Metals and their Uses

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1 Metals and their Uses C Revision (higher) 74 minutes 74 marks Page of 3

2 Q. The picture shows a diamond ring. Photograph supplied by Comstock/Thinkstock (a) Diamond is a form of carbon. A carbon atom has six electrons. Draw the electronic structure of a carbon atom. () (b) A gold atom has an atomic number of 79 and a mass number of 97. Complete the table to show the name and number of each sub-atomic particle in this gold atom. Name Number Proton 79 Electron (3) (c) The bar chart shows the composition of this gold ring. Page 2 of 3

3 (i) Give the percentage of the other two metals in this gold ring. Silver is... % and copper is... % () (ii) This gold ring is not made from 00% gold. Give two reasons why (Total 7 marks) Q2. The diagram shows the arrangement of atoms in an alloy. Page 3 of 3

4 (a) What is meant by an alloy? (b) Name the alloy represented in the diagram.... () (c) Give one advantage of using this alloy instead of pure iron () (d) Which elements are used to make brass?... () (Total 5 marks) Q3. The hip joint between the femur and pelvis sometimes has to be replaced. Early hip replacement joints were made from stainless steel. Stainless steel is an alloy of iron, chromium and nickel. The diagram below represents the particles in stainless steel. Page 4 of 3

5 (a) Use the particle diagram to complete the percentages of metals in this stainless steel. The first one has been done for you. Element Percentage (%) Iron, Fe 72 Chromium, Cr Nickel, Ni (b) Pure iron is a relatively soft, metallic element. (i) Why is iron described as an element? () (ii) Suggest why pure iron would not be suitable for a hip replacement joint () (iii) Use the particle diagram to help you to explain why stainless steel is harder than pure iron (Total 6 marks) Page 5 of 3

6 Q4. The diagram shows a ballpoint pen. (a) Give one advantage and one disadvantage of recycling the materials from this type of ballpoint pen (b) Alloys are used to make the ballpoint pen. Give two reasons why alloys are used in the ballpoint pen Page 6 of 3

7 (c) Decane (C 0 H 22 ) can be used to produce poly(ethene). (i) Describe the conditions needed for Reaction. (ii) Describe, in terms of molecules, how poly(ethene) is produced in Reaction 2. (d) Complete the displayed structure of the product in the equation. styrene poly(styrene) (Total 0 marks) Page 7 of 3

8 Q5. The chart below shows the metals which are present in a coin. (a) Identify the alloy used to make this coin.... () Page 8 of 3

9 (b) The mass of the coin is 2.5 g. Calculate the mass of copper in this coin (c) Suggest what properties would make an alloy suitable for making a coin (3) (Total 6 marks) Page 9 of 3

10 Q6. Iron is produced from the ore haematite (iron oxide). Titanium is produced from the ore rutile (titanium oxide). Iron Titanium (a) The production of low-carbon steel uses oxygen but the production of titanium uses argon. Explain why (3) Page 0 of 3

11 (b) There is less titanium than iron in the Earth s crust. Apart from titanium s scarcity, explain why titanium costs much more than iron. Use the two flow diagrams above to help you to answer this question (3) (c) Many chemical reactions take place in the production of both metals. A chemical reaction in the production of iron is: 2 Fe 2 O C 4 Fe + 3 CO 2 A chemical reaction in the production of titanium is: TiCl Mg Ti + 2 MgCl 2 Titanium can be used to produce iron from iron oxide. The chemical reaction is: 2 Fe 2 O Ti 4 Fe + 3 TiO 2 Use these three reactions and the Chemistry Data Sheet to answer this question. Suggest the position of titanium in the Reactivity Series of Metals. Explain your answer (Total 8 marks) Page of 3

