Lord Of The Flies. English Literature Unit 1 exam Section A 40% GCSE

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1 Lord Of The Flies English Literature Unit 1 exam Section A 40% GCSE

2 Candidates will be expected to consider: Section A offers a choice of ten texts which includes literary non-fiction and drama texts. This allows teachers to select the genre that is most suitable for their candidates. ideas, themes and issues characterisation settings. These must be underpinned by understanding the writers language and techniques. Section A offers a choice of ten texts which includes literary non-fiction and drama texts.

3 Click the sides to this study guide: Questions to think about for each chapter P2 A Study guide on themes and readings P32

4 Crash Exercise Read Chapter 1

5 Chapter 1 E 1. Write a 50 word summary of the happenings in C1 2. Just who are these guys? D Create a list of characteristics for Piggy and Ralph C B 3. Assign the following words to the characters: Realist, fun-loving, democratic, intelligent 4. What words of exclaim (excitement, joy) locate this as a 50 novel? 5. What moments of the story suggest the excitement of power?

6 Chapter 1 A Ext: The opening few pages of the book and some other places paint the picture of this as a garden of Eden. Where are the similarities and what is being implied?

7 4. LOTF is an allegory which means things in the story represent an idea in civilisation. Start to theorise; What could the conch represent? - evidence Why is this opening similar to the Garden of Eden? - evidence What does the fruit that gives them diarrhoea represent (think about garden of Eden)? - evidence

8 Chapter 2 D C B 1. Piggy has a sense of priorities, what are they? 2. Ralph s natural inclination is towards order and democratic assembly can you find evidence for this? 3. Ralph and Piggy represent something from our society, what do you think this is and why? 4. The conch plays into the things that Ralph and Piggy represent, what do you think the conch has come to represent from modern society?

9 Chapter 2 A Golding thought that a moral story had to be sugar coated, and put into an entertaining parable. From what you have seen in the story so far, what do you think Golding s main concern was within society?

10 Dictatorship One person rules the masses and they are often unrestricted by laws or political factors Who represents a democratic society? Small groups are elected to represent the wishes of the masses and to see that ideas, arrived at collectively, are implemented. Democracy Who represents a Dictatorship?

11 What is the thing in the middle of all of this? Piggy represents something too; He found the conch, he knew how to use it, he knew the importance of getting people s names; of order, of everyone s right to speak, equality, he frequently reminds people of what grown-ups would think of their behaviour. His ideas are naturally part of democracy, but what is he in society?

12 What has the bigger influence on the success of the following people What you were born with has the bigger influence on your behaviour / skills What you were taught has the bigger influence on your behaviour / skills

13 Read Chapter 3 1. To which type of order (civilisation / savagery) is the group leaning to at this point? 2. What things indicate that they want democracy and civilisation? 3. Do you think that the children (people in general) are naturally drawn towards order or is it a challenge for them? Explain 4. Why is Simon different to the children (society)?

14 Character profiling Jack Ralph Piggy What is each character most concerned with? How much respect does each character have? Who is most concerned with the following: power, primal instincts, order, laws,

15

16 Read Chapter 4 1. What event shows piggy to be rational and clever? (p60) 2. To which way does the group seem to be leaning now; civilisation / savagery? 3. Jack sees himself with his mask and his personality seems changed what importance does the reflection hold for him? 4. The ritual dance, missing the boat and the eating of the meat signify their final change to savages, explain what each moment represents.

17 Read Chapter 4 Extension; What do we do in civilised society which is the same ritualistic behaviour? Changing of the guard Opening of Parliament Burning of Guy Faulks New Years celebrations

18 Chapter 5 LO: To witness the groups descent from civilisation D C B A 1. The boys are becoming increasingly scared of: 2. Who doesn t believe in the Beast? 3. Why does it suit Jack to suggest the Beast can be found and killed? 4. How does a belief in the Beast compare with their level of civility (civilisation)? 5. The Beast represents something about humanity, what do you think it could be? 6. What is Ralphs difficult decision and how is he maintaining power?

