Skeletal System. Overview and General Anatomy

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Skeletal System. Overview and General Anatomy"

Transcription

1 Skeletal System Overview and General Anatomy 1

2 Bone Functions Support Protection Movement Storage Fat, calcium, phosphorus Hemopoiesis While we usually think of the skeleton as just our support framework, the skeleton actually has several functions: some obvious, and some not-so-obvious. Support: Our bones act as places to anchor our organs so they always stay in more-or-less the same orientation and relationship to one another. You wouldn t want your intestines and other organs just flopping around inside your cavities, would you? Because the bones are so rigid and strong, they form several protective vaults around some of our most delicate organs. The bones of the skull completely surround and protect the brain. The vertebrae enclose and protect the spinal cord. The rib cage protects the heart and lungs. The pelvic bones partially surround the reproductive organs, including the uterus, which offers some protection to a developing fetus. The skeleton works together with the muscles to afford voluntary movement. Almost all voluntary movement involves muscles levering the ends of two bones closer together or further apart across a joint. We don t think about the bones storage function often, but it s very important. In adults, the yellow bone marrow is mostly fat storage, which gives us quick access to backup energy reserves. In addition, the matrix of the bone is mostly calcium salts. Since calcium ions are required for muscle contraction and nerve communication, we need to keep our blood calcium levels in homeostasis. Excess calcium (that is not excreted) is stored in the bone matrix. If more blood calcium is needed, bone matrix is catabolized to release the calcium into the blood. The red bone marrow is the only place in the body where new blood cells are formed. This is a process called hemopoiesis. 2

3 Axial vs. Appendicular Skeleton Axial Skull, vertebrae, ribs, sacrum, sternum Appendicular Girdles and limbs We can categorize all of the skeleton s bones into two categories: The axial skeleton includes the main part of the skeleton: the bones around the body s longitudinal axis. The axial skeleton includes the bones of the skull, the vertebrae, the ribs, the sacrum (butt-bone) and the coccyx (tailbone). The appendicular skeleton includes the appendages attached to the axial skeleton. It includes the upper and lower limbs, as well as the girdles that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton. The upper limbs are attached to the axial skeleton with the pectoral girdle, which consists of the clavicles (collar bones) and the scapulae (shoulder blades). The lower limbs are attached to the axial skeleton with the pelvic girdle, which consists of the pelvic bones. 3

4 Axial vs. Appendicular Skeleton Note that the pectoral and pelvic girdles are considered part of the appendicular skeleton. 4

5 Bone Types Long bones femur, humerus, etc. Short bones carpals, tarsals, etc. The human body has at least 206 bones in most people. We can anatomically distinguish 5 different types. Long bones are the largest and heaviest, but they have adaptations that keep them as light as possible. For example, long bones are hollow and have a lot of empty space inside of them. Examples of long bones include the femur, tibia and fibula (lower limb) as well as the humerus, radius and ulna (upper limb). Short bones are more-or-less round and are much smaller than long bones. Anatomically they are a shell of compact bone surrounding a medulla of spongy bone. The short bones include the carpals (wrist bones) and tarsals (ankle bones). 5

6 Bone Types Flat bones scapulae, sternum, ribs, etc. Irregular bones vertebrae, teeth, etc. Flat bones are, as the name implies, flat. They are larger than short bones, but like short bones, their centers consist of spongy bone. Much of the red bone marrow of adults is found in flat bones. Some examples include the ribs, the scapulae, the sternum, and most of the bones of the skull. Irregular bones have various shapes, but most of them have processes extending from them. Usually, these processes are either articulating processes (which fit into fossae to form joints) or act as anchor points for tendons and/or ligaments. Examples include the vertebrae, the mandible, the teeth, and the coxae. 6

7 Bone types Sesamoid bones patella, hallux sesamoid Sesamoid bones are so-called because most of them are about the size and shape of sesame seeds. Different people have sesamoid bones in different locations, but the knuckles of the hand and foot are common places. The most noteworthy sesamoid bones are the patellae (knee caps). Sesamoid bones grow entirely inside of ligaments or tendons and serve to hold a ligament out of a joint. The knee cap for example, is large enough that it blocks the patellar tendon from slipping into the knee joint. 7

8 Long Bone Anatomy Epiphyses External: Diaphysis Epiphyses Periosteum Diaphysis Long bones have anatomical features not found in other types of bones. The long bone shaft is a diaphysis. The bulbous ends are called epiphyses. They are anatomically different on the inside. The periosteum is a dense connective tissue capsule surrounding each bone. In addition to supplying blood to the bone s cells it contains many osteoblasts which lay down new layers of matrix as a bone grows in width. 8

9 Long Bone Anatomy Internal: Spongy bone Compact bone Epiphyseal lines Medullary cavity. Endosteum Marrow Long bones are hollow. This helps reduce their weight without sacraficing strength. It also gives a chamber for bone marrow storage. The medullary cavity is lined by a dense connective tissue membrane called endosteum. Anatomically, the outer wall of the entire long bone is compact bone. The compact bone layer is thickest around the diaphysis (necessary because of the hollow medullary cavity). The epiphyses are not hollow. They consist of wall-to-wall spongy bone. With lots of marrow-filled spaces between trabeculae. In the epiphyses, we can see epiphyseal lines. These are the calcified remains of growth plates, the sites of bone lengthening during development. Both the meduallary cavity and the spaces in the spongy bone are filled with bone marrow. 9