12 Q7. The flow diagram shows the main stages used to extract a metal from its ore. mining the ore purifying the ore extracting the metal The table shows some information about three metals. Metal Metal ore Purified ore % of metal in the ore % of metal in the Earth s crust aluminium bauxite aluminium oxide, Al 2 O copper chalcocite copper sulfide, Cu 2 S iron haematite iron oxide, Fe 2 O (a) Use the information in the table and your knowledge and understanding to help you to answer the questions. (i) Suggest why purifying the copper ore produces large quantities of waste. () (ii) Suggest why the annual world production of iron is forty times greater than that of aluminium. () Page 2 of 3

13 (b) Aluminium is used for drinks cans. Aluminium is extracted from its purified ore by electrolysis. (i) Suggest why the aluminium produced in the electrolysis cell is a liquid. () (ii) In this electrolysis, aluminium and oxygen gas are produced from the aluminium oxide. Use the information in the diagram to suggest why most of the waste gas is carbon dioxide and not oxygen. (iii) Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth s crust. Suggest two reasons why we should recycle aluminium drinks cans (Total 7 marks) Page 3 of 3

14 Q8. Rutile is an ore of titanium. Rutile contains titanium dioxide. The flow chart shows how titanium metal is extracted from titanium dioxide. (a) Titanium is much more expensive than iron. Give one reason why () (b) Name the only waste product shown on the flow chart.... () (c) Describe the example of recycling shown on the flow chart Page 4 of 3

15 (d) The air is removed from Reactor 2. An atmosphere of argon is used for the reaction between titanium chloride and magnesium metal. Explain why (e) Titanium metal is produced by reacting titanium chloride with magnesium. 950 kg of titanium chloride was mixed with 240 kg of magnesium metal. The mixture was heated and produced 950 kg of magnesium chloride. Calculate the mass of titanium metal produced.... Mass =... kg () Page 5 of 3

16 (f) The graph shows the mass of titanium metal produced from a pure rutile ore and from an impure rutile ore. The difference between the two lines represents the amount of waste rock in the impure ore. 300 kg of titanium metal was produced from the impure ore. Calculate the mass of waste rock in the impure ore.... Mass =... kg () (Total 8 marks) Page 6 of 3

17 Q9. Steels are used to make cars, bridges and knives. The main element in steel is iron. (a) Iron is extracted from an ore that contains about 60% iron oxide, Fe 2 O 3 (i) What is the meaning of ore? () (ii) In a blast furnace, iron oxide reacts with carbon monoxide to produce iron. The word equation for this reaction is: iron oxide + carbon monoxide iron + carbon dioxide Complete and balance the chemical equation for this reaction. Fe 2 O CO (iii) Name the type of reaction that produces a metal from its metal oxide. () (b) Steels are produced from molten iron in two stages: Stage blowing oxygen into molten iron from the blast furnace. Stage 2 adding other metals to make different steels. (i) In Stage, suggest how the oxygen removes most of the carbon from the molten iron. Page 7 of 3

18 (ii) Stage 2 produces different steels. Suggest why different steels are needed. () (c) Old 5p and 0p coins in the UK were made from cupro-nickel. Cupro-nickel is 75% copper and 25% nickel. New 5p and 0p coins in the UK are now made from nickel-plated steel and not from cupro-nickel. Explain why. (Total 9 marks) Q0. An ore contains zinc carbonate (ZnCO 3 ). (a) Complete the table to show the number of atoms of each element in the formula of zinc carbonate. Zinc has been done for you. Element Number of atoms in the formula ZnCO 3 Zinc, Zn Carbon, C Oxygen, O Page 8 of 3

19 (b) Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the sentence and the word equation. (i) Zinc carbonate decomposes in a similar way to calcium carbonate water is added. when cooled. heated. () carbon dioxide (ii) zinc carbonate zinc oxide + hydrogen oxygen () Page 9 of 3

20 (c) Another ore contains a mixture of zinc carbonate and lead carbonate. The metals zinc and lead are produced from this ore in two stages: Stage decomposing the carbonates to produce a mixture of zinc oxide and lead oxide. Stage 2 mixing the oxides with carbon and heating in a furnace. Some of the reactions in the furnace are: zinc oxide + carbon zinc + carbon dioxide lead oxide + carbon lead + carbon dioxide carbon + oxygen carbon dioxide Use the information given to help you to answer these questions. (i) Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the sentence. The reaction between carbon and oxygen that heats the combustion. furnace is called decomposition. evaporation. () Page 20 of 3

