Arctic Research at the Aalto University School of Engineering

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1 Arctic Research at the Aalto University School of Engineering Sino-Finnish Arctic Seminar September 27-28, 2012, Helsinki Jukka Tuhkuri, professor Department of Applied Mechanics, Aalto University

2 This Presentation Aalto University School of Engineering Why Arctic technology? Research on Arctic technology at Aalto ENG In more detail: Ice mechanics

3 Aalto University Established in 2010 through the merger of Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki University of Technology and The University of Art and Design Helsinki students, staff members, 350 professors, main campus in Otaniemi, Espoo Six schools Engineering Electrical engineering Chemical technology Science Business Arts, design and architecture

4 Aalto University School of Engineering About 4000 students, 700 staff members, 60 professors Research focus areas: Multidiciplinary Energy Technology Systems Design and Production Sustainable Built Environment Mechanics and Materials Arctic Technology

5 Why Arctic Technology? Important for Finland All harbours freeze during winter: A political decision to keep a set of harbours open all year Winter navigation, icebreakers, lighthouses, channel markers Road traffic during winter Construction in cold climate The Arctic is warming faster than the rest of the planet A