temperature of the Earth risen in the last 100 years? a) ~ 0.5 C b) ~ 1.0 C c) ~ 5.0 C

More information

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface.

Earth s Atmosphere. Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. 3. All the energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface. CHAPTER 12 LESSON 2 Earth s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Key Concepts How does energy transfer from the Sun to Earth and to the atmosphere? How are air circulation patterns within the atmosphere

More information

Earth Systems. Overview of Earth s Spheres. The Earth consists of four 'spheres' which pertain to the Earth's major reservoirs of matter and energy.

Earth Systems. Overview of Earth s Spheres. The Earth consists of four 'spheres' which pertain to the Earth's major reservoirs of matter and energy. Earth Systems Overview of Earth s Spheres The Earth consists of four 'spheres' which pertain to the Earth's major reservoirs of matter and energy. LITHOSPHERE: The solid, rocky shell of the Earth is the

More information

Exam 1 CHEM Student:

Exam 1 CHEM Student: Exam 1 CHEM 1100 Student: 1. A substance that can be broken down into two or more simpler substances by chemical methods is called a(n) A. mixture. B. compound. C. element. D. isotope. 2. Which substance

More information

Fact Sheet Series for Key Stages 2 & 3

Fact Sheet Series for Key Stages 2 & 3 Atmosphere, Climate & Environment Information Programme, Manchester Metropolitan University Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD Tel: 0161 247 1590 Fax: 0161 247 6332 E-Mail: @mmu.ac.uk Internet: http://www.ace.mmu.ac.uk/

More information

This talk was originally prepared by Laura Foster Voss for a Bowdoin College Parents weekend public lecture in October It has been modified

This talk was originally prepared by Laura Foster Voss for a Bowdoin College Parents weekend public lecture in October It has been modified This talk was originally prepared by Laura Foster Voss for a Bowdoin College Parents weekend public lecture in October 2008. It has been modified slightly since then but remains the same in spirit. Feel

More information

COST OF GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION [21jun, 10jul 1pm]

COST OF GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION [21jun, 10jul 1pm] 5 COST OF GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION [21jun, 10jul 1pm] Fix of Section 5 tables, but no change needed. EEH 955am 11nov00: The cost of greenhouse gas mitigation using renewable energy technologies depends

More information

Earth s Energy Balance & the Greenhouse Effect

Earth s Energy Balance & the Greenhouse Effect Earth s Energy Balance & the Greenhouse Effect Outline: The Earth s Energy Balance: Electromagnetic Spectrum: Ultraviolet (UV) Visible Infrared (IR) Blackbody Radiation Albedo (reflectivity) Greenhouse

More information

READING COMPREHENSION I SIR ISAAC NEWTON

READING COMPREHENSION I SIR ISAAC NEWTON READING COMPREHENSION I SIR ISAAC NEWTON Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) was an English scientist who made great contributions to physics, optics, maths and astronomy. He is known for his Three Laws of Motion

More information

3. Lines on a weather map that connect points of equal air pressure are A. isotherms B. isobars C. cold fronts D. warm fronts

3. Lines on a weather map that connect points of equal air pressure are A. isotherms B. isobars C. cold fronts D. warm fronts 1. The chart shows the relationship between altitude and air pressure. What is the approximate air pressure at an altitude of 22 kilometers? A. 40 millibars B. 120 millibars C. 200 millibars D. 400 millibars

More information

The Greenhouse Effect

The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT To understand the greenhouse effect you first need to know a bit about solar radiation what it is, where it comes from and what happens when it reaches Earth.

More information

Period 14 Activity Solutions: Energy in Nature

Period 14 Activity Solutions: Energy in Nature Period 14 Activity Solutions: Energy in Nature 14.1 The Earth-Sun System 1) Energy from the sun Observe the models of the Earth, Moon, and Sun in the room. a) Imagine that the distance between the Earth

More information

The Ozone Layer Ozone Depletion

The Ozone Layer Ozone Depletion The Ozone Layer Ozone Depletion Schedule 1. Ozone Layer & Depletion Let s learn about it! 2. Think, Pair, Share Activity CFC s and you 3. Graphing Activity Ozone Depletion The ozone layer is a belt of

More information

water cycle (hydrologic cycle) precipitation infiltrate runoff evapotranspiration Infiltration

water cycle (hydrologic cycle) precipitation infiltrate runoff evapotranspiration Infiltration Regents Earth Science Unit 8 Climate Water Cycle Most of Earth s water was created by volcanic out-gassing when the Earth formed and by impacts by comets early in Earth s history this water has remained

More information

The CFC Story. CFC Numbering System

The CFC Story. CFC Numbering System CHEM/TOX 336 Lecture 5 CFC s The Montreal Protocol CFC Replacements The CFC Story CFC - chlorofluorocarbon Saturated carbon compounds with carbon bonded to chlorine and fluorine Were/are used as: Refrigerants