10 Long Bone Anatomy Internal: Spongy bone Compact bone Epiphyseal lines Medullary cavity. Endosteum Marrow The epiphyseal lines are hard to see in this drawing, but you should be able to make out two lines of compact bone in this proximal femoral epiphysis. When this femur was growing, these were the cartilaginous growth plates. 10

11 Long Bone Anatomy Bone marrow Red bone marrow Hemopoiesis Yellow bone marrow Fat Two types of bone marrow: red marrow produces new blood cells; yellow marrow is mostly fat and does not produce new blood cells. Most marrow in children is red but in adults, only the axial skeleton, the girdles, and the proximal tips of the femurs and humeri have red bone marrow. 11

12 Bone Features Every bump, lump, hole, canal, and indentation on every bone has a name, but the names are usually descriptive. We can break the features down into two broad categories: projections (raised areas of bone) and depressions (lowered areas of bone or holes through a bone). Projections can appear either rounded and smooth or somewhat rougher. We found the rounded, smooth projections at articulating ends of bones, where they fit into depressions (fossae, usually) in other bones to form a moveable joint. The rougher ones are the sites of tendon and/or ligament attachment. Some of the more common projections include: Tuberosities, which are very large projections that usually act as anchoring points for tendons and ligaments. The ball of the hip is sometimes also called a tuberosity. Trochanters are also very large projections where large tendons attach. We only find trochanters at the distal end of the femur. Tubercles are somewhat smaller than tuberosities and trochanters, but they serve as attachment points as well. Processes are large, usually long, projections that stick out from a bone. Condyles (on the next slide) are smooth, rounded projections that articulate with other bones. 12

13 Bone Features Some of the more common depressions (and holes) include: Fossae, which are shallow and rounded. They usually articulate with a condyle of another bone at a moveable joint. Sinuses, which are empty, air-filled spaces, such as the sinuses in the skull. Foramina, which are more-or-less circular openings in a bone, such as the large foramen magnum in the inferior aspect of the skull, through which the medulla oblongata and spinal cord extend. Fissures, which are basically elongated foramina, such as the orbital fissures, through which the optic nerve as well as the eye s blood vessels extend. Meati, which are more tunnel-like, such as the external auditory meatus, through which the auditory nerve passes. 13

14 Bone Features Memorize Tuberosity Tubercle Trochanter Process Condyle Meatus Sinus Fossa Fissure Be able to identify each of these in figures and on models. 14

15 Bone Features We ll be looking at the skull in some detail because it shows almost all of the bone features you should know. In this figure, try to identify a meatus, a foramen, a few processes, a condyle (and the fossa in which it sits), and a tubercle. (The tubercle is hard to see in this figure because it s at the back of the skull). 15

16 Bone Features In these figures of a femur, a tibia, and a coxa, see how many features you can identify. Can you find condyles, trochanters, and fossae? 16

Chapter 2 Skeletal System. Copyright 2001, F. A. Davis Company

Chapter 2 Skeletal System. Copyright 2001, F. A. Davis Company Chapter 2 Skeletal System Objectives Describe the functions of the skeleton Differentiate axial and appendicular skeleton Recognize and describe the composition of bone Identify and explain the structure

More information

Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review

Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review Name: Period: Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review 1. List four functions of the skeletal system: a. b. c. d. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and

More information

Human Anatomy Study Guide The Skeletal System: Chapter 6

Human Anatomy Study Guide The Skeletal System: Chapter 6 Human Anatomy Study Guide The Skeletal System: Chapter 6 Name Unit Objectives At the end of this unit, you should be able to 1) List the functions of the skeletal system. 2) Describe the anatomy of a long

More information

- the bones of your skeleton. OSSEUS TISSUE. - Bone tissue is a type of connective tissue. Your skeleton performs several important functions.

- the bones of your skeleton. OSSEUS TISSUE. - Bone tissue is a type of connective tissue. Your skeleton performs several important functions. SKELETAL SYSTEM - the bones of your skeleton. OSSEUS TISSUE. - Bone tissue is a type of connective tissue. Your skeleton performs several important functions. - support and protection - body movement -

More information

SKELETAL SYSTEM An Introduction to the Human Adult and Fetal Skeletal System

SKELETAL SYSTEM An Introduction to the Human Adult and Fetal Skeletal System SKELETAL SYSTEM An Introduction to the Human Adult and Fetal Skeletal System Introduction: There are 206 bones that make up the organs of the skeletal system in an adult human. These bones are connected

More information

Skeletal System Review. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in the growth of bones.

Skeletal System Review. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in the growth of bones. Skeletal System Review 1. List four functions of the skeletal system: a. b. c. d. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in the growth of bones. 3.