21 (ii) Tick ( ) one reason why carbon reacts with zinc oxide to produce zinc. Reason Tick ( ) carbon is less reactive than zinc carbon is more reactive than zinc carbon is similar in reactivity to zinc () (iii) In the furnace zinc is a gas but lead is a liquid. Suggest why. (Total 8 marks) Page 2 of 3

22 M. (a) 2,4 allow electrons in any position on correct shells (b) (electron) 79 neutron allow phonetic spelling 8 (c) (i) 6 and 9 in this order (ii) any two from: ignore reasons about colour / lustre / corrosion / rarity (00% / pure) gold is soft allow layers can slide in pure gold (alloyed) to make the metal hard(er) ignore just the ring is an alloy allow (alloyed) to stop the layers sliding allow (alloyed) to make the metal strong gold is expensive or alloy is less expensive 2 [7] M2. (a) mixture not compound of a metal with other element(s) / metals not of elements not of a metal with other substances (b) steel allow stainless steel (c) stronger / increased strength / harder / less malleable / less brittle not corrosion / rusting Page 22 of 3

23 (d) copper and zinc [5] M3. (a) (Chromium =) 20 in correct order (Nickel =) 8 accept Chromium = 8 and Nickel = 20 for mark (b) (i) (because iron is made up of only) one type of atom (ii) (iii) not strong ignore soft / corrosive / flexible accept it rusts / corrodes or that it could wear away accept could change shape / bend accept layers / atoms could slide (over each other) has different sized atoms / particles or structure is different/distorted / disrupted accept not in layers or not regular so it is difficult for layers / atoms / particles to slip / slide (over each other) accept layers cannot slip / slide [6] M4. (a) any one advantage from: conserves resources (of crude oil / metal ores) ignore can be made into other items allow the materials (in the pen) are non-renewable allow less expensive than producing from the raw material reduces use of landfill ignore less waste less use of fuels/energy less carbon dioxide produced ignore global warming unqualified Page 23 of 3

24 any one disadvantage from: made of different polymers / alloys / materials difficulty / cost of separating the different materials allow not all the materials can be recycled (b) hard / strong / durable resistant to corrosion or unreactive allow do not rust do not allow corrosive (c) (i) vapours (of decane) ignore pressure / hot / heat allow high temperature ( 50 C) passed over a catalyst or porous pot or aluminium oxide allow catalyst even if incorrectly named (ii) or mixed with steam () at a (very) high temperature () if temperature quoted, must be 500 C many monomers or many ethene molecules join / bond allow addition polymerisation for second mark OR monomers / ethene molecules () form chains or very large molecules () if no other mark awarded allow double bond breaks / opens up or double bond forms a single bond for mark Page 24 of 3

25 (d) allow bonds that do not extend through brackets 7 single bonds are used and are in the correct places with no additional atoms () the brackets and the n are in the correct place () 2 [0] M5. (a) coinage bronze (b) (97/00) 2.5 = each line for mark 2 (c) 3 points from the following: hard wearing, resistant to corrosion, low in reactivity low density abundant metal/low cost shiny/appearance not brittle (Other properties of metals treated as neutral) 3 [6] M6. (a) (because to produce low-carbon steel) oxygen is needed to react with / oxidise carbon accept (to produce low-carbon steel) oxygen removes carbon as carbon dioxide (to produce titanium) an atmosphere of argon is used because it is unreactive any oxygen / air would react with / oxidise magnesium or titanium ignore magnesium chloride / titanium chloride reacts with oxygen Page 25 of 3