More information

Climate Change and Biomes

Climate Change and Biomes Climate Change and Biomes Key Concepts: Greenhouse Gas WHAT YOU WILL LEARN Biome Climate zone Greenhouse gases 1. You will learn the difference between weather and climate. 2. You will analyze the effect

More information

1. Its concentration in the atmosphere 2. Its ability to absorb IR radiation 3. Its lifetime in the atmosphere

1. Its concentration in the atmosphere 2. Its ability to absorb IR radiation 3. Its lifetime in the atmosphere The greenhouse effect - global warming: Radiation from the sun reaches the planet. The radiation is absorbed by the Earth and re emitted as IR radiation. Most of this IR radiation goes back into space

More information

NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6. The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance

NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6. The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 6 The Greenhouse Effect and Earth-Atmosphere Energy Balance FOUR POSSIBLE FATES OF RADIATION: 1.Transmitted 2. Reflected 3. Scattered 4. Absorbed The atmosphere does ALL of

More information

The Atmosphere. Introduction Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming

The Atmosphere. Introduction Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming Introduction Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming The Atmosphere The terms Greenhouse Effect, Climate Change, and Global Warming are often used interchangeably, yet they really refer to three

More information

Name Date Class. Gas. 43 Virginia Progress Monitoring and Benchmark Assessments

Name Date Class. Gas. 43 Virginia Progress Monitoring and Benchmark Assessments Name Date Class d i a g n o s t i c t e s t 3 G g r a d e 6 Directions: Use the diagram below to answer question 1. 1. What might be the most serious effect of having a farm in the location shown in the

More information

ChangE. PolICIEs. not the ClIMatE!

ChangE. PolICIEs. not the ClIMatE! ChangE PolICIEs not the ClIMatE! IPCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change s (IPCC) reports are the most comprehensive global overview to date of the science behind climate change. These climate

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

More information

Activity 7 Greenhouse Gas in a Jar. Atmosphere CHANGE IS IN THE AIR

Activity 7 Greenhouse Gas in a Jar. Atmosphere CHANGE IS IN THE AIR Activity 7 Greenhouse Gas in a Jar Atmosphere CHANGE IS IN THE AIR Forces of Change» Atmosphere» Activity 7» Page 1 Greenhouse Gas in a Jar Overview Students create a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, through

More information

Physics 100 Lecture 17. The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming November 8, 2016

Physics 100 Lecture 17. The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming November 8, 2016 1 Physics 100 Lecture 17 The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming November 8, 2016 4 Written Quiz Chapter 7 Timer applet 5 The Greenhouse Effect For an actual greenhouse, glass panels allow solar energy

More information

Climate Change: A Theme to Teach Across the Science Disciplines

Climate Change: A Theme to Teach Across the Science Disciplines Climate Change: A Theme to Teach Across the Science Disciplines Sunshine State Stards & Benchmarks that Help Students Underst Climate Change K-2 Compare describe changing patterns in nature that repeat

More information

The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming. Student Activity Sheet. Name Date Class

The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming. Student Activity Sheet. Name Date Class The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming Student Activity Sheet Name Date Class The greenhouse effect results from the heat energy of sunlight being absorbed by the Earth and molecules in the Earth's atmosphere.

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum

Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum Electromagnetic Radiation scillating electric and magnetic fields propagate through space Virtually all energy exchange between the Earth and the rest of the Universe is by electromagnetic radiation Most

More information

climate science A SHORT GUIDE TO This is a short summary of a detailed discussion of climate change science.

climate science A SHORT GUIDE TO This is a short summary of a detailed discussion of climate change science. A SHORT GUIDE TO climate science This is a short summary of a detailed discussion of climate change science. For more information and to view the full report, visit royalsociety.org/policy/climate-change

More information

Weather and Climate. What is weather? What are some characteristics of weather? When we talk about weather, we mean the daily conditions in the

Weather and Climate. What is weather? What are some characteristics of weather? When we talk about weather, we mean the daily conditions in the Weather and Climate You re going on vacation in a week and you have to start thinking about what clothes you re going to pack for your trip. You ve read the weather reports for your vacation spot, but

More information

Mars Weather, Agriculture and Greenhouses

Mars Weather, Agriculture and Greenhouses Mars Weather, Agriculture and Greenhouses Before humans can exist on the surface of Mars, there is much to be learned about the weather, soil, and the potential use of greenhouses on Mars. Martian weather

More information

JFK High School, Environmental Science, Mr. Kent Name : Period: Date: 3. Why is ozone important to us and other organisms?

JFK High School, Environmental Science, Mr. Kent Name : Period: Date: 3. Why is ozone important to us and other organisms? JFK High School, Environmental Science, Mr. Kent Name : Period: Date: AIM: How have people been destroying the ozone layer? HW: 39e 1. What chemical is ozone? 2. How does ozone form in the atmosphere?