More information

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM THE SKELETAL SYSTEM The skeleton is the body s bony framework which consists of 206 bones. The bones are made up of water(45%), calcium and phosphorous(35%) and other organic materials(20%). The calcium

More information

The Skeletal System Musculo-Skeletal System

The Skeletal System Musculo-Skeletal System The Skeletal System The skeletal system includes connective tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. These tissues are combined with the various types of muscle tissue to form the Musculo-Skeletal

More information

Anatomy & Physiology 120. Lab 5: Skeletal Lab

Anatomy & Physiology 120. Lab 5: Skeletal Lab Anatomy & Physiology 120 Lab 5: Skeletal Lab What you Need to Know Structure of the bone Identify bones of the articulated skull Articulating surfaces of the bones Bone surface markings Bone organization

More information

Function: support, protection, movement, blood cell formation,mineral storage, storage of energy.

Function: support, protection, movement, blood cell formation,mineral storage, storage of energy. The Skeletal System Function: support, protection, movement, blood cell formation,mineral storage, storage of energy. Types of Bones- Classified by shape: Long, flat, short, irregular. Sesamoid bones are

More information

Lab 5 Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages Exercise 9 The Axial Skeleton Exercise 10

Lab 5 Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages Exercise 9 The Axial Skeleton Exercise 10 Lab 5 Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages Exercise 9 The Axial Skeleton Exercise 10 Overview of the Skeleton Locate the important cartilages in the human skeleton

More information

Chapter 5 The Skeletal System

Chapter 5 The Skeletal System Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Elaine N. Marieb Seventh Edition Chapter 5 The Skeletal System Slides 5.1 5.77 Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal

More information

Chapter 11. What are the functions of the skeletal system? More detail on bone

Chapter 11. What are the functions of the skeletal system? More detail on bone Skeletal System Chapter 11 11.1 Overview of the skeletal system What are the functions of the skeletal system? 1. Supports the body 2. Protects the soft body parts 3. Produces blood cells 4. Stores minerals

More information

THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON BIO 137 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I

THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON BIO 137 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON BIO 137 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I MARY CATHERINE FLATH, Ph.D. Dr. Mary Cat Flath, Copyright 2015 AXIAL SKELETON SKULL (all flat bones) Cranium = 8 bones Facial Skeleton with Mandible

More information

Bones: Tissue and Organ

Bones: Tissue and Organ Bones: Tissue and Organ Bones can be referred to as either a tissue (osseous) or an organ Bone referred to as a connective tissue consists of: cells extracellular matrix (ground substance + fibers) this

More information

Anatomy & Physiology I Self Quiz (Skeletal System Part I)

Anatomy & Physiology I Self Quiz (Skeletal System Part I) Pro: Manhal Chbat Anatomy & Physiology I Self Quiz (Skeletal System Part I) 1. The skeleton does all of the following EXCEPT: A) supports soft tissues. B) provides attachment points for tendons of skeletal

More information

Any animal that lives outside of water needs a skeleton to support it.

Any animal that lives outside of water needs a skeleton to support it. LIFE AND LIVING SKELETONS The skeleton is the part of the body that forms the supporting structure in animals and humans. Without a skeleton, we would not be able to stand upright or walk. Animal Skeletons

More information

Model of the Human Skeleton

Model of the Human Skeleton Model of the Human Skeleton Have students read about the skeletal system below and take the two short answer quizzes. They can study the labeled skeleton and then try to label a whole skeleton themselves.

More information

7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function

7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function 7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function For the next two chapters (7 and 9) we will study the skeletal system. Although the major feature of this system is the bones, the skeletal system also consists

More information

Chapter 5 The Skeletal System

Chapter 5 The Skeletal System Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Elaine N. Marieb Seventh Edition Chapter 5 The Skeletal System The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system Bones (skeleton) Joints Cartilages Ligaments (bone

More information

A&P 1 Skeletal Lab Guide #1 - Overview of the Skeleton Pre-lab Exercises

A&P 1 Skeletal Lab Guide #1 - Overview of the Skeleton Pre-lab Exercises A&P 1 Skeletal Lab Guide - Overview of the Skeleton Pre-lab Exercises 1 Have someone in your group read the following out loud, while the others read along: Skeletal Labs are commonly done over 2 weeks,

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Review Sheet. 1. Label all of Mr. Bones & Skull bones (on handout)

Anatomy and Physiology Review Sheet. 1. Label all of Mr. Bones & Skull bones (on handout) Anatomy and Physiology Review Sheet 1. Label all of Mr. Bones & Skull bones (on handout) 2. Function of the Skeletal System A. Support of the body B. Protection of soft organs C. Movement due to attached

More information

Biology Slide 1 of 40

Biology Slide 1 of 40 Biology 1 of 40 2 of 40 The Skeleton (All organisms need structural support. Unicellular organisms have a cytoskeleton. Multicellular animals have either an exoskeleton (arthropods) or an endoskeleton

More information

The adult body is made up of: 100 trillion cells 206 bones 600 muscles 22 internal organs 11 organ systems

The adult body is made up of: 100 trillion cells 206 bones 600 muscles 22 internal organs 11 organ systems The adult body is made up of: 100 trillion cells 206 bones 600 muscles 22 internal organs 11 organ systems 1. Circulatory System 2.Respiratory System ( 3.Immune System (many types of protein, cells, organs,