26 (b) for titanium: it = titanium ignore references to abundance / usefulness / temperature / amounts / relative reactivity / equipment allow converse arguments for iron there are more stages in its manufacture accept slower rate of production or is more labour intensive or a batch process is used or the process used is not continuous larger amounts of energy are needed accept the titanium chloride is cooled and reheated which is not energy efficient magnesium / chlorine / argon have to be produced or are expensive or are used (c) titanium is below magnesium and above iron (in the reactivity series of metals) allow similar position to aluminium or carbon or zinc because magnesium removes chlorine from titanium chloride and titanium removes oxygen from iron oxide allow magnesium displaces titanium and titanium displaces iron OR magnesium more reactive than titanium because it removes chlorine from titanium chloride () accept magnesium more reactive than titanium because it displaces titanium titanium more reactive than iron because it removes oxygen from iron oxide () accept titanium more reactive than iron because it displaces iron [8] M7. (a) (i) low percentage / very little of metal (in the ore) accept only 0.5% metal in the ore or over 99% waste in the ore or nearly 00% waste in the ore ignore reference to percentage of metal in the Earth's crust or energy used or pollution Page 26 of 3

27 (ii) any one from (it = iron) iron uses less energy / fuel for extraction ignore electrolysis / uses electricity / reactivity iron has more uses more demand for iron ignore high abundance in the Earth s crust / high percentage of metal in ore iron is stronger ignore harder cheaper / costs less easier to extract (b) (i) has melting point lower than 950 C (it = aluminium) allow has a low melting point ignore boiling point (ii) electrode(s) made of carbon oxygen reacts with electrode(s) / carbon accept C + O 2 ( CO 2 ) NB oxygen reacts with the carbon electrode(s) = 2 marks (iii) any two from: saves resources / non-renewable accept aluminium / ore will run out or conserves aluminium landfill problem accept aluminium does not corrode saves energy / fuel / electricity ignore global warming less carbon dioxide / carbon emissions or reduces carbon footprint ignore consequences of quarrying / mining less quarrying / mining ignore pollution / harms environment / costs / easy to recycle 2 [7] Page 27 of 3

28 M8. (a) any one from: ignore references to cost / mining / availability there are many stages needed (to extract titanium) allow longer / slower / more complicated process / batch process more energy / materials are needed (to extract titanium) ignore higher temperature ignore reference to electrolysis titanium cannot be extracted by using carbon do not accept titanium extracted by electrolysis (b) carbon dioxide allow CO 2 (c) magnesium chloride is electrolysed / used / decomposed magnesium and / or chlorine are recycled / reused allow the products of electrolysis are recycled word / symbol equation = mark (d) accept titanium for magnesium because oxygen / nitrogen (in air) would react with the magnesium or would produce magnesium oxide / nitride whereas argon is inert / unreactive or argon does not react with magnesium ignore argon is in Group 0 / noble gas (e) 240 (f) 250 allow range 245 to 250 [8] M9. (a) (i) contains enough metal to make it economical to extract (ii) Fe (+) CO 2 formula of both products must be correct Page 28 of 3

29 (Fe 2 O 3 ) (+) (CO) (Fe) (+) (CO 2 ) balancing correct allow correct balancing using Fe 2 (iii) reduction accept redox (b) (i) oxygen reacts with the carbon to produce carbon dioxide allow carbon monoxide for carbon dioxide OR carbon dioxide is produced () (ii) which escapes as a gas () to give steels with different / particular properties or for different / particular uses ignore to make different alloys (c) copper is very expensive accept the metal (iron / steel) costs less than copper ignore energy because copper ores are low grade / running out allow copper is rare ignore nickel [9] M0. (a) (carbon =) (oxygen =) 3 (b) (i) heated (ii) carbon dioxide Page 29 of 3

30 (c) (i) combustion (ii) (iii) carbon is more reactive than zinc zinc boils (in the furnace / below 300 C) ignore melting point / changes of state lead does not boil / (only) melts in the furnace / boils above 300 C if no other mark awarded allow zinc has a lower boiling point or lead has a higher boiling point or they / zinc and lead have different boiling points for mark [8] Page 30 of 3

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