DRAFT. Algebra 2 EOC Item Specifications


 Elaine Caldwell
 2 years ago
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1 DRAFT Algebra 2 EOC Item Specifications The release of the updated FSA Test Item Specifications is intended to provide greater specificity for item writers in developing items to be field tested in The revisions in the specifications will NOT affect the Spring The enhanced explanations, clarifications, and sample items should assist item writers and other stakeholders in understanding the Florida Standards and the various types of test items that can be developed to measure student proficiency in the applicable content areas for 2016 and beyond.
2 The draft (FSA) Test Item Specifications (Specifications) are based upon the Florida Standards and the Florida Course Descriptions as provided in CPALMs. The Specifications are a resource that defines the content and format of the test and test items for item writers and reviewers. Each gradelevel and course Specifications document indicates the alignment of items with the Florida Standards. It also serves to provide all stakeholders with information about the scope and function of the FSA. Item Specifications Definitions Also assesses refers to standard(s) closely related to the primary standard statement. Clarification statements explain what students are expected to do when responding to the question. Assessment limits define the range of content knowledge and degree of difficulty that should be assessed in the assessment items for the standard. Item types describe the characteristics of the question. Context defines types of stimulus materials that can be used in the assessment items. 2 P age March 24, 2015
3 Modeling Cycle The basic modeling cycle involves (1) identifying variables in the situation and selecting those that represent essential features, (2) formulating a model by creating and selecting geometric, graphical, tabular, algebraic, or statistical representations that describe relationships between the variables, (3) analyzing and performing operations on these relationships to draw conclusions, (4) interpreting the results of the mathematics in terms of the original situation, (5) validating the conclusions by comparing them with the situation, and then either improving the model or, if it is acceptable, (6) reporting on the conclusions and the reasoning behind them. Choices, assumptions, and approximations are present throughout this cycle. 3 P age March 24, 2015
4 Mathematical Practices: The Mathematical Practices are a part of each course description for Grades 38, Algebra 1, Geometry, and Algebra 2. These practices are an important part of the curriculum. The Mathematical Practices will be assessed throughout. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MAFS.K12.MP.1.1: MAFS.K12.MP.2.1: Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, Does this make sense? They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Mathematically proficient students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. They bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent 4 P age March 24, 2015
5 representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. MAFS.K12.MP.3.1: MAFS.K12.MP.4.1: Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and if there is a flaw in an argument explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments. Model with mathematics. Mathematically proficient students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. In early grades, this might be as simple as writing an addition equation to describe a situation. In middle grades, a student might apply proportional reasoning to plan a school event or analyze a problem in the community. By high school, a student might use geometry to solve a design problem or use a function to describe how one quantity of interest depends on another. Mathematically proficient students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, twoway tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions. They routinely interpret their mathematical results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense, possibly improving the model 5 P age March 24, 2015
6 if it has not served its purpose. Use appropriate tools strategically. MAFS.K12.MP.5.1: Mathematically proficient students consider the available tools when solving a mathematical problem. These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler, a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Proficient students are sufficiently familiar with tools appropriate for their grade or course to make sound decisions about when each of these tools might be helpful, recognizing both the insight to be gained and their limitations. For example, mathematically proficient high school students analyze graphs of functions and solutions generated using a graphing calculator. They detect possible errors by strategically using estimation and other mathematical knowledge. When making mathematical models, they know that technology can enable them to visualize the results of varying assumptions, explore consequences, and compare predictions with data. Mathematically proficient students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understanding of concepts. Attend to precision. MAFS.K12.MP.6.1: MAFS.K12.MP.7.1: Mathematically proficient students try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning. They state the meaning of the symbols they choose, including using the equal sign consistently and appropriately. They are careful about specifying units of measure, and labeling axes to clarify the correspondence with quantities in a problem. They calculate accurately and efficiently, express numerical answers with a degree of precision appropriate for the problem context. In the elementary grades, students give carefully formulated explanations to each other. By the time they reach high school they have learned to examine claims and make explicit use of definitions. Look for and make use of structure. Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure. Young students, for example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may 6 P age March 24, 2015