More information

Skeletal system. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Skeletal system. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. NURS1004 Week 6 Part I Prepared by Didy Button Skeletal system An Introduction to the Skeletal System The Skeletal System Includes: Bones of the skeleton Cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues 6-1

More information

The Skeleton. Provides the framework for the body. Gives structure and support. Protects delicate organs. Stores important minerals

The Skeleton. Provides the framework for the body. Gives structure and support. Protects delicate organs. Stores important minerals 1 The Skeleton Provides the framework for the body Gives structure and support Protects delicate organs Stores important minerals (calcium and phosphorus) Allows you to stand upright 2 The Bone Count ADULT

More information

Chapter 7: Skeletal System: Gross Anatomy

Chapter 7: Skeletal System: Gross Anatomy I. General Considerations A. How many bones in an average adult skeleton? B. Anatomic features of bones are based on II. Axial Skeleton A. Skull 1. Functionally the skull or cranium: a. Protects the b.

More information

Divisions of the Skeletal System

Divisions of the Skeletal System OpenStax-CNX module: m46344 1 Divisions of the Skeletal System OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the end of this

More information

UNIT 4 - SKELETAL SYSTEM LECTURE NOTES

UNIT 4 - SKELETAL SYSTEM LECTURE NOTES UNIT 4 - SKELETAL SYSTEM LECTURE NOTES 4.01 FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM A. Support 1. Provides a framework for the body. 2. Supports soft tissue. 3. Serves as a point of attachment for ligaments,

More information

The Skeletal System: Appendicular Division Pearson Education, Inc.

The Skeletal System: Appendicular Division Pearson Education, Inc. 7 The Skeletal System: Appendicular Division Objectives: Distinguish between Left & Right bones Bone markings How they fit together Introduction The appendicular skeleton includes: Pectoral girdle Shoulder

More information

Sports Medicine 15 Unit I: Anatomy Part 1 Anatomical Overview Bones, Joints, Anatomical positions

Sports Medicine 15 Unit I: Anatomy Part 1 Anatomical Overview Bones, Joints, Anatomical positions Sports Medicine 15 Unit I: Anatomy Part 1 Anatomical Overview Bones, Joints, Anatomical positions By Andrew Morgan BPE/Bed, c.2003 Anatomy deals with the structure of the human body, and includes a precise

More information

LABORATORY EXERCISE 12 BONE STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION

LABORATORY EXERCISE 12 BONE STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION LABORATORY EXERCISE 12 BONE STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION FIG. 12.1 1. Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) 6. Periosteum 2. Spongy bone (red marrow) 7. Proximal epiphysis 3. Medullary cavity 8. Diaphysis

More information

THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS. The Bones & Joints

THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS. The Bones & Joints THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS The Bones & Joints CLOSE YOUR POWERPOINT HANDOUTS!! Think-Pair-Share: Why do we need bones? Try to think of 3 reasons. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Is made up of numerous bones

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Unit 4 Test Review Skeletal System (Chapter 5)

Anatomy and Physiology Unit 4 Test Review Skeletal System (Chapter 5) Anatomy and Physiology Unit 4 Test Review Skeletal System (Chapter 5) Name KEY Hour Date 1. What are the major organs/structures that comprise the skeletal system? Bones, Joints, Cartilages, and ligaments.

More information

Human skeletal and muscular systems

Human skeletal and muscular systems Human skeletal and muscular systems Student Learning Outcomes After completing this exercise the student will be able to: 1. Define bones, ligaments, joints, skeletal muscles, tendons, muscle tone, posture,

More information

SESSION 8: SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN ANIMALS PART 1

SESSION 8: SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN ANIMALS PART 1 SESSION 8: SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN ANIMALS PART 1 KEY CONCEPTS hydrostatic skeleton, exoskeleton, endoskeleton examples, advantages & disadvantages human skeleton parts of axial & appendicular skeleton functions

More information

Chapter 6 Checkpoint Questions docx

Chapter 6 Checkpoint Questions docx Name: Date: Period: Chapter 6: Checkpoint Questions The Skeletal System 1. Name the five primary functions of the skeletal system. a. Support b. Storage reserves (of minerals and bone marrow) c. Blood

More information

SECTION 45-1 REVIEW. VOCABULARY REVIEW Describe the functions of the tissues listed below.