19 Rate their level of order in each chapter from civilised to savage Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4

20 LO: Be able to discuss Chapter 6 the similarities between society and the island. The dog fight suggests the struggle between good and evil on the island, but also reminds us of the crises in the real world context. Using the following terms, explain what Golding is trying to tell us:

21 LO: Be able to discuss Chapter 6 the similarities between society and the island. Using the following terms, explain what Golding is trying to tell us:

22 Chapter 8 Gift for the darkness LO: Developing a deeper analysis of the story. Plot The Beast Language - Structure

23 Re-order the events of chapter 8 1. Jack calls for a meeting about their sighting of the beast. 2. Jack says that Ralph should not be chief and demands that the group should vote against Ralph s leadership. 3. Jack leaves the group, crying. He says that he will start his own group. No one follows him. 4. Simon raises a point at the meeting: that they should go to the top of the mountain. 5. Piggy and Ralph are concerned with making a fire on the beach so that they may stay away from the beast on the mountain. 6. Ralph realises that many of the biguns have disappeared to join Jack. 7. Simon disappears on his own. 8. Jack and his group discuss hunting and agree to leave the beast alone: When we kill we ll leave some of the kill for it. Then it won t bother us, maybe. 9. They hunt and kill a pig. Jack puts the pig s head on a stick as a gift to the beast. 10. Simon is in front of the pig s head. The flies swarm around the Lord of the Flies and then begin to swarm around Simon. 11. Piggy and Ralph talk about the state of the island and how Jack is the root of the problems. 12. Jack and his hunters raid Ralph s camp for the fire. 13. The Lord of the Flies is talking to Simon. It tells Simon how the beast is part of everyone; how it is the reason why things are the way they are on the island. Simon loses consciousness.

24 Plot The Beast Language - Structure Why do the boys kill the pig and put its head on a stick? Simon is confused but he still understands that he is talking to a pig s head on a stick. Note down three quotations which show this. Simon appears to be having a fit. Note down two or more quotations which show this. Write a PEEE paragraph based on one of them, commenting on how the reader might react.

25 Plot The Beast Language - Structure The pig s head says that it is the beast that the boys are so afraid of. It then boasts that it cannot be killed. Note down a quotation to show this. The hunters manage to kill pigs, so why can they not kill the beast? Simon sees the pig as the Lord of the Flies. If the pig is the beast, it is easy to understand why he should be a Lord. But who are the flies? In chapter 5 the boys discussed the possibility of a beast on the island; Simon said: What I mean is maybe it s only us. How does this link to this section of Chapter 8?

26 Plot The Beast Language - Structure Look at the sentences beginning with Simon or Simon s. Choose one of these sentences and write a PEEE paragraph suggesting what it tells the reader about the state Simon is in. Draw a table of two columns in your book, as below: Schoolboy slang Schoolmaster In the first column, list examples of words used by the pig similar to the schoolboy slang used by the boys. In the second column, list examples of the pig talking like a strict schoolmaster. What is the significance of the two types of language used by the pig s head?

27 Plot The Beast Language - Structure The pig s head often repeats words and phrases as it speaks to Simon. List some examples. Write a PEE paragraph suggesting the effect of this repetition. Golding uses several very short sentences in this section. Choose one example and write a PEEE paragraph explaining its effect.

28 Chapter 9 1. What does Jack s throne indicate? 2. Why is Jack having drink brought to him interesting (remember that Ralph wanted to fresh water stored att he camp in shells, but the boys never did it)? 3. What indications are there that Jack has to rule by fear? 4. How does Jack deliberately manipulate the children by asking them who wants to have fun? 5. How does the weather affect the boys? 6. What evidence is there that fear is something that comes from within? 7. What would have to happen for the boys to be saved from fear could Simon have saved himself or did he have to die for them to realise something?

29 Final chapters LO: To know the conclusion to the story What is the sea in our story? It seems important because in the beginning, the passenger tube is dragged out to sea (p3), Simon s dead body is moved out to sea (170), and the fighter pilot is caught by the wind and taken to the sea, Piggy is breathed into the sea and taken away (201). Even the rocks crash into the sea and vanish.

30 Important moments in C11 What is the: Significance of the conch ceased to exist Significance of Piggys death Significance of anonymous devil s faces Significance of Roger Weilding a nameless authority

31 Study notes Lord Of The Flies

32 Lord Of The Flies English Literature Unit 1 exam Section A 40% GCSE

33 Candidates will be expected to consider: ideas, themes and issues characterisation settings. These must be underpinned by understanding the writers language and techniques. Section A offers a choice of ten texts which includes literary non-fiction and drama texts.

34 Section B offers a choice of four texts which explore different cultures. Candidates should explore aspects of the text that are specific to that culture as well as universal ideas. We will be doing Of Mice and Men as we already know it from other coursework.