7 sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 8 equals the well remembered , in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In the expression x² + 9x + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 7 and the 9 as They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several objects. For example, they can see 5 3(x y)² as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. MAFS.K12.MP.8.1: Mathematically proficient students notice if calculations are repeated, and look both for general methods and for shortcuts. Upper elementary students might notice when dividing 25 by 11 that they are repeating the same calculations over and over again, and conclude they have a repeating decimal. By paying attention to the calculation of slope as they repeatedly check whether points are on the line through (1, 2) with slope 3, middle school students might abstract the equation (y 2)/(x 1) = 3. Noticing the regularity in the way terms cancel when expanding (x 1)(x + 1), (x 1)(x² + x + 1), and (x 1)(x³ + x² + x + 1) might lead them to the general formula for the sum of a geometric series. As they work to solve a problem, mathematically proficient students maintain oversight of the process, while attending to the details. They continually evaluate the reasonableness of their intermediate results. 7 P age March 24, 2015
8 TechnologyEnhanced Item Descriptions: The (FSA) are composed of test items that include traditional multiple choice items, items that require students to type or write a response, and technologyenhanced items (TEI). Technologyenhanced items are computerdelivered items that require students to interact with test content to select, construct, and/or support their answers. Currently, there are nine types of TEIs that may appear on computerbased assessments for FSA Mathematics. For Grades 3 and 4 assessments, which will be paperbased tests in , and for students with an IEP or 504 plan that specifies a paperbased accommodation, TEIs will be modified or replaced with test items that can be scanned and scored electronically. For samples of each of the item types described below, see the FSA Training Tests. TechnologyEnhanced Item Types Mathematics 1. Editing Task Choice The student clicks a highlighted word or phrase, which reveals a dropdown menu containing options for correcting an error as well as the highlighted word or phrase as it is shown in the sentence to indicate that no correction is needed. The student then selects the correct word or phrase from the dropdown menu. For paperbased assessments, the item is modified so that it can be scanned and scored electronically. The student fills in a circle to indicate the correct word or phrase. 2. Editing Task The student clicks on a highlighted word or phrase that may be incorrect, which reveals a text box. The directions in the text box direct the student to replace the highlighted word or phrase with the correct word or phrase. For paperbased assessments, this item type may be replaced with another item type that assesses the same standard and can be scanned and scored electronically. 3. Hot Text a. Selectable Hot Text Excerpted sentences from the text are presented in this item type. When the student hovers over certain words, phrases, or sentences, the options highlight. This indicates that the text is selectable ( hot ). The student can then 8 P age March 24, 2015
9 click on an option to select it. For paper based assessments, a selectable hot text item is modified so that it can be scanned and scored electronically. In this version, the student fills in a circle to indicate a selection. b. DragandDrop Hot Text Certain numbers, words, phrases, or sentences may be designated draggable in this item type. When the student hovers over these areas, the text highlights. The student can then click on the option, hold down the mouse button, and drag it to a graphic or other format. For paperbased assessments, draganddrop hot text items will be replaced with another item type that assesses the same standard and can be scanned and scored electronically. 4. Open Response The student uses the keyboard to enter a response into a text field. These items can usually be answered in a sentence or two. For paperbased assessments, this item type may be replaced with another item type that assesses the same standard and can be scanned and scored electronically. 5. Multiselect The student is directed to select all of the correct answers from among a number of options. These items are different from multiplechoice items, which allow the student to select only one correct answer. These items appear in the online and paperbased assessments. 