SECTION 45-1 REVIEW. VOCABULARY REVIEW Describe the functions of the tissues listed below. SECTION 45-1 REVIEW THE HUMAN BODY PLAN VOCABULARY REVIEW Describe the functions of the tissues listed below. 1. nervous tissue 2. muscular tissue 3. skeletal muscle 4. epithelial tissue 5. connective

More information

THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS

THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS The Bones & Joints Is made up of numerous bones and is the rigid framework of the human body It gives support and shape to the body It protects vital organs such as the

More information

OBJECTIVE: List and describe the functions of the skeletal system. D. Storage depot for minerals and homeostasis

OBJECTIVE: List and describe the functions of the skeletal system. D. Storage depot for minerals and homeostasis Text Reference: Chapters 6 and 7 Pages 1-6 are mostly a review from lab Know this material before you come to lecture. Lecture will begin on page 7 Read text and complete packet before lecture. I. Introduction

More information

Student Learning Objectives: Structures to be identified:

Student Learning Objectives: Structures to be identified: Skeletal System Student Learning Objectives: Identify the major bones of the skeleton Identify the major landmark structures found on bones of the skeleton Identify the major types of articulations of

More information

The Skeletal System. "Support System"

The Skeletal System. Support System The Skeletal System "Support System" Types of skeletal systems in the animal Kingdom 1-Hydrostatic skeleton: as in flatworms and annelids, where the fluid found in their ceolom acts as a skeletal system

More information

The Skeletal System. Skull, Vertebral Column and Girdles Pages 27-29

The Skeletal System. Skull, Vertebral Column and Girdles Pages 27-29 The Skeletal System Skull, Vertebral Column and Girdles Pages 27-29 Vertebral column Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) Sacrum Cranium Facial bones Clavicle Scapula Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius

More information

17.1 What makes up the skeleton? (Book 3, p.4)

17.1 What makes up the skeleton? (Book 3, p.4) 17 Locomotion in humans 17.1 What makes up the skeleton? (Book 3, p.4) Structure of the skeleton (Book 3, p.4) The skeleton is made up of: (1) bones ( ) (2) cartilage Bones (Book 3, p.4) Bones are hard

More information

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM - THE AXIAL SKELETON

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM - THE AXIAL SKELETON THE SKELETAL SYSTEM - THE AXIAL SKELETON Chapter 7 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 1 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM THE AXIAL SKELETON Skeletal System forms the framework of the body. TYPES OF BONES: FOUR PRINCIPAL

More information

Unit 2. The skeletal system. In this unit. Warm-up. Listening. Bones of the human skeleton. Exercise 1 4

Unit 2. The skeletal system. In this unit. Warm-up. Listening. Bones of the human skeleton. Exercise 1 4 Unit 2 The skeletal system In this unit Bones of the human skeleton: medical and common names Plural nouns of Latin origin Describing bones Adjectives describing anatomical position Bone structure Osteoporosis

More information

Classification of bones Any bone may be classified into one of the following groups:

Classification of bones Any bone may be classified into one of the following groups: Skeletal system This system is made up of hard tissues like bone and cartilages. This system gives form and shape to animal body The skeleton of a living animal is made up living structures of bones. The

More information

Anatomy of Skeletal System

Anatomy of Skeletal System Anatomy of Skeletal System two main subdivisions of skeletal system: axial : skull, vertebral column, rib cage appendicular: arms and legs and girdles Bone Markings: Foramen: opening in bone passageway

More information

Chapter 7: Skeletal System. I. Introduction (Outcome 7.1.1) 1. Bones include active, living tissues:

Chapter 7: Skeletal System. I. Introduction (Outcome 7.1.1) 1. Bones include active, living tissues: Shier, Butler, and Lewis: Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology, 13 th ed. Chapter 7: Skeletal System Chapter 7: Skeletal System I. Introduction (Outcome 7.1.1) 1. Bones include active, living tissues: (Outcome

More information

10/12/2011. Classification of Bones Every adult skeleton contains 206 bones which can be arranged into six broad categories according to shape

10/12/2011. Classification of Bones Every adult skeleton contains 206 bones which can be arranged into six broad categories according to shape Primary Functions of Skeletal System 1. support 2. storage of minerals & lipids -calcium salts provide vital minerals -lipids are in stored yellow marrow 3. blood cell production -RBC s, WBC s, and other

More information

A&P 1 Skeletal Lab Guide #6 - Appendicular Skeleton and Joints Lab Exercises: Pectoral Girdle

A&P 1 Skeletal Lab Guide #6 - Appendicular Skeleton and Joints Lab Exercises: Pectoral Girdle 1 A&P 1 Skeletal Lab Guide #6 - Appendicular Skeleton and Joints Lab Exercises: Pectoral Girdle Have someone in your group read the following out loud, while the others read along: Do This Only If a "Scapula

More information

Chapter 6: The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue

Chapter 6: The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue Chapter 6: The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue Chapter Objectives FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 1. Discuss the functions of support, protection, assistance in movement, mineral homeostasis, blood cell

More information

Unit 1 Lesson 2 The Skeletal and Muscular Systems Essential Question: How do your skeletal and muscular systems work?

Unit 1 Lesson 2 The Skeletal and Muscular Systems Essential Question: How do your skeletal and muscular systems work? Essential Question: How do your skeletal and muscular systems work? Key Terms p15 Quiz Friday Skeletal system Ligament Muscular system Tendon Joint (Don t forget L1: Homeostasis) Copyright Houghton Mifflin

More information

Anatomy Lecture Notes Chapters 7 and 8

Anatomy Lecture Notes Chapters 7 and 8 I. axial vs appendicular axial skeleton forms long axis of body: skull, vertebral column, rib cage appendicular - bones of upper and lower limbs including girdles that attach limbs to axial skeleton II.