35 Study notes Content: 1. Background to the story 2. Assessment focus 1. Examiners response 2. AO1 3. AO2 3. Themes: a) Political / good and evil reading b) Biblical reading c) Psychological reading 4. Focussing on Language (AO2) 5. Other revision material

36 1. Background and context William Golding was a teacher of English at Bishop Wordsworth s School in Salisbury until the onset of the Second World War when he joined the Royal Navy. He left the Royal Navy at the end of the war, profoundly moved by his experiences. He was shocked by the horror of war and this led him to question the very nature of humanity. Also, his understanding of the dynamics of the school playground led him to believe that children can be incredibly cruel by nature and that human beings are capable of extremely sadistic behaviour. All of this is reflected in the behaviour of the boys in the novel.

37 1. Background and context The setting for Lord of the Flies is a microcosm of the mounting tensions of post-war Europe, and there is considerable irony in the fact that the boys are rescued from the anarchy and degenerating violence of the island by a naval officer who will then transport them back to a world engaged in a nuclear war of its own. The aftermath of Hiroshima, the possibility of an atomic war and the legacy of the Holocaust all had their impact on Golding and the issues raised are expressed in the themes of this book.

38 1. Background and context Golding also describes the island as a perfect tropical paradise, complete with serpent, as a symbolic setting for the battle between good and evil. The religious allegory is then carried further by the presentation of a mystic or prophet in the character of Simon, who learns the truth about the nature of the beast on top of a mountain, only moments before he is brutally murdered by the tribe. Golding clearly intended his novel to be interpreted on a range of different levels, which will reward the brightest and most able students with further investigative and analytical study.

39 1. Questions to consider 1. How does the plot of LOTF reflect the way Golding felt about people and war? 2. What moments in the story reflect the real contextual world it was written in? 3. What moments in the story reflect Golding s fears for what might happen to humanity?

40 2. Studying under the objectives We want to start focusing our answers on what the examiners are looking for. So, what do they want to see us do? AO1 Respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select and evaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and support interpretations. Examiners response AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers presentation of ideas, themes and settings.

41 2a. Examiners response to previous answers on LOTF Many students covered the deaths of Piggy and Simon, usually selecting and explaining details and Golding s methods whilst sustaining a response. Better responses were very perceptive, with students being sensitive to imagery, tracking the progression of deaths from the first arrival on the island, and the degeneration of the boys morality and humanity into savagery. Also, Golding s use of imagery and the presentation of the themes of sacrifice and death of civilisation through the characters of Simon and Piggy were explored, as was the different language used to present each death. Distinctions between levels of response occurred when students took a more abstract line of approach, considering the death of virtue, honour, purity and justice. In such responses students incorporated such deaths as part of Golding s overall scheme.

42 2a. Examiners response to previous answers on LOTF However, there were other routes towards evolving a complex and thoughtful response. One technique employed was that of playing with perspectives. For example, on Simon s death the author was seen to focus on the cosmic harmony of his death, and of Nature taking back one of her own. Suddenly, in this switch the murderous boys took on the appearance of the black flies which swarmed around the pig s head. Simon was obviously going to a far better place, a place that matched his own spirituality. This suggestion was reinforced with the parallel death of Piggy, whose brains were merely the stuff that came out of his head, indicating the total undervaluing of his scientific skills; along with Simon s spirituality, such higher virtues were unrecognised by the boys, representing mankind as a whole.

43 2a. Examiners response to previous answers on LOTF One approach was simply to write about the places and what happened at each, referring to descriptive details and Golding s methods; often, such responses did not address the idea of importance. Better responses demonstrated detailed knowledge of the places chosen and connected them successfully to key characters and ideas. Particularly successful were the responses to the jungle and its dual nature: a sanctuary for Simon, yet a place of fear for others. These responses often developed convincing arguments that it was not the places themselves which are good or bad but the ways in which the different characters respond to and perceive them.

44 2a. Exercises based on examiners responses 1. Find each death and compare the way the children respond to it and Golding s language around it. Think about how some characters seem to care and some don t. How does the death reflect the person? List some words surrounding the death with create the tone of the death (look to the tone flower) 2. Find reference to the fire, how it is big at the start and barely a whisp when Ralf confronts Jack at the end. What does the language used to describe it suggest about the children s desire to be saved and their descent into savagery?

45 2. Studying under the objectives We want to start focusing our answers on what the examiners are looking for. So, what do they want to see us do? AO1 Respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select and evaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and support interpretations. Examiners response AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers presentation of ideas, themes and settings.

