ELECTRIC MOBILITY: THE DUTCH STORY

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1 ELECTRIC MOBILITY: THE DUTCH STORY MAARTEN BONNEMA 1,2 1: University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Enschede, The Netherlands 2: Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Kongsberg, Norway

2 CONTENTS The Dutch and their travelling Goals, Vision and Means And the Results are Conclusions Source of all data in this presentation: CBS, statistics Netherlands, Unless stated otherwise E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 2

3 THE DUTCH (MOBILITY) LANDSCAPE The Netherlands is: Small (200x300km; ~1/10 Norway) Flat (h max =323m) Densely populated: Total ~17 Mln Avg. 500 inh/km2 Quite wealthy (wikipedia): #14 IMF; Norway #6 47 k$ GDP/capita High car ownership: ~8 Mln passenger cars E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 3

4 THE DUTCH Highly individualistic Egalitarian Do not accept authority a priori Money interested Hard working Lots of free time (part-time jobs, not long working days) (of course a very generalised description) E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 4

5 CAR OWNERSHIP High share of lease cars In particular the newer cars: Total Sales 400k Lease 200k Private 200k Total ownership: Lease 870k Private 7.1Mln Lease vs. Private NEW Cars Total Company Private Ratio lease Ratio private E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 5

6 AGE RELATED CAR OWNERSHIP Allegedly, reduced car ownership by younger people Ownership and Age -13% -6% % -14% 0 18 to 20 y 20 to 25 y 25 to 30 y 30 to 40 y 40 to 50 y 50 to 60 y 60 to 65 y 65 y Lease E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 6

7 TRAVEL BEHAVIOR Motives number of trips distance time [#/day] [km] [min] Workrelated Leisure Other Total Quite fit for electric vehicles But these are averages E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 7

8 #, X 1000 HOLIDAYS BY THE DUTCH ~ 1/3 abroad ~ 10% with trailer and abroad 6000 Vacation by the Dutch in NL Caravan, tenttrailer Abroad Caravan, tenttrailer E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 8

9 GOAL AND VISION

10 OVERAL GOAL(S) AND MEANS Goals: 1. Air quality improvement 2. Reducing CO 2 emissions 3. Reducing fossil fuel usage Means: 1. Change location of generation 2. Use emission-free vehicles 3. Increase overall efficiency Concrete: 1. Zero emissions: Newly registered in All cars in % reduced CO 2 emission (2050 vs 1990) (overall transport goal) Concrete: e-cars in e-cars in Nationwide charging network 4. Growing sector of EV related products & services Source: RVO Nederland; and 1: tank to wheel; 2: well to wheel E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 10

11 VISION VISUALIZED Source: RVO Nederland E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 11

12 POLICIES, INCENTIVES AND REGULATIONS

13 THE DUTCH CAR-TAX SYSTEM TO PROMOTE CO 2 REDUCTIONS Bijtelling Value Added Tax (VAT, 21%) BPM (registration tax, depends on CO 2 emissions) Road tax (weight dependent, can be zero for low CO 2 -vehicles) X% of the new value of a lease car is added to salary Top rate of income tax: 42-52% Example CarPrice [ ] Income tax 42 [%] Bijtelling[%] Annual tax[ ] E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 13

14 CO2 EMISSIONS [G/KM] EVOLVING CO 2 CONDITIONS FOR BIJTELLING 160 Development of CO2 categories % 4% 7% 14% 20% 25% 21% 15% E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 14

15 REGISTRATION TAX So, a few concrete Tax examples: Renault Laguna Fixed dci150 Total 7623 Golf 2.0 TSI 4Motion R Cadillac Escalade 6.2 V Bugatti Veyron: Registration Tax 217/gramCO2 112/gramCO2 69/gramCO2 6/gramCO2 434/gramCO CO2 EMISSION/KM E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 15

16 AND, DID IT HAVE ANY EFFECT?

17 SO, WHAT ARE THE RESULTS Unfortunately, Statistics Netherlands (CBS) aggregates all xevs under Electric Vehicle. So, no distinction between PEV, PHEV, RE-EV, etc. Total ratio of xevs: % % xevs in The Netherlands Electric EV-Delta% Ratio EV% E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 17

18 BUT, WE HAVE ANOTHER SOURCE Full EVs, versus PHEV etc. 31-Dec Dec Feb mrt apr 2015 Full EV E-REV, PHEV E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 18

19 HYBRIDS VERSUS FULL EVS Model Type Number Delta Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV Volvo V60 PHEV PHEV Opel Ampera E-REV Toyota Prius PHEV PHEV `+4 Volkswagen Golf E-REV Model Type Number Delta Tesla Model S FEV Nissan Leaf FEV Renault Zoe FEV Smart ForTwo ED FEV BMW I3 FEV Renault Twizy FEV Per , Delta is relative to previous month E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 19

20 AND THE CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE Number of installed chargers Dec Dec Feb mrt Apr-15 Public Semi-public Fast E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 20

21 SPECIAL INITIATIVES 167 Tesla-Taxis at Schiphol airport Car sharing (Car2Go, Greenwheels, Mywheels, or privately: Snappcar) E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 21

22 CONSIDERATIONS Lease-car owners often don t use the full (P)HEV potential With the proposal, it is expected more private car owners will move to electric/hybrid: more attention to reduced road taxes abolishment of registration tax (but how?) This proposal is created by a wide range of organizations. Now, the government needs to act. E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 22

23 CONCLUSIONS The Netherlands are working towards reduced CO 2 emissions cleaner air Significant effort in promoting electric mobility Significant growth in xevs Focus on hybrids E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 23

24 QUESTIONS? This presentation is a result of the project COMPETT (Competitive Electric Town Transport), financed jointly by Electromobility+, Transnova and The Research Council of Norway, FFG of Austria and The Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education (Higher Education Ministry) in Denmark.

25 EXTRA SLIDES

26 ENERGY SOURCES THROUGH THE YEARS Energy sources in [PJ] Total Energy (L) Oil and oilproducts (L) Gas (L) Renewable Nuclear Waste and other Electricity 0 E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 26

27 OVERALL EFFICIENCY Well Tank Wheel E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 27

28 EFFICIENCIES Well to Tank Burning fossil fuel versus Sustainable generation Large-scale fuel-burning installations can have high efficiency (80%) Transport efficiency Tank to Wheel Internal combustion engines: ca. 22% (max. 40%) Electric vehicles: 48% (or higher) Well to Wheel ICEV: up to 17% EV: 19% and higher E-Mobility - The Dutch Story - Oslo, June /6/15 28

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