1 Barbara Bloomquist, B.S.; Aindrea McHugh, B.S.; Michael Gross, Ph.D.
2 Active video gaming, also known as exergaming has become a means to counteract traditional sedentary video games. Studies have shown that exergaming uses more energy than sedentary activities and may be an effective way to engage youth and adults in physical activity.
3 Author, Year Sample Measured Results Haddock et al., 2010 N = 37 EE Exergaming could increase EE if ages: 12.4 ± 1.0 yrs replacing SA, but not replacing TE Graf et al., 2009 N = 23 ages: yrs EE, HR, SR, RPE, VO2 EE during active gaming is comparable to moderate intensity walking Maddison et al., 2007 N = 21 ages: 12.4 ± 1.1 yrs Kraft et al., 2011 N = 37 ages: 23.2 ± 8.1 yrs EE, HR, VO2, SR HR and RPE Replacing SA with active gaming could have an impact on body weight Active gaming could be used as motivation to exercise Jordan et al., 2010 N = 15 males ages: 29 ± 4 yrs EE, HR, VO2 Lower limb activation increases EE in exergaming EE= energy expenditure; HR= heart rate; SA= sedentary activity; TE= traditional exercise, SR= step rate, RPE= rate of perceived exertion, VO2= oxygen consumption
4 The purpose of the investigation was to compare the energy cost of identical interactive video games on two different systems, Nintendo Wii (NW) and XBOX 360 Kinect (XK).
5 Study Participants: Seventeen apparently healthy females (ages yrs) with no known cardiovascular, pulmonary, or metabolic disease were recruited for the investigation. The following descriptive measurements were collected: height, weight, BMI, and body fat percentage.
6 Subjects completed a graded exercise test (GXT) on a cycle ergometer This served as the criterion for VO 2max and maximal heart rate
7 Oxygen consumption (VO 2 ) values were measured using a portable metabolic analyzer (COSMED K4b 2, Rome, Italy).
8 Descriptive Data Variable Mean ± SD Age years ± 1.95 Height cm ± 7.84 Weight kg ± BMI kg/m ± 4.65 BF % ± 5.03 VO 2peak ml. kg -1. min ± 7.96 HR peak beats min ± 8.72 BMI= body mass index, BF= body fat, VO 2 = oxygen consumption, HR= heart rate
9 Independent Variable Exergaming - The subjects performed seven dances on both the NW and XK consoles. Dance Title Time Difficulty Intensity 1. Venus 3:27 * ** 2. Land of 1000 Dances 2:22 * *** 3. Giddy On Up 3:18 ** * 4. Barbara Streisand 3:07 ** ** 5. Gonna Make U Sweat 3:21 ** *** 6. Dance All Nite 3:24 *** * 7. Apache (Jump On It) 4:02 *** **
10 Dependent Variables Metabolic Equivalents of Tasks (METs): A physiological measure that expresses the energy cost of physical activity. Kilocalories (Kcals): A unit of measurement used to express energy expenditure. Oxygen Consumption (VO2): The volume of oxygen consumed and utilized per minute. This measure is used to calculate the metabolic cost of activity. Heart Rate (HR): The number of heartbeats per minute.
13 Analysis A paired T-test was used to evaluate significant differences between the two systems for the following variables: METs Kcals AverageVO 2 Average HR
14 Comparison of the average metabolic cost of each console: Variable NW XK METs 3.66 ± ± 0.90 Kcals kcals/min 4.45 ± ± 1.09 VO 2 ml. kg -1. min ± ± 3.14 HR beats min ± ± There was no significant difference between systems for any of the measured variables (p > 0.05); although, the XK had greater values.
15 MET values between NW and XK Dance NW METs XK METs 1. Venus 3.75 ± ± Land of 1000 Dances 4.36 ± ± Giddy on Up 3.50 ± ± Barbara Streisand 3.29 ± ± Gonna Make U Sweat 3.71 ± ± Dance All Nite 2.83 ± ± Apache (Jump On It) 4.15 ± ± 1.24
16 METs MET Values of each Dance NW XK Dance
17 Kcal values between NW and XK Dance NW Kcals XK Kcals 1. Venus 4.60 ± ± Land of 1000 Dances 5.27 ± ± Giddy on Up 4.25 ± ± Barbara Streisand 4.01 ± ± Gonna Make U Sweat 4.54 ± ± Dance All Nite 3.45 ± ± Apache (Jump On It) 5.06 ± ± 1.29
18 Kcals 25 Caloric Expenditure per Dance NW XK Dance
19 VO2 values between NW and XK Dance NW VO2 XK VO2 1. Venus ± ± Land of 1000 Dances ± ± Giddy on Up ± ± Barbara Streisand ± ± Gonna Make U Sweat ± ± Dance All Nite 9.92 ± ± Apache (Jump On It) ± ± 4.34
20 VO2 (ml. kg -1. min -1 ) Average VO2 for each Dance NW XK Dance
21 HR values between NW and XK Dance NW HR XK HR 1. Venus ± ± Land of 1000 Dances ± ± Giddy on Up ± ± Barbara Streisand ± ± Gonna Make U Sweat ± ± Dance All Nite ± ± Apache (Jump On It) ± ± 23.18
22 HR (beats/min) 135 Average HR for each Dance NW XK Dance
23 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) classification of Physical Activity Intensity METs Light: < 3 METs Moderate: 3-6 METs Vigorous: > 6 METs
24 METs 5 MET Values of each Dance Moderate Wii Xbox Light Dance
25 Oxygen Consumption Reserve (VO2R): A method used to prescribe exercise intensity based on the maximal and resting VO2. Heart Rate Reserve (HRR): A method used to prescribe exercise intensity based on maximal and resting HR.