6. Graphic Response Item Display (GRID) The student selects numbers, words, phrases, or images and uses the draganddrop feature to place them into a graphic. This item type may also require the student to use the point, line, or arrow tools to create a response on a graph. For paperbased assessments, this item type may be replaced with another item type that assesses the same standard and can be scanned and scored electronically. 7. Equation Editor The student is presented with a toolbar that includes a variety of mathematical symbols that can be used to create a response. Responses may be in the form of a number, variable, expression, or equation, as appropriate to the test item. For paperbased assessments, this item type may be replaced with a modified version of the item that can be scanned and scored electronically or replaced with another item type that assesses the same standard and can be scanned and scored electronically. 8. Matching Item The student checks a box to indicate if information from a column header matches information from a row. For paperbased assessments, this item type may be replaced with another item type that assesses the same standard and can be scanned and scored electronically. 9 P age March 24, 2015
10 9. Table Item The student types numeric values into a given table. The student may complete the entire table or portions of the table depending on what is being asked. For paperbased assessments, this item type may be replaced with another item type that assesses the same standard and can be scanned and scored electronically. 10 P age March 24, 2015
11 Calculators: General Designations: Calculator: Items only appear on Calculator Sessions. Calculator Neutral: Items appear on Calculator and No Calculator Sessions. No Calculator: Items only appear on No Calculator Sessions. Types of Calculators: Grades 3 6 No calculator permitted for paperbased or computerbased tests. Grades 7 8 Online scientific calculator provided in the CBT platform for Sessions 2 and 3 of the Grades 7 and 8 FSA Mathematics tests. Online calculator may be accessed in the FSA Portal for use in the classroom. CBT students may request and use a handheld scientific calculator during Sessions 2 and 3. See below for a list of prohibited functionalities for handheld scientific calculators. Calculators that allow these prohibited functionalities may not be used. Students with paperbased accommodations must be provided a handheld scientific calculator for Sessions 2 and 3. See below for a list of prohibited functionalities for handheld scientific calculators. Calculators that allow these prohibited functionalities may not be used. EndofCourse (EOC) Online scientific calculator provided in the CBT platform for Session 2 of the Algebra 1, Algebra 2, and Geometry tests. Online calculator may be accessed in the FSA Portal for use in the classroom. CBT students may request and use a handheld scientific calculator during Session 2. See below for a list of prohibited functionalities for handheld scientific calculators. Calculators that allow these prohibited functionalities may not be used. Students with paperbased accommodations must be provided a handheld scientific calculator for Session 2. See below for a list of prohibited functionalities for handheld scientific calculators. Calculators that allow these prohibited functionalities may not be used. Calculator Functionality: 11 P age March 24, 2015
12 Students will need access to the following calculator functions: ππ 2 x Square root ( ) 3 y x or x for Grade 8 and EOCs x e for Algebra 1 and Algebra 2 Trigonometric functions for Geometry and Algebra 2 log and/or ln for Algebra 2 Students may not use a handheld calculator that has ANY of the following prohibited functionalities: CAS (an ability to solve algebraically) or a solver of any kind regression capabilities a table unit conversion other than conversions between degrees and radians (e.g., feet to inches) ability to simplify radicals graphing capability matrices a display of more than one line textediting functionality (edit, copy, cut, and paste) the ability to perform operations with complex numbers the ability to perform prime factorization the ability to find gcd or lcm wireless or Bluetooth capability or Internet accessibility QWERTY keyboard or keypad need for an electrical outlet calculator peripherals 12 P age March 24, 2015
13 Reference Sheets: Reference sheets and ztables will be available as online references (in a popup window). A paper version will be available for paperbased tests. Reference sheets with conversions will be provided for FSA Mathematics assessments in Grades 4 8 and EOC Mathematics assessments. There is no reference sheet for Grade 3. For Grades 4, 6, and 7, Geometry, and Algebra 2, some formulas will be provided on the reference sheet. For Grade 5 and Algebra 1, some formulas may be included with the test item if needed to meet the intent of the standard being assessed. For Grade 8, no formulas will be provided; however, conversions will be available on a reference sheet. For Algebra 2, a ztable will be available. Grade Conversions Some Formulas ztable 3 No No No 4 On Reference Sheet On Reference Sheet No 5 On Reference Sheet With Item No 6 On Reference Sheet On Reference Sheet No 7 On Reference Sheet On Reference Sheet No 8 On Reference Sheet No No Algebra 1 On Reference Sheet With Item No Algebra 2 On Reference Sheet On Reference Sheet Yes Geometry On Reference Sheet On Reference Sheet No 13 P age March 24, 2015