More information

SKELETAL SYSTEM S U P P O R T A N D M O V E M E N T. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 1 of 18)

SKELETAL SYSTEM S U P P O R T A N D M O V E M E N T. The Academic Support Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 1 of 18) SKELETAL SYSTEM S U P P O R T A N D M O V E M E N T The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 131, Page 1 of 18) Human Biology Support and Movement The Academic Support Center @ Daytona

More information

CHAPTER 6: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

CHAPTER 6: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 6: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM SKELETAL CARTILAGE Figure 6.1 The bones and cartilages of the human skeleton. Cartilage in Intervertebral disc Cartilage in external ear Cartilages in nose Articular Cartilage

More information

LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT

LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT UNIT - HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Chapter 18 LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT Movement is an important feature of living organism. Both the microbes and macrobes show wide range of movements. The movements results in change

More information

Structural Support and Movement. Chapter 36 Part 1

Structural Support and Movement. Chapter 36 Part 1 Structural Support and Movement Chapter 36 Part 1 Impacts, Issues Pumping Up Muscles Increasing muscle size and strength with drugs such as andro has unwanted side effects and can damage other organ systems

More information

Skeletal System. Chapter 5

Skeletal System. Chapter 5 Skeletal System Chapter 5 Components of the Skeletal System Skeleton subdivided Axial Skeleton-longitudinal axis of body Appendicular Skeletonlimbs and girdles Skeletal System includes Joints 3 types Cartilages

More information

Ch. 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue JEOPARDY!! With your host Mrs. Colson

Ch. 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue JEOPARDY!! With your host Mrs. Colson Ch. 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue JEOPARDY!! With your host Mrs. Colson Classification & Function Bone Structure Bone Development Remodeling & Repair RANDOM! 10 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30 30

More information

Radiology Reference Guide

Radiology Reference Guide Radiology Reference Guide Your skeleton gives your body structure and support. It is made of living bone cells, living tissues, blood vessels, mineral deposits and water. Your skeleton also protects delicate

More information

Human Bones BROWARD COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCIENCE BENCHMARK PLAN ACTIVITY ASSESSMENT OPPORTUNITIES. Grade 4 Quarter 3 Activity 21

Human Bones BROWARD COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCIENCE BENCHMARK PLAN ACTIVITY ASSESSMENT OPPORTUNITIES. Grade 4 Quarter 3 Activity 21 activity 21 Human Bones BROWARD COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCIENCE BENCHMARK PLAN Grade 4 Quarter 3 Activity 21 SC.F.1.2.1 The student knows that the human body is made of systems with structures and functions

More information

BONE BINGO. Blood Production Red and white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, a substance found inside the larger bones of the body.

BONE BINGO. Blood Production Red and white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, a substance found inside the larger bones of the body. BONE BINGO Background: The human skeleton is a framework of bones that is held together by ligaments and joints. Our skeleton has four major functions: Support The main job of the skeleton is to provide

More information

Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems. Chapter 36

Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems. Chapter 36 Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems Chapter 36 1 36-1 The Skeletal System l Function of the Skeletal system 1. Support the body 2. Protect internal organs 3. Provides for movement 4. Stores mineral

More information

Chapter 5 - The Skeletal System

Chapter 5 - The Skeletal System Chapter 5 - The Skeletal System I. BONES: AN OVERVIEW - skeleton includes bone and articulations (joints). Each has bone tissue, cartilage, fibrous tissue in tendons and ligaments, and others. - ossification:

More information

Human Body Vocabulary Words Week 1

Human Body Vocabulary Words Week 1 Vocabulary Words Week 1 1. arteries Any of the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to all parts of the body 2. heart The muscular organ inside the chest that pumps blood through the body

More information

9/3/2013 JOINTS. Joints. Axial Skeleton STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION:

9/3/2013 JOINTS. Joints. Axial Skeleton STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: JOINTS Joints A connection between 2 or more bones A pivot point for bony motion The features of the joint help determine The ROM freedom Functional potential of the joint Axial

More information

THE FOOT BONE is connected to the leg bone. The leg bone is connected

THE FOOT BONE is connected to the leg bone. The leg bone is connected Structures and Functions of the Skeletal System THE FOOT BONE is connected to the leg bone. The leg bone is connected to the sesamoid bone inside a synovial joint. Learning the names of common bones is

More information

Biology 2401 A&P I - Notes exam 2 - Skeletal System Ch. 7. Functions of skeletal system : support of body. production of blood cells

Biology 2401 A&P I - Notes exam 2 - Skeletal System Ch. 7. Functions of skeletal system : support of body. production of blood cells Biology 2401 A&P I - Notes exam 2 - Skeletal System Ch. 7 Functions of skeletal system : support of body protection of soft organs production of blood cells movement (as levers) storage of minerals and

More information

Lab 6, 7, 8: Skeletal System

Lab 6, 7, 8: Skeletal System 107 Lab 6, 7, 8: Skeletal System Adult Skull Bony orbit (FLEZMS) Frontal bone supraorbital foramen frontal sinus Lacrimal bone Ethmoid bone perpendicular plate of ethmoid middle nasal conchae cribriform