26 ACSM classification of Physical Activity Intensity VO2R (%) and HRR (%) Very light: <20% Light: 20-39% Moderate: 40-59%* Vigorous: 60-84% Very Hard: > 85% Maximal: 100% Minimal intensity recommended for health and fitness benefits
27 Did the results meet the minimal guidelines for health and fitness benefits? VO2R Intensity Level HRR Intensity Level NW 30% Light 45% Moderate XK 32% Light 48% Moderate
28 60% Average VO2R and HRR Intensity Response 50% 40% 30% NW XK 20% 10% 0% VO2R HRR
29 Based on the results of the seven dances tested, it can be presumed that Just Dance 3 exergaming is not sufficient for achieving health and fitness benefits Further research is warranted to determine if other dance intensive games would elicit a higher intensity response
30 In total, the 7 dances burned an average of calories using the Wii, versus calories using the Xbox in 23 minutes of dance. This is comparable to walking 3.5 miles/hour for 23 minutes for a 70 kg person.
31 Approximately 17% (or 12.5 million) of children and adolescents aged 2 19 years are obese. Since 1980, obesity prevalence among children and adolescents has almost tripled. In the State of Alabama, 15% of children and adolescents are obese. At age 9, children average roughly three hours of MVPA on weekdays and weekends. By age 15, they average only 49 minutes per weekday, and 35 minutes per weekend.
32 No safe and appealing place, in many communities, to play or be active. Many communities are built in ways that make it difficult or unsafe to be physically active. For many children, safe routes for walking or biking to school or play may not exist. Half of the children in the United States do not have a park, community center, and/or sidewalk in their neighborhood. Only 27 states have policies directing community-scale design. Latchkey Children Technology Based Generation
33 Lack of daily, quality physical activity in all schools. Most adolescents fall short of the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommendation of at least 60 minutes of aerobic physical activity each day, as only 18% of students in grades 9 12 met this recommendation in Daily, quality physical education in school can help students meet the Guidelines. However, in 2009 only 33% attended daily physical education classes. Daily Physical Education is required in Alabama, but teachers face larger class sizes due to a variety of reasons.
34 Exergaming, as part of the Curriculum Provides Moderate Activity Levels 6 0f the 7 dances provided Moderate Physical Activity levels of 3.0 METs and above Provides Activity for the Masses Allows for multiple students to participate in lesson activity instead of sitting and waiting on a turn in large classes. Provides Maintenance Enhancing Motivation Participants were motivated by some dances more than others. Number one reason children and adolescents participate in an activity is for the enjoyment.
35 No significant difference in energy expenditure was found between the two systems Both systems did not meet the minimal guidelines recommended by the ACSM for health and fitness benefits However, exergaming is an enjoyable way to do physical activity Expends approximately 100 kcals in 23 minutes Great for large groups
37 We would like to thank the following faculty members for their contribution and guidance in this research endeavor: Dr. Henry Williford Dr. Mike Esco Dr. Erin Reilly Funding assistance was provided by the Auburn University Montgomery School of Education and the Student Government Association.
38 1. American College of Sports Medicine. (2010). ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 2. Graf, D. L., Pratt, L. V., Hester, C. N., & Short, K. R. (2009). Playing Active Video Games Increases Energy Expenditure in Children. Pediatrics, Haddock, B., Siegel, S., & Wilkin, L. (2010). Energy Expenditure of Middle School Children While Playing Wii Sports Games. Californian Journal of Health Promotion, Jordan, M., Donne, B., & Fletcher, D. (2011). Only lower limb controlled interactive computer gaming enables an effective increase in energy expenditure. European Journal of Applied Physiology, Kraft, J. A., Russell, W. D., Bowman, T. A., Selsor III, C. W., & Foster, G. D. (2011). Heart Rate and Perceived Exertion During Self-Selected Intensities for Exergaming Compared to Traditional Exercise in College-Age Participants. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Maddison, R., Mhurchu, C. N., Jull, A., Jiang, Y., Prapavessis, H., & Rodgers, A. (n.d.). Energy Expended Playing Video Console Games: An Opportunity to Increase Children's Physical Activity. 7. U.S. Obesity Trends. (n.d.). Retrieved February 2012, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 8. Overweight and Obesity: Data and Statistics. (n.d.) Retrieved March 2012 from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 9. Overweight and Obesity: A Growing Problem. (n.d.) Retrieved March 2012 from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Children s Physical Activity Drops From Age 9 to 15. (2008). NIH News. Retrieved March 2012 from National Institute of Health:
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