14 MAFS.912.AAPR.1.1 Also assesses MAFS.912.AAPR.3.4 Item Types Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers; namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. Prove polynomial identities and use them to describe numerical relationships. For example, the polynomial identity (x² + y²)² = (x² y²)² + (2xy)² can be used to generate Pythagorean triples. Editing Task Choice May require choosing steps in an informal argument. Equation Editor May require creating a value or an expression. GRID May require dragging and dropping graphics to construct a proof or ordering steps in a proof. Hot Text May require ordering steps in a proof. Matching Item May require matching equivalent expressions. Multiple Choice May require selecting a value, an expression, or a statement from a list. Multiselect May require selecting all equivalent expressions. Clarifications Open Response May require explaining the steps used in generating a polynomial identity. Students will apply their understanding of closure to adding, subtracting, and multiplying polynomials. Students will add, subtract, and multiply polynomials with rational coefficients. Students will use polynomial identities to describe numerical relationships. Assessment Limits Students will use the structure of algebra to complete an algebraic proof of a polynomial identity. Items set in a realworld context should not result in a nonreal answer if the polynomial is solved. In items that require addition and subtraction, polynomials are limited to polynomials with no more than 5 terms. The simplified polynomial should contain no more than 8 terms. 14 P age March 24, 2015 In items that require multiplication of polynomials, factors are limited
15 to: two binomials; a monomial and two binomials; a monomial, a binomial, and a trinomial; two trinomials; and a binomial and a polynomial with four terms. The simplified product should contain no more than 9 terms. Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes Polynomial identities are restricted to trinomials, difference of squares, sum of cubes, and difference of cubes. Items may be set in a mathematical or realworld context. Items may use function notation. Items may require the student to recognize equivalent expressions. Items may require the student to write the answer in standard form. Calculator Items may require the student to rewrite expressions with negative exponents, but items must not require the student to rewrite rational expressions as seen in the standard MAFS.912.AAPR.4.6. No Sample Item Item Type GRID: Drag and Drop 15 P age March 24, 2015
16 MAFS.912.AAPR.4.6 Also assesses MAFS.912.AAPR.2.2 Item Types Rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms; write a(x)/b(x) in the form q(x) + r(x)/b(x), where a(x), b(x), q(x), and r(x) are polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the degree of b(x), using inspection, long division, or, for the more complicated examples, a computer algebra system. Know and apply the Remainder Theorem: For a polynomial p(x) and a number a, the remainder on division by x a is p(a), so p(a) = 0 if and only if (x a) is a factor of p(x). Equation Editor May require creating an expression or a value. Hot Text May require completing long division. Multiple Choice May require identifying an expression or a value. Multiselect May require choosing factors from a list. Clarifications Open Response May require explaining what a value means. Students will rewrite a rational expression as the quotient in the form of a polynomial added to the remainder divided by the divisor. Students will use polynomial long division to divide a polynomial by a polynomial. Students will use the Remainder Theorem to determine if (x a) is a factor of a polynomial. Assessment Limits Students will use the Remainder Theorem to determine the remainder of p(x)/(x a). The polynomial that is the dividend should have a degree no less than 3 and no greater than 6. The polynomial that is the divisor should have a degree of 1, 2, or 3. Stimulus Attributes Response Attribute Calculator In items that require the Remainder Theorem, the value of a in (x a), the divisor, may be a rational number. Items should be set in a mathematical context. Items may use function notation. Items may require the student to provide substeps to complete polynomial long division. No 16 P age March 24, 2015
17 Sample Item Item Type Equation Editor 17 P age March 24, 2015
18 MAFS.912.ACED.1.1 Also assesses MAFS.912.AREI.1.2 Also assesses MAFS.912.ACED.1.4 Item Types Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions and simple rational, absolute, and exponential functions. Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise. Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest using the same reasoning as in solving equations. For example, rearrange Ohm s law, V = IR, to highlight resistance, R. Editing Task Choice May require choosing the correct definition of a variable or an equation. Equation Editor May require creating an equation, an inequality, or a value. GRID May require dragging and dropping expressions or statements to complete a model. Hot Text May require dragging and dropping values and/or expressions to create functions or to solve equations. Multiple Choice May require identifying an equation or a value from a list of four choices. Multiselect May require selecting an equation and identifying a variable. Clarifications Open Response May require creating a written explanation. Students will write an equation in one variable that represents a realworld context. Students will write and solve an equation in one variable that represents a realworld context. Students will solve a rational equation in one variable. Students will solve a radical equation in one variable. Students will justify algebraically why a solution is extraneous. Students will solve multivariable formulas or literal equations for a specific variable. 18 P age March 24, 2015
