The Age of Jackson. Chapter 10

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1 Chapter 10 The Age of Jackson Main Idea The Election of 1824 electoral changes The Election of 1828 Democratic Republicans Details/Notes Henry Clay of Kentucky, Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, and John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts were the main candidates. They were called favorite sons, meaning their home states supported them rather than the national party. There were no opposition party candidates in this election because it was an Era of Good Feelings. Jackson s supporters worked to make the political system more democratic by replacing caucuses with nominating conventions so people from the state would choose their presidential candidate not committees made up of members of Congress. By 1828 there were two political parties. The Democratic Republicans, who were frontier people, immigrants, and city workers that backed Jackson and National Republicans, who were merchants and farmers that backed Adams. This party supported Jackson in the 1828 election. They favored state s rights and mistrusted strong central government. National Republicans This party supported Adams in the 1828 election. They believed in a strong central government and a national bank because it would help the economy.

2 Presidential campaigns Landslide victory The Spoils System During the campaigns of 1828, both parties resorted to mudslinging which is insulting the other party in order to ruin their opponent s reputation with insults. Each party also aroused enthusiasm for their candidate with slogans, rallies, and buttons. An overwhelming victory. Democrats carried the spirit of democracy into government. Their goal was to shake up the federal bureaucracy, a system in which nonelected officials carry out laws. Democrats argued that ordinary citizens could handle any government job. President Jackson replaced many federal workers with his supporters. The fired employees charged that Jackson was acting like a tyrant. Therefore the practice of replacing government employees with the winning candidate s supporter became known as the spoil system.

3 Tariff A fee paid by merchants who import goods. The South John C. Calhoun Stunned over the fact that Jackson would not support nullification even though he supported state s rights, anger continued to build over the tariffs. Southern leaders continued to protest and the Union seemed to be on the verge of splitting apart. He argued that a state or group of states had the right to nullify a federal law it considered against state interests. He felt that since the federal government was a creation of the states, the states have the power to decide whether federal laws are constitutional. The Nullification Act This was passed by the South Carolina legislature. It was to show that they were refusing to pay the illegal tariffs of 1828 and Relocation of Native Americans After the American Revolution, most Cherokee land was in Georgia and Tennessee. While the US had expanded westward by 1830; large numbers of Native Americans still lived in the eastern part of the country. In Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida lived the Five Civilized Tribes the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw. Many settlers wanted the federal government to relocate Native Americans living in the Southeast. They wanted to force the Natives to leave their land and move west of the Mississippi River.

4 The Indian Removal Act In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act. It allowed the federal government to pay Natives to move west. Jackson then sent officials to negotiate treaties with Natives of the Southeast. In 1834 Congress created the Indian Territory, an area in the present day Oklahoma, for the Native Americans. The Cherokee Nation The Cherokee Nation, refused to give up its land. White settlers wanted the rich farmland. In treaties of the 1790s, the federal government had recognized the Cherokee people as a separate nation with their own laws. At one point they sued the state of Georgia to resist the removal. Worchester v. Georgia In this case the Supreme Court ruled that Georgia had no right to interfere with the Cherokee Nation. President Jackson did not respect the ruling of the Supreme Court

5 The Trail of Tears The Seminole Reservation Nicholas Biddle Whigs In 1835 the federal government persuaded a few Cherokee to sign a treaty giving up their people s land. In 1838 federal government troops under General Winfield Scott came to remove the Cherokee from their homes and lead them west. The Cherokee knew that fighting would only lead to their doom. Filled with sadness and anger, their leaders yielded, and then the long march to the West began. Brutal weather along the way claimed thousands of Cherokee lives. The Seminole people of Florida were the only Native Americans who successfully resisted their removal. Seminole chief, Osceola and some of his people refused to leave Florida. The Seminole decided to go to war against the US instead. In 1835 the Seminole joined forces with a group of African Americans who had run away to escape slavery. Together they attacked white settlers along the Florida coast. The Seminole used guerrilla tactics, making surprise attacks and then retreating to the forests. An area of public lands set aside for Native Americans. However, it eventually faced intrusion by white settlers during Jackson s presidency. The Bank s president represented everything Jackson disliked. Jackson prided himself on being a self-made man who started with nothing. Biddle, on the other hand came from a wealthy family. This was a new political party that influenced the election of They were against the Democratic policies of that time.

6 Election of 1836 Jackson The Election of 1832 The Economic Problems federal treasury Because Jackson was popular, his backing helped Martin Van Buren win this election. He had great struggle during his presidency. For years he had criticized the Bank of the United States as being an organization of wealthy Easterners over which ordinary citizen had no control. They held and controlled the money supply of the United States. When Jackson vetoed the bank charter bill, he received support from many people and he was reelected. Once reelected, Jackson decided on a plan to kill the Bank. He ordered the withdrawal of all government deposits from the Bank and placed the funds in smaller state banks. When Jackson decided not to run for a third term in 1836, the Democratic party selected Martin Van Buren of New York, Jackson s vice president, as their candidate. Two months later after Van Buren took office; the country entered a severe economic depression, a period on which business and employment fall to a very low level. The depression began with the Panic of 1837, a time when land values dropped sharply, investments declined suddenly, and bank failed. To handle this situation Congress created an independent treasury. President Van Buren persuaded Congress to establish an independent national treasury in The government would no longer deposit its money with private individual banks. He felt this would guard against another bank crisis.

7 Andrew Jackson John Quincy Adams John Tyler He was elected by popular vote; as President he sought to act as the direct representative of the common man. He believed in democratic politics. The first President who was the son of a President, John Quincy Adams in many respects paralleled the career as well as the temperament and viewpoints of his illustrious father. Upon becoming President, Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State. Jackson and his angry followers charged that a "corrupt bargain" had taken place and immediately began their campaign to wrest the Presidency from Adams in Because of this reason and unpopular federal policies Adams did not get reelected. He became the first vice presidents to gain the presidency because the elected president died in office. As president he went against his party s views on issues. This lack of party loyalty angered the Whigs and most of his cabinet resigned. The Whig leaders in Congress expelled him from the party.

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