46 2b. AO1 Respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select and evaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and support interpretations. This is concerned with the way you make interesting points, remarks, or notice things about the story (such as how the sea seems to reclaim all the bodies.) And the way you make reference to events in the story, or use quotes to back up your points. To do well here, you should discuss a point (for instance, the way the sea reclaims everything) and then refer to many examples from across the text (the pilot lifted by the wind and taken out to sea, Piggy s body being made to vanish and Simon being moved out to sea)

47 2. Studying under the objectives We want to start focusing our answers on what the examiners are looking for. So, what do they want to see us do? AO1 Respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select and evaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and support interpretations. Examiners response AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers presentation of ideas, themes and settings.

48 2c. AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers presentation of ideas, themes and settings. To do well here, you should focus in on exploring very specific features of the way the story is written.

49 2c. AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers presentation of ideas, themes and settings. Thinking about the arrival of the officer, notice that a great deal of attention is made to his dress; white-topped cap, green shades, crown and anchor, golds, gilt buttons and a revolver The language here reminds us of the neatness of order, and that civilisation is meant to be neat and ordered. It s a stark contrast to the way the boys look though not so long ago, Ralph wanted to wash, comb his hair and put his socks back on so that he looked neat and ordered when making his final argument to the tribe.

50 2c. AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers presentation of ideas, themes and settings. But then we think more about the revolver and have to think, is neat and tidy a representation of civilisation or of savagery? Afterall, he is a naval officer, someone involved in the war and is dressed in a uniform for war. Though he appears neat and tidy, he has more in common with Jack who is painted and holding a spear as both are dressed for battle. We are reminded that society is ruled by savage actions dressed in a civil manner, and though they might appear neat and civilised, there is no getting away from the fact that wars are the reasoning of savages.

51 2c. AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers presentation of ideas, themes and settings. Find the officer in the text, and explain in what ways: 1. Jack is similar to him and they stand for the same thing. 2. Ralph is similar to him and they stand for the same thing. Try to use reference to the description of the officer and to events in the story.

52 2c. AO2 questions on the effects of language 1. At the beginning, compare the way Ralph and Piggy are described. How did their appearance and personalities affect the way people responded to them? 2. P how do the boys react to the prospect of offering the head of the kill to the Beast? Be sure to give specific examples from the text.

53 2c. AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers presentation of ideas, themes and settings. Structure means the way events gradually happen fast, all at once, slowly throughout the novel, a climactic ending etc The form is a novel other forms include magazines, diary, DVD case

54 2c. AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers presentation of ideas, themes and settings. One interesting structure of the story is how the deaths gradually become more brutal. At first, the little un is lost. No one was really to blame for his death. Then Simon s death is arguably an accident because the boys were excited but they were beginning to loose their reasoning. Finally, Piggy s death is clearly murder. This is structurally interesting (the order in which they occur) because as they begin to loose their desire for civilisation, the deaths become more savage.

55 2c. AO2 Explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers presentation of ideas, themes and settings. The third part of this study guide is concerned with Golding s ideas and themes.

56 3. Themes In general, the following are themes:

57 3. Readings A reading is a way of saying an interpretation, of what the text could mean. It is to group meanings or themes together which support one another. Sometimes a book has a few readings whereby we can look for different meanings and themes within each version of interpretation. Political reading Psychological reading Biblical reading

58 3a. Themes of a political reading The boys quickly take sides in a battle for control of the island, similarly to WWII. The conch symbolises law and order (the law and order of the children s democracy it should be noted), but is smashed in a struggle for authority as the plot takes a sinister turn. The boys divide into two camps led by Jack and Ralph. At Castle Rock, we notice the odd efficiency of this dictatorship, led through fear, as Jack has a throne and for the first time, fresh water at camp. Ralph struggles to hang on to his sense of morality, and democracy and realises he can t call a meeting anymore. He is ultimately caught up in a war. This novel gets to the very heart of what it means to be human, without the constraints of laws and a justice system that enforces them (Piggy always refers to what the parents or adults would say).

59 3a. Themes of a political reading Civilisation and savagery This conflict might be expressed in a number of ways: civilization vs. savagery, democracy vs. dictatorship, order vs. chaos, reason vs. impulse, law vs. anarchy, or the broader heading of good vs. evil. 1. You need to think about where Ralph and Jack fit into this model and evidence this with reference to events in the story. 2. What happens when there is no justice to enforce morals? 3. If morals need justice to enforce them, what is suggest about the nature of morailty?