More information

Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew

Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew 6 The Skeletal System PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Alan Magid, Duke University Slides 1 to 137 The Skeletal System The skeletal

More information

Bone and Brawn. NC Science Olympiad Elementary Institute Bone and Brawn

Bone and Brawn. NC Science Olympiad Elementary Institute Bone and Brawn NC Science Olympiad Bone Basics Made of: Compact (aka dense) bone, and spongy bone. Most bones contain both types. Compact bone is dense, hard, and forms the protective exterior portion of all bones. Spongy

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley. Practice Exam #2

Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley. Practice Exam #2 Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley Practice Exam #2 For questions 1 through 3, select your answers from the following responses: a. stratified squamous epithelium b. reticular connective tissue

More information

Skeletal System. Unit 6.4 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.4 (7 th Edition)

Skeletal System. Unit 6.4 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.4 (7 th Edition) Skeletal System Unit 6.4 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.4 (7 th Edition) 1 Learning Objectives Understand the five functions of bones (physiology) Classify the four major types of bones Identify the major parts

More information

Bones of the Lower Extremity

Bones of the Lower Extremity Bones of the Lower Extremity Bones of the Pelvic Girdle The pelvic (or hip) girdle: Attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton Transmits the weight of the upper body to the lower limbs Supports the

More information

8/25/2014 JOINTS. The Skeletal System. Axial Skeleton STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION:

8/25/2014 JOINTS. The Skeletal System. Axial Skeleton STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: JOINTS The Skeletal System Made up of the numerous bones of the human body Gives support and framework to the body Protects vital organs Manufactures blood cells Storage of calcium

More information

ACTIVITY 3: AXIAL SKELETON AND LONG BONE DISSECTION COW BONE DISSECTION

ACTIVITY 3: AXIAL SKELETON AND LONG BONE DISSECTION COW BONE DISSECTION ACTIVITY 3: AXIAL SKELETON AND LONG BONE DISSECTION Objectives: 1) How to get ready: Read Chapter 7, McKinley et al., Human Anatomy, 4e. All text references are for this textbook. Learning the meanings

More information

GROSS ANATOMY OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

GROSS ANATOMY OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Biology 201 Human Anatomy Fall Semester 2009 GROSS ANATOMY OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM References: Marieb, Mallatt, Wilhelm Human Anatomy, 5th ed. (2008) Marieb, Human Anatomy Laboratory Manual with Cat Dissections

More information

Articulations - where two bones interconnect.

Articulations - where two bones interconnect. Articulations Articulations - where two bones interconnect. Immovable joints Synarthroses, or fibrous Example: Sutures of skull Slightly moveable joints Amphiarthroses, or cartilaginous Example: Symphysis

More information

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: JOINTS

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: JOINTS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: JOINTS Joints A connection between 2 or more bones A pivot point for bony motion The features of the joint help determine The ROM Degrees of freedom Functional potential of the

More information

SKELETAL AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS WHAT MOVES YOU!

SKELETAL AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS WHAT MOVES YOU! SKELETAL AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS WHAT MOVES YOU! FUNCTIONS OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM 1. Muscles are the motors that move body parts a) Muscles always pull, they never push FUNCTIONS OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM 1.

More information

Skeletal System Chapter 5. ii. Spongy Bone 1. Small needle-like pieces of bone 2. Many open spaces. o Contain mostly compact bone (Ex.

Skeletal System Chapter 5. ii. Spongy Bone 1. Small needle-like pieces of bone 2. Many open spaces. o Contain mostly compact bone (Ex. Skeletal System Chapter 5 i BNES: AN VERVIEW Parts of the Skeletal System 1. Bones 2. Joints 3. Cartilage 4. Ligaments Divided into Two Divisions 1. Axial 2. Appendicular Functions of the Bones: 1. Support

More information

Osseous Tissue & Structure. The skeletal system includes: Storage of minerals: calcium salts

Osseous Tissue & Structure. The skeletal system includes: Storage of minerals: calcium salts Chapter 15 Lecture The Skeletal System: Osseous Tissue & Skeletal Structure The Skeletal System The skeletal system includes: Bones, cartilages, ligaments Bone tissue = osseous tissue Includes living cells

More information

The Skeletal and Muscular Systems

The Skeletal and Muscular Systems The Skeletal and Muscular Systems Lesson 2 Bones for Support, Muscles for Movement You depend on your skeletal and muscular systems to support you and help you move. The skeletal system is the framework

More information

The Skeletal System: Axial Division Pearson Education, Inc.