19 Assessment Limits Items may include equations that contain variables on both sides. Items that involve formulas should not include overused contexts such as Fahrenheit/Celsius or threedimensional geometry formulas. In items that require the student to solve literal equations and formulas, the term of interest may be quadratic, a cubic in a monomial term, a linear term in the denominator of rational equation, a linear term in a square root equation, or a linear term as the base of an exponential equation with a rational number as the value for the exponent. For ACED.1.4, items should not require more than six procedural steps to isolate the variable of interest. Stimulus Attributes Items will not assess inequalities. For ACED.1.1 and ACED.1.4, items should be set in a realworld context. For AREI.1.2, items may be set in a mathematical or realworld context. Items may use function notation. Response Attributes Calculator Items may require the student to choose and interpret units. For ACED.1.1 and ACED.1.4, items may require the student to apply the basic modeling cycle. Items may require the student to recognize equivalent expressions. Neutral 19 P age March 24, 2015
20 Sample Item Item Type GRID: Drag and Drop 20 P age March 24, 2015
21 MAFS.912.ACED.1.2 Also assesses MAFS.912.ACED.1.3 Also assesses MAFS.912.AREI.3.6 Also assesses MAFS.912.AREI.3.7 Item Types Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. Represent constraints by equations or inequalities and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods. Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables. Solve a simple system consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic equation in two variables algebraically and graphically. For example, find the points of intersection between the line y =  3x and the circle x² + y² = 3. Editing Task Choice May require choosing the correct definition of a variable. Equation Editor May require creating a set of equations, a set of inequalities, or giving an ordered pair. GRID May require graphing a representation of a set of equations, a set of inequalities, or an ordered pair, or selecting a solution region. Hot Text May require selecting a solution or constraints. Multiple Choice May require identifying an equation or a value from a list of four possible choices, identifying graphs, or identifying inequalities. Multiselect May require identifying equations or inequalities, or selecting constraints, or variable definitions. Clarifications Open Response May require defining a variable or interpreting a solution. Students will identify the quantities in a realworld situation that should be represented by distinct variables. 21 P age March 24, 2015 Students will write constraints for a realworld context using equations, inequalities, a system of equations, or a system of inequalities. Students will write a system of equations given a realworld situation.
22 Students will graph a system of equations that represents a realworld context using appropriate axis labels and scale. Students will solve systems of linear equations. Students will write a system of equations for a modeling context that is best represented by a system of equations. Students will write a system of inequalities for a modeling context that is best represented by a system of inequalities. Students will interpret the solution of a realworld context as viable or not viable. Students will solve a simple system of a linear equation and a quadratic equation in two variables algebraically. Assessment Limits Students will solve a simple system of a linear equation and a quadratic equation in two variables graphically. Items that require a student to write a system of equations using a realworld context are limited to: a system of 2 x 2 linear equations with rational coefficients; a system of 3 x 3 linear equations with rational coefficients; a system of two equations with a linear equation with rational coefficients and a quadratic that can be written in the form y = ax 2 + bx + c, where a, b, and c are integers; and a system of two equations with a linear equation with rational coefficients and a bivariate quadratic that can be written in the form ax 2 + by 2 = c, where a, b, and c are integers. For AREI.3.7, quadratics may be univariate or bivariate. Stimulus Attributes Items that require a student to graph a system of equations are limited to a 2 x 2 system. For ACED.1.2 and ACED.1.3, items must be placed in a realworld context. For AREI.3.6 and AREI.3.7, items may be placed in a mathematical or realworld context. Items may result in infinitely many solutions or no solution. 22 P age March 24, 2015
23 Response Attributes For ACED.1.2 and ACED.1.3, items may require the student to apply the basic modeling cycle. Responses with square roots should require the student to rewrite the square root so that the radicand has no square factors. Items may require the student to choose and interpret the scale in a graph. Items may require the student to graph a circle whose center is (0, 0). Calculator Items may require the student to choose and interpret units. Neutral Sample Item Item Type Hot Text: Selectable 23 P age March 24, 2015