60 The Beast Represents fear, and the way it controls our behaviours. It suggests that fear is something that is inside of us, we aren t taught to be scared, and we find things to be scared of. Golding is trying to tell us that all of the problems in human society are caused by defects in human nature (greed, anger, prejudice). The isn t physical at the start they make it physical by giving it a rotting head to look at. If we were to represent those inner things that make us bad to each other, this is a good image to choose.

61 The Conch A beautiful object, part of the natural world which is unspoilt by people. It becomes a symbol of authority, common sense and democracy. It loses its colour as the boys gradually lose their innocence.

62 Death There are three human deaths, excluding the pilot. They represent a time of fear and are a symbol of evil and degradation. The first death is an accident (the littleun) The second is Simon (crazed excitement) The third is Piggy (savage murder) It suggest that the more we kill, the more savage we are, the more we are ignoring those rules which are there to keep us humane. This can be applied to the war outside of the island, the bomb and the dog fight.

63 The Parents This is an example of the justice system that presides over all moral choices. We don t always want to make moral choices, but have to because of the consequences. How many times might you want to hurt someone but know you can t because of what would happen to you? Do you always think first of all what is right?? Without the parents, there is no justice on the island which means civilisation has no leverage.

64 3a. Symbols of LOTF Symbolism mean key things that represent something. There is a lot of them. Can you complete the list? Ralph, Piggy, Jack, Simon, and Roger = Lord of the Flies is an allegorical novel, and many of its characters signify important ideas or themes. Ralph represents order, leadership, and civilization. Piggy represents the scientific and intellectual aspects of civilization. Jack represents unbridled savagery and the desire for power. Simon represents natural human goodness. Roger represents brutality and bloodlust at their most extreme. To the extent that the boys society resembles a political state, the littluns might be seen as the common people, while the older boys represent the ruling classes and political leaders. The Conch Shell = Piggy s glasses = The signal fire = The Beast = The parents =

65 3. Readings A reading is a way of saying an interpretation, of what the text could mean. It is to group meanings or themes together which support one another. Sometimes a book has a few readings whereby we can look for different meanings and themes within each version of interpretation. Political reading Psychological reading Biblical reading

66 3b. Themes of LOTF Biblical parallel Many events of the LOTF seem to parallel things that happen in the Bible. Whilst it isn t a retelling of the Bible, it seems to underpin much of LOTF message; that we have to have something to be scared of, or a reason to be moral; that there are some very few people who are naturally moral (like Jesus was), naturally evil, and many who need guiding to be moral.

67 Fruit Trees Genesis 1:11 - Then God said, "Let the land produce vegetation: seedbearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds." And it was so. In the first chapter of the book, Ralph tells all the children that this is a good island, and that there are animals to hunt, and fruit trees. However, in the bible we see a tree that God states is not good to eat from, and they will be punished if they do so. In the book, the children eat the fruit, and are stricken with diarrhoea, this mimics the punishment for eating the fruit. In biblical terms, the eating of the fruit is described as original sin as there was none before that. This is also mirrored in the book, as before this point the children are innocent, (They are tabula rasa, we are told nothing about their lives before the plane crash.) This is the first scene where they begin to lose their innocence.

68 Burning Bush Exodus 3:2 - And the LORD appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush. He looked, and behold, the bush was burning, yet it was not consumed. The burning bush in the bible is a message to Moses, to rescue his people from Pharaoh. When the bush is found by Moses, he is on Mt. Horeb. In the book, the fire on the mountain is a message to anyone nearby to come and rescue them. Mt. Sinaii in the bible was ascended by Moses, and at the top he communed with god and was given the ten commandments. When Ralph returns from the mountaintop, he has his one commandment, to not let the fire go out.

69 Beastie Genesis 3:1 - Now the serpent was more crafty than any of the wild animals the LORD God had made. He said to the woman, "Did God really say, 'You must not eat from any tree in the garden'? The snake in genesis is an representation (avatar) of the devil. A way he can appear to Eve and tempt her, because he wishes to bring sin into the world. When everyone gives in to sin, the devil will rise This is an important point. In the book, the beast is described as being snake-like, tying it to the biblical depiction of the devil. This is also important, that the beast is tied to the bible.