The Skeletal System: Axial Division Pearson Education, Inc. 6 The Skeletal System: Axial Division Figure 6.1a The Axial Skeleton SKELETAL SYSTEM 206 AXIAL SKELETON 80 Skull and associated bones 29 Skull Associated bones Cranium Face Auditory ossicles Hyoid 8 14

More information

The Skeleton and Muscle Systems

The Skeleton and Muscle Systems The Skeleton and Muscle Systems OBJECTIVE: In this lab you will identify the major bone and muscle systems of the human body. By understanding bone and muscle structures you will have a better appreciation

More information

Resources Chapter Presentation Visual Concepts Transparencies Standardized Test Prep Chapter menu Resources

Resources Chapter Presentation Visual Concepts Transparencies Standardized Test Prep Chapter menu Resources Chapter Presentation Visual Concepts Transparencies Standardized Test Prep Introduction to Body Structure Table of Contents Section 1 Body Organization Section 2 Skeletal System Section 3 Muscular System

More information

67 The Human Skeleton

67 The Human Skeleton 67 The Human Skeleton Skull SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Life Science Prentice-Hall, Inc. Clavicle (collarbone) Scapula (shoulder blade) Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Femur Tibia Humerus Ulna Sternum (breastbone)

More information

Anatomical Position. Standing erect Hands at side with palms facing forward Feet together. Deep/Superficial

Anatomical Position. Standing erect Hands at side with palms facing forward Feet together. Deep/Superficial Anatomical Position Standing erect Hands at side with palms facing forward Feet together Deep/Superficial Planes Hierarchy of Structures Within the Human Body Subatomic Particles Protons Neutrons Electrons

More information

Skeletal System 2. The Axial Skeleton Consists of bones Three major regions Skull column cage

Skeletal System 2. The Axial Skeleton Consists of bones Three major regions Skull column cage Skeletal System 2 The Axial Skeleton Consists of bones Three major regions Skull column cage The Skull Two sets of bones 1. bones Enclose the brain in the cranial cavity Cranial (calvaria) Cranial : anterior,

More information

BONES & MUSCLES FOR LIFE. Bone & Muscle Review Level: Advanced

BONES & MUSCLES FOR LIFE. Bone & Muscle Review Level: Advanced Level: Advanced Objective: Students will identify bones, muscles, and corresponding joints of the body and describe how bones and muscles work together to create movement and promote the ability to have

More information

Biology 218 Human Anatomy

Biology 218 Human Anatomy Chapter 7 LECTURE OUTLINE A. Divisions of the Skeletal System (p. 164) 1. The 206 named bones in the adult skeleton are grouped in two major divisions (see Table 7.1): i. axial skeleton consists of the

More information

2 Structure and function of the skeletal system The skeletal and muscular systems work together to produce movement in physical activity, and one cann

2 Structure and function of the skeletal system The skeletal and muscular systems work together to produce movement in physical activity, and one cann INQUIRY QUESTION How do bones and joints assist movement in sprinting? 2 Structure and function of the skeletal system The skeletal and muscular systems work together to produce movement in physical activity,

More information

Short Bones < carpals, tarsals. Irregular Bones < facial bones, vertebrae. Flat Bones < cranial bones, ribs, sternum, scapula

Short Bones < carpals, tarsals. Irregular Bones < facial bones, vertebrae. Flat Bones < cranial bones, ribs, sternum, scapula LAB: SKELETAL SYSTEM All the bones of the skeleton can be placed into one of four categories based on the specific morphology of the bone. Long Bones < humerus, ulna, radius, femur < tibia, fibula, phalanges

More information

Vertebral Column and Upper Appendicular Skeleton

Vertebral Column and Upper Appendicular Skeleton Vertebral Column and Upper Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones in the head and trunk of the human body. In this lab you will look at the vertebral column, just one part of that

More information

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. Introduction: Bone Markings Overview: Divisions of the skeleton:

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. Introduction: Bone Markings Overview: Divisions of the skeleton: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Introduction: The skeleton is the body s structural framework and is composed of two of the supportive tissues studied earlier; bone and cartilage. The main functions of the skeleton

More information

Chapter 6: Tissue: Bones and Skeletal Tissues

Chapter 6: Tissue: Bones and Skeletal Tissues Chapter 6: Tissue: Bones and Skeletal Tissues Objectives: 1. Describe the functional properties of the three types of cartilage tissue. 2. Locate the major cartilages of the adult skeleton. 3. Explain

More information

THE HUMAN SKELETON 29 MAY 2013

THE HUMAN SKELETON 29 MAY 2013 THE HUMN SKELETON 29 MY 2013 Lesson escription In this lesson we: iscuss important terminology Look at the axial skeleton & the appendicular skeleton iscuss the functions of the skeleton Work through a

More information

SKELETAL SYSTEM (APPENDICULAR SKELETON) AND ARTICULATIONS

SKELETAL SYSTEM (APPENDICULAR SKELETON) AND ARTICULATIONS 5-1 LAB 5: SKELETAL SYSTEM (APPENDICULAR SKELETON) AND ARTICULATIONS In this lab you will continue to study the skeletal system. appendicular skeleton and associated articulations (joints) The focus of

More information

Function of Bones. Bone Tissue and Bones BONE CLASSIFICATION. Long Bones Gross Anatomy. Lab Activity 1 - Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone

Function of Bones. Bone Tissue and Bones BONE CLASSIFICATION. Long Bones Gross Anatomy. Lab Activity 1 - Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone Function of Bones Bone Tissue and Bones Bones form the framework of the skeleton. Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook, Stephen G. Davenport, Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved, no part

More information