The USGS Landsat Big Data Experience

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1 The USGS Landsat Big Data Experience Mr. Steven Covington Systems Director, Aerospace Corporation USGS Landsat Flight Systems Manager U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

2 Data Utility and Exploitation A key driver in all aspects of Landsat systems architecture has been the ease of data exploitation Spacecraft and instrument requirements supported data utility Spectral Bands: VNIR/SWIR/TIR Ground Resolution: Nominal 30 Meters Data Characterization and Calibration Ground system architecture is about data exploitation Acquisition Strategy/Collection Data Latency/Availability Product Offering Product Distribution

3 Acquisition Strategy WRS2 Map Extent = ±82⁰ Scene = 185km square Land Database 14,730 unique scenes includes 9874 Continental Scenes 1271 Islands and Reefs 3588 Antarctica Scenes

4 Acquisition Strategy WRS2 Map Extent = ±82⁰ Scene = 185km square Land Database 14,730 unique scenes includes 9874 Continental Scenes 1271 Islands and Reefs 3588 Antarctica Scenes Earth s land mass targeted for image acquisition

5 Recent L7/L8 Acquisitions Predominantly 8-Day Coverage Predominantly 16-Day Coverage Less Frequent than 16-days

6 U.S. Landsat Archive Overview(February 3, 2014) OLI-TIRS: Landsat 8 164,696 scenes average scene size 1813 MB ETM+: Landsat 7 1,696,928 scenes average scene size 487 MB TM: Landsat 4 & Landsat 5 1,928,611 scenes average scene size 263 MB MSS: Landsat 1 through 5 Total: 1,291,694 scenes average scene size 32 MB 5,081,929 scenes

7 Data Latency System Requirement to have 85% data available to the user through EROS Portal within 48 hours Actual performance for L8 averages within 5 hours International delivery latency is reduced through partnerships with International Cooperators Real-time data acquisition allows near-real-time access to international users

8 Data Access Free and Open access to the Landsat archive by all users is possibly the most important enabler Unrestricted access to both new and archived standard products on a free and non-discriminatory basis to all users Agreements with International Cooperators requires the same level of access to standard products Rapid access to the majority of the archive Landsat 8 archive has 180 days on spinning disk Landsat 1-7 has 208TB spinning disk cache

9 Data Products Product Offerings to support scientific, operational and casual users Basic Product Types: L0Rp: Uncorrected scene-based products Low-level product for sophisticated large users L1Gt: Terrain Corrected with systematic geometric correction Used when cloud cover prevents control-point identification L1T: Precision Terrain Correction Primary data product Full-Res Browse: 3-Band GeoTIFF

10 Product Distribution In January 2014, the USGS distributed Over 450,000 products, 195,000 full-resolution browse Browse download was 1.4TB; 246TB equivalent data product volume International Cooperator (IC) Ground Stations In 41 years, 39 IC stations in 23 countries Most still collect and/or distribute Landsat products, reducing the load on U.S. systems More than 215,000 products distributed in 2012 Represents a nearly 10% off-loading of network bandwidth Enhanced regional exploitation of Landsat data

11 Lessons Learned Free and Open Access Spurs Exploitation Reduced Product Offering Simplifies Architecture, Improves Services Reduce Network Load with Strategic Products Augment Distribution Capability Through ICs Manage Distribution Load Separate Portal for Volume Users Manage Orders to Regulate On-Demand Expect and Manage Reprocessing

12 Going Forward Improved Products Updated Ground Control, Unified Digital Elevation Model Top of Atmosphere, Gridded Products, Cloud Shadow Mask Moving to Higher Level Products Essential Climate Variables (e.g. Surface Water Extent, Burn Area) Climate Data Records: Surface Temp and Reflectance How to Present the Data for Easier Exploitation Pixel-Based Products? Process-Ready Formats?

13 Going Forward How to Provide All Data Online Reprocessing in the Cloud? Processing Support from Partners? How to Create a more Flexible Architecture Distributed Archives? Cross-Platform Exploitation Landsat and Sentinel 2 Future Missions Long-Term Vision to Extend Landsat Data Record for Decades to Come NASA/USGS to define Sustainable Land Imaging Architecture

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