24 MAFS.912.AREI.1.1 Item Types Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method. Editing Task Choice May require correcting a step in an informal argument. Equation Editor May require creating an expression. GRID May require dragging and dropping steps, equations, and/or justifications to create a viable argument. Hot Text May require rearranging equations or justifications. Multiple Choice May require identifying expressions or statements. Clarifications Assessment Limits Stimulus Attributes Open Response May require creating a written response, justifying a solution method. Students will complete an algebraic proof to explain steps for solving a simple equation. Students will construct a viable argument to justify a solution method. Items should not assess linear equations. Items will not require the student to recall names of properties from memory. Items should be set in a mathematical context. Items may use function notation. Response Attributes Calculator Coefficients may be a rational number or a variable that represents any real number. Items may ask the student to complete steps in a viable argument. Items will not ask the student to provide the solution. No 24 P age March 24, 2015
25 Sample Item Item Type Editing Task Choice 25 P age March 24, 2015
26 MAFS.912.AREI.4.11 Item Types Explain why the xcoordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately (e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations). Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions. Equation Editor May require creating a value or an expression. GRID May require identifying intersections of graphs. Hot Text May require dragging labels to a graph or dragging numbers and symbols to complete a solution. Matching Item May require finding solutions or appropriate approximations. Multiple Choice May require selecting a value or an expression from a list. Multiselect May require selecting multiple values. Open Response May require creating a written response. Clarifications Table Item May require completing missing cells in a table. Students will find a solution or an approximate solution for f(x) = g(x) using a graph. Students will find a solution or an approximate solution for f(x) = g(x) using a table of values. Students will find a solution or an approximate solution for f(x) = g(x) using successive approximations that gives the solution to a given place value. Assessment Limits Stimulus Attributes Students will demonstrate why the intersection of two functions is a solution to f(x) = g(x). In items where a function is represented by an equation, the function may be linear, quadratic, exponential with a rational exponent, polynomial of degree greater than 2, rational, absolute value, and logarithmic. In items where a function is represented by a graph or a table, the function may be any continuous function. Items may be set in a mathematical or realworld context. 26 P age March 24, 2015
27 Items may use function notation. Response Attributes Items will designate the place value accuracy necessary for approximate solutions. Items may require the student to apply the basic modeling cycle. Items may require the student to complete a missing step in an algebraic justification of the solution of f(x) = g(x). Calculator Items may require the student to know the role of the xcoordinate and the ycoordinate in the intersection of f(x) = g(x). Neutral 27 P age March 24, 2015
28 Sample Item Item Type Equation Editor 28 P age March 24, 2015
29 MAFS.912.ASSE.2.3 Also assesses MAFS.912.ASSE.1.1 Also assesses MAFS.912.ASSE.1.2 Item Types Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. a. Factor a quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines. b. Complete the square in a quadratic expression to reveal the maximum or minimum value of the function it defines. c. Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions. For example, the expression 1.15 t can be rewritten as (1.15 1/12 ) 12 (1.012) 12t to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%. Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. a. Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients. b. Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r) n as the product of P and a factor not depending on P. Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x 4 y 4 as (x²)² (y²)², thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x² y²)(x² + y²). Editing Task Choice May require choosing equivalent forms of an expression, an explanation, or an interpretation. Equation Editor May require creating an equivalent expression or numerical response. GRID May require dragging values into an expression to create an equivalent expression. Hot Text May require dragging and dropping terms, factors, coefficients, or expressions to complete an equivalent expression or interpretation. Matching Item May require choosing equivalent expressions. Multiple Choice May require selecting an expression or a value from a set of options. Multiselect May require selecting expressions or values from a set of options. Open Response May require constructing a written response. 29 P age March 24, 2015