70 The Lord Of The Flies The lord of the flies is quite obviously a depiction of the devil. Simon to a lesser extent is a Christ-like figure, The Lord says that the beast is within all the children. The beast we can therefore guess, is sin. We have seen Jack align himself as a barbarian, giving in to sin, and linking himself to the Lord. In this scene, we see Simon murdered by the other children, who have all given in to sin (become barbaric). This is the scene where all the children become like Jack, and give in to sin. They set the island on fire, and hunt down Ralph. This again links them to the devil, as when the devil rises (in the bible) it is told the world will burn. It is interesting to note at this point, that the term Beelzebub often given as a secondary name for Satan, translates directly to Lord Of The Flies.

71 3b. Themes of a biblical reading Symbolism means key things that represent something. There is a lot of them. Can you complete the list? Ralph, Jack, Simon= Moses, the Devil, Jesus The Mountain= The fire = The fruit = The beauty of the island =

72 3. Readings A reading is a way of saying an interpretation, of what the text could mean. It is to group meanings or themes together which support one another. Sometimes a book has a few readings whereby we can look for different meanings and themes within each version of interpretation. Political reading Psychological reading Biblical reading

73 3c. Psychological reading Id Ego Born with Freud s idea of what guided our behaviours Develop through childhood Super ego

74 3c. Psychological reading Id Ego The id the only bit that we are born with, it is our natural urges, which are usually for food and power. Freud s idea of what guided our behaviours Super ego The super-ego is like a book of rules that we have to abide by. It is the opposite of the id and we learn the rules from society. The ego tries to balance the id s wants, and the rules of society as said by the super-ego.

75 3c. Which characters represent the following and why? Id Jack is clearly the id, because of his natural urge for food and power. Freud s idea of what guided our behaviours Super ego Ego Ralph recognises the need for meat, but sees that it must come second to rescue. He also seems torn between engaging in Jakes games and civility. Piggy is like the book of law, he is always telling people what to do and reminds them of the expectations the adults have.

76 3c. Which characters represent the following and why? Id 1. What examples are there linking Jack to natural animalistic urges? Freud s idea of what guided our behaviours Super ego Ego 3. Find examples of Ralph trying to allow the Id to have a little of its own way, whilst sticking to the rules of the Super Ego. 2. Find examples of Piggy as presenting rule, law, imperatives to the children.

77 4. Further study on language (AO2)

78 4. Language of power P28 The finding of the first small pig P148 The killing of the pig The boys are described as racing, fierce, wedded in lust, laughing. The whole scene feels terrible, like mob violence as the boys chase the pig down and lean a spear inch by inch into the animal which it emits a terrifying squeal. Compared to when they first found a pig, they are hesitant and Golding says they knew of the enormity of the downward blow. Jack rubs the stuff meaning blood all over maurice. They seem to have little regard for the animal and have no respect for nature. They clearly act like animals. Interestingly, it s not the only time we see the word stuff used to show blood and death. When Piggy dies, we read of stuff coming from a wound in his head. The link seems to be that the boys neither respect the animal, or the intelligence of Piggy which is represented by his brains now exposed after his death.

79 4. Other examples of language of power P25 not for five minutes could they drag themselves from the triumph P26 this belongs to us P66 the creation of the savage mask P19 the choir proclaimed as hunters P220 - the fire which destroys the island Any many many more

80 4. Focus on Language On page 204, we see just how important Piggy and Simon were to the island, even though they were never really credited for it. Golding writes, The deaths of Piggy and Simon lay over the island like a vapour. The word vapour suggests that their presence is everywhere, stifling and choking. The loss of the two boys has struck Ralf hard

81 5. Other revision material Sparknotes is an excellent place to revise from and has extension notes on LOTF. You should read through their pages to supplement your revision.

82 5. Other revision material Past questions: What do you think is the importance of Jack in Lord of the Flies and how does Golding present him? Lord of the Flies is a terrifying novel. How far do you agree with this statement? What methods does Golding use to lead you to your view?

83 5. Other revision material In your groups, split into two teams. Each team is to take a question and, on A3, create a mind map of moments in the story that are relevant, create a list of important points to make in answering the question, and find some quotes which can be used to back up the points. Present your mind map to the other team and explain all of your ideas and notes to them. What do you think is the importance of Jack in Lord of the Flies and how does Golding present him? Lord of the Flies is a terrifying novel. How far do you agree with this statement? What methods does Golding use to lead you to your view?

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