Ellenor Brown and Cornelius Ejimofor, Georgia Institute of Technology Graduate Students. Shape

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1 4-8 th Grade Math and Science Lessons Ellenor Brown and Cornelius Ejimofor, Georgia Institute of Technology Graduate Students Shape Georgia Performance Standards Grade 4 M4G1 Students will define and identify the characteristics of geometric figures through examination and construction. M4G2. Students will understand fundamental solid figures. Grade 5 M5N3 Students will further develop their understanding of the meaning of multiplication and division with decimals and use them. Grade 6 M6M3 Students will determine the volume of fundamental solid figures (right rectangular prisms, cylinders, pyramids and cones). M6G1 Students will further develop their understanding of plane figures. M6G2 Students will further develop their understanding of solid figures. Grade 8 M8G2 Students will understand and use the Pythagorean theorem. Endless Column (1918), Brancusi What 2-D and 3-D shapes are present? Activity: Create an endless column o Make nets for square truncated pyramid What is the surface area? Volume?

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3 Piet Mondrian, Composition No. II with Red and Blue What percentage of the picture is blue? Red?

4 Color Georgia Performance Standards Grade 4 S4P1 Students will investigate the nature of light using tools such as mirrors, lenses, and prisms Grades 4 and 5 S4CS3/S5CS3 (c) Students will use tools and instruments to observing, measuring and manipulating objects in scientific activities: Grade 8 S8P2 Use computers, cameras, and recording devices for capturing information Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy. Light is required to experience color. What is light? It is a form of EM radiation Animals use it to see things: identify people and objects and gauge distances Has dual nature of particles and wave Does not need a medium Its properties (speed) change when it passes through a medium Light is an electromagnetic wave. Visible light is composed of the 770 nm to 390 nm wavelength band of electromagnetic radiation. The colors vary from red to violet (ROYGBIV).

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7 Opacity of Materials Opacity refers to the ability of light to pass through a material A totally opaque material does not allow any light to pass through it A transparent material allows light to pass through it we can see through it A translucent material allows some light to pass through it we cannot see through it but light can pass through it Demonstration: Prisms What you need: o A prism o A light source o A white background o Variation on Newton s classical experiment Primary Colors of Light The eye senses Red, Green, and Blue R + G + B = White Additive mixing Computer and TV screen, projectors use this RGB system Primary Colors of Pigments Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow are Primary colors for inks and printed color C + M + Y = Black Subtractive mixing

8 Exercise: Color Wheel Materials: o Colored Transparencies Magenta (red) Yellow Cyan (blue) Color Wheel Template 1. Cut the shape below from pieces of magenta (red), yellow, and cyan (blue) transparent material. 2. Use a hole punch to create the center hole of the color wheel 3. Attach the pieces with brads or a similar paper fastener. 4. Arrange the shapes so that each color partially overlaps with the other two (eg. The red overlaps with the blue on one end, and with yellow on the other). 5. The colors at the overlapping areas illustrate subtractive color mixing

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10 Experiment: Color Filters Additive Subtractive Additive Color Mixing Red, green and blue lights are shone on a common surface. The colors are reflected from the surface to the viewer s eye. Where the colors overlap, the light from each overlapping color is added together. In other words, the viewer s eye senses each of the reflected colors simultaneously.

11 Subtractive Color Mixing Subtractive color mixing happens when light passes through or reflects off of a filter. Paint, crayons, etc act as filters (absorbing some colors, reflecting others). In the example: Cyan is an additive mixture of blue and green (all but blue and green are absorbed) Yellow is an additive mixture of red and green (all but red and green are absorbed) Only green can pass both filters (reflected or transmitted) Result: You see green. Why does mixing cyan paint with yellow paint make green paint?

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17 Physics of Light Reflection Light incident on a smooth surface such as a mirror will bounce off and change its direction with losing much energy. This is important since most objects do not produce light and we must receive light from the surface of an object in order to see it. Absorption Opaque and Translucent materials absorb some of the light incident on them. Refraction Refraction refers to the change in direction of light as it passes through certain materials. This change is a result of the change of the speed of light in that material. This causes the appearance of the object to change or it to seem like it is in a different position.

18 Diffraction When light passes through a material or hole that has a size or spacing similar to its wavelength it scatters in all directions. The exiting light waves can interfere with each other and either cancel out or reinforce each other to produce interesting patterns of light. Back to Basics What basic shapes make up The First Step by Brancusi, 1913? Activity: Draw your favorite TV character using simply shapes.

19 Packaging Shape o o Faces Whole shape If the box is 2x1x1.5 ft o Area of faces o Perimeter of faces o Volume o Ketchup is 4x3x9in o How many fit in the box?

20 Subtractive Mixing: Food Coloring MS Paint: RGB Dimensions of Color Hue o Value o o Color Brightness Luminance Chroma o Saturation

21 MS Paint: Dimensions of Color Artists Media and Methods How different medium convey different colors Chemical and physical props o Pigments dissolved in solution, usually linseed oil o Artists methods achieve different effects, different look (possibly color) Artists use a variety of materials/media to create different color for their Art

22 Pencils Oil Paint Watercolor Dyes These contain particles known as colorants which give items their characteristic color Paints Paints consist of white and colored solid colorants called pigments suspended in a liquid called a binder Traditionally the binder is linseed oil Pigments Titanium oxide white Ferrous (Iron) oxides red, yellow Cobalt - blue

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