30 Clarifications Students will use equivalent forms of a quadratic expression to interpret the expression s terms, factors, zeros, maximum, minimum, coefficients, or parts in terms of the realworld situation the expression represents. Students will use equivalent forms of an exponential expression to interpret the expression s terms, factors, coefficients, or parts in terms of the realworld situation the expression represents. Students will rewrite algebraic expressions in different equivalent forms by recognizing the expression s structure. Assessment Limits Students will rewrite algebraic expressions in different equivalent forms using factoring techniques (e.g., common factors, grouping, the difference of two squares, the sum or difference of two cubes, or a combination of methods to factor completely) or simplifying expressions (i.e., combining like terms, using the distributive property, and using other operations with polynomials). Items may have a greatest common factor that is a monomial with no more than two variables. In items that require the student to write equivalent expressions by factoring, the given expression may be a difference of two squares, a quadratic with rational coefficients, a sum or difference of cubes, or a polynomial with the highest degree of 3. Items may use the compound interest formula but should not require the student to recall the formula. Items that use the number e should not include an approximate value. For ASSE.2.3b, items should only ask the student to interpret the y value of the vertex within a realworld context. ASSE.1.1, items should not ask the student to interpret zeros, the vertex, or axis of symmetry when the quadratic expression is in the form ax 2 + bx + c (see FIF.3.8). Stimulus Attributes Items should require the student to choose how to rewrite the expression. For ASSE.1.1 and ASSE.2.3, items should be set in a realworld context. For ASSE.1.1 and ASSE.2.3, items may require the student to apply the basic modeling cycle. For ASSE.1.2, items may be in a realworld or mathematical context. 30 P age March 24, 2015
31 Response Attribute Calculator Items should contain expressions only. Items may require the student to choose and interpret units. Neutral Sample Item Item Type Hot Text: Selectable 31 P age March 24, 2015
32 MAFS.912.NCN.3.7 Also assesses MAFS.912.AREI.2.4 Item Types Solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions. Solve quadratic equations in one variable. a. Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x p)² = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from this form. b. Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x² = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula, and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a and b. Equation Editor May require creating a value or an expression. GRID May require completing steps in solving a quadratic. Hot Text May require rearranging equations, dragging values to complete a solution or choosing solutions. Multiple Choice May require selecting a value or an expression from a list. Clarifications Assessment Limits Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes Calculator Multiselect May require selecting multiple values. Students will rewrite a quadratic equation in vertex form by completing the square. Students will solve a quadratic equation by choosing an appropriate method (i.e., completing the square, the quadratic formula, or factoring). Items may have complex solutions. In items that allow the student to choose the method for solving a quadratic equation, equations should be in the form of ax 2 + bx + c = d, where a, b, c, and d are rational numbers. Items should be set in a mathematical context. Items may use function notation. Items may require the student to recognize equivalent solutions to the quadratic equation. Responses with square roots should require the student to rewrite the square root so that the radicand has no square factors or negative numbers. Neutral 32 P age March 24, 2015
33 Sample Item Item Type GRID: Drag and Drop 33 P age March 24, 2015
34 MAFS.912.GGPE.1.2 Item Type Derive the equation of a parabola given a focus and directrix. Equation Editor May require constructing an equation for a parabola. GRID May require creating an equation by dragging and dropping values and/or expressions. Hot Text May require completing an equation by dragging values. Clarification Assessment Limit Stimulus Attributes Response Attribute Calculator Multiple Choice May require selecting a choice from a set of possible choices. Students will write the equation of a parabola when given the focus and directrix. The directrix should be parallel to a coordinate axis. Items may be set in a mathematical or realworld context. Items may use function notation. Items may require the student to recognize equivalent forms of an equation. Neutral Sample Item Item Type Equation Editor 34 P age March 24, 2015
35 MAFS.912.FBF.1.2 Also assesses MAFS.912.FBF.1.1 Also assesses MAFS.912.ASSE.2.4 Item Types Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms. Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. a. Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context. b. Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model. c. Compose functions. For example, if T(y) is the temperature in the atmosphere as a function of height and h(t) is the height of a weather balloon as a function of time, then T(h(t)) is the temperature at the location of the weather balloon as a function of time. Derive the formula for the sum of a finite geometric series (when the common ratio is not 1), and use the formula to solve problems. For example, calculate mortgage payments. Editing Task Choice May require choosing the definition of a variable. Equation Editor May require creating a value, an expression, or a function or showing steps for a calculation. GRID May require creating an equation by dragging values and/or expressions. Multiple Choice May require selecting a choice from a set of possible choices. Multiselect May require choosing equivalent expressions and/or interpretations. Open Response May require explaining and interpreting a resulting function. Clarifications Table Item May require completing missing cells in a table. Students will write an arithmetic sequence using a recursive formula to model a realworld context. Students will write an arithmetic sequence using an explicit formula to model a realworld context. 35 P age March 24, 2015