More information

Chapter 7: Greenhouse gases and particulate matter

Chapter 7: Greenhouse gases and particulate matter Additional material for Fundamentals of Sustainable Development, Niko Roorda, 2012. Chapter 7: Greenhouse gases and particulate matter Debates on the anthropogenic greenhouse effect and climate change

More information

History of Chlorofluorocarbons

History of Chlorofluorocarbons History of Chlorofluorocarbons 1928 : Chlorofluorocarbons () were invented. were developed as ideal gases used as refrigerants for refrigerators. Because of their special characteristics, inflammability

More information

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere BRSP - 10 Page 1 Solar radiation reaching Earth s atmosphere includes a wide spectrum of wavelengths. In addition to visible light there is radiation of higher energy and shorter wavelength called ultraviolet

More information

Global Warming Is it manmade or natural?

Global Warming Is it manmade or natural? Global Warming Is it manmade or natural? By Kirsty Carruthers 1B3 1X3 Contents Introduction to Global Warming 2 What is Global Warming? 3 The background to Global Warming 3 Global Warming It is natural

More information

Weather and climate. reflect. what do you think? look out!

Weather and climate. reflect. what do you think? look out! reflect You re going on vacation in a week and you have to start thinking about what clothes you re going to pack for your trip. You ve read the weather reports for your vacation spot, but you know that

More information

B Resource Guide: Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions

B Resource Guide: Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions What s in this Guide: I. Definition: What are Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions? II. Why Calculate GHGs? III. How to Calculate your Company s GHGs IV. Outsourcing your GHG assessment V. What are the next

More information

To Show How the Ozone Layer Can Be Destroyed as the Responsibility of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) for this Damage

To Show How the Ozone Layer Can Be Destroyed as the Responsibility of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) for this Damage Celebrating 19 Years of Student Research and Scholarship 19 To Show How the Ozone Layer Can Be Destroyed as the Responsibility of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) for this Damage Abel Amare Mentor: Dr. Wallace

More information

Clouds and the Energy Cycle

Clouds and the Energy Cycle August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and

More information

BBC Learning English Talk about English Insight plus Part 3 Global Warming

BBC Learning English Talk about English Insight plus Part 3 Global Warming BBC Learning English Insight plus Part 3 Global Warming Jackie: Welcome to BBC Learning English dot com and another chance to hear Insight Plus - a series, first broadcast in 2001 that looks at the language

More information

Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Review 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When hydrogen nuclei fuse into helium nuclei a. the nuclei die. c. particles collide. b. energy

More information

February 04, Solar Budget NOTES.notebook. Balancing. Heats. too little. Too much. photosynthesis. weather. light bulb. light bulb.

February 04, Solar Budget NOTES.notebook. Balancing. Heats. too little. Too much. photosynthesis. weather. light bulb. light bulb. Earth s Solar Energy Budget Sun Primary source of Earth s energy our planet Needed for Drives our and Primary Sun source of Earth s energy Heats our planet photosynthesis Needed for wind weather Drives

More information

Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes

Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes Ch. 7 - Geographical Ecology, Climate & Biomes Weather - the short term properties of the troposphere at a given place and time. Climate - the average long-term weather of an area. averaged over a long

More information

CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction. Overview. Seasons

CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction. Overview. Seasons CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Fig. 6.11 Overview Atmosphere and ocean one interdependent system Solar energy creates winds Winds drive surface ocean currents and waves Examples of interactions: El Niño-Southern

More information

GREENHOUSE GASES. Teacher Activity: How do greenhouse gases affect heat absorption? GREENHOUSE GASES

GREENHOUSE GASES. Teacher Activity: How do greenhouse gases affect heat absorption? GREENHOUSE GASES OHSU EP-095 2012 BACKGROUND The Earth s climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of clouds and greenhouse gases. The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide,

More information

Spring 2014 California State University, Northridge. Understanding Global Warming

Spring 2014 California State University, Northridge. Understanding Global Warming Spring 2014 California State University, Northridge Understanding Global Warming Global Warming is Real The combined global land and ocean average surface temperature for January November 2013 was 0.62

More information

UCCS PES 3670: Wind Energy Summer 2012 Test MC 2 name: Heating Earth's Surface and Atmosphere

UCCS PES 3670: Wind Energy Summer 2012 Test MC 2 name: Heating Earth's Surface and Atmosphere UCCS PES 3670: Wind Energy Summer 2012 Test MC 2 name: Heating Earth's Surface and Atmosphere 1) Earth is closest to the Sun during: a. Northern hemisphere autumn. b. Southern hemisphere autumn. c. Southern

More information

AP* Environmental Science: Atmosphere and Air Pollution Answer Section

AP* Environmental Science: Atmosphere and Air Pollution Answer Section AP* Environmental Science: Atmosphere and Air Pollution Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: B Stratospheric ozone, found roughly 11-16 miles above sea level keeps about 95% of the sun s harmful UV radiation

More information

Climate Change A Relevant Risk of Change

Climate Change A Relevant Risk of Change Climate Change A Relevant Risk of Change Risk Prevention Congress 3 February 2007 - Bruxelles Ernst Rauch Head of Department Windstorm/Weather/Climate Risks Geo Risks Research Munich Re Climate Change

More information