36 Students will write a geometric sequence using a recursive formula to model a realworld context. Students will write a geometric sequence using an explicit formula to model a realworld context. Students will rewrite recursive formulas using an explicit formula and vice versa. Students will write an explicit function, define a recursive process, or complete a table of calculations that can be used to mathematically define a realworld context. Students will write a function that combines functions using arithmetic operations and relate the result to the context of the problem. Students will write a function to model a realworld context by composing functions and the information within the context. Students will use the formula for a sum of a finite geometric series to solve realworld problems. Assessment Limits Students will derive the formula for a sum of a finite geometric series where r is not equal to 1. Items will not expect the student to find the sum of an infinite geometric series. In items where the student constructs an arithmetic sequence, consecutive values of n should not be given. In items where the student constructs an exponential function, a geometric sequence, or a recursive definition from inputoutput pairs, consecutive inputs should not be given. In items that require the student to construct arithmetic or geometric sequences, the realworld context should be discrete. In items that require the student to construct a linear or exponential function, the realworld context should be continuous. Stimulus Attributes Items may require the student to construct an exponential function, a geometric sequence or a recursive definition from a graph or a description of a model. Items should be set in a realworld context. Items may require the student to apply the basic modeling cycle. 36 P age March 24, 2015
37 Items may use function notation. In items where the student has to find the sum of a finite geometric series, the student will be expected to know the formula. Response Attributes A series may be written in summation notation. In items where the student has to write a recursive formula, the student should be expected to give the initial condition and the recursion formula. Items may require the student to complete algebraic steps in a deviation of the formula for the sum of a geometric series. Items may require the student to rearrange steps in an algebraic deviation of the formula for the sum of a geometric series. Items that ask the student to derive the formula for the sum of a geometric series may use equivalent forms of the formula. Calculator Items may require the student to choose and interpret units. Neutral 37 P age March 24, 2015
38 Sample Item Item Type Equation Editor 38 P age March 24, 2015
39 MAFS.912.FBF.2.3 Item Types Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, kf(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them. Equation Editor May require creating a value or an expression. GRID May require plotting points or a transformed function. Hot Text May require choosing an equation and an effect on the graph. Matching Item May require matching an equation, transformation values, and/or an explanation of the effect on a graph. Multiple Choice May require selecting a graph or a table from a list. Open Response May require explaining the effects of a transformation. Clarifications Table Item May require completing a table of values. Students will determine the value of k when given a graph of the function and its transformation. Students will identify differences and similarities between a function and its transformation. Students will identify a graph of a function given a graph or a table of a transformation and the type of transformation that is represented. Students will graph by applying a given transformation to a function. Students will identify ordered pairs of a transformed graph. Students will complete a table for a transformed function. Assessment Limits Students will recognize even and odd functions from their graphs and equations. Functions represented algebraically are limited to linear, quadratic, exponential, or square root. Functions represented using tables or graphs are not limited to linear, quadratic, exponential or square root. Functions may have closed domains. 39 P age March 24, 2015
40 Functions may be discontinuous. Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes Items should have at least two transformations. Items should be set in a mathematical context. Items may use function notation. Items may require the student to explain or justify a transformation that has been applied to a function. Items may require the student to explain how a graph is affected by a value of k. Items may require the student to find the value of k. Calculator Items may require the student to complete a table of values. Neutral Sample Item Item Type Table Item 40 P age March 24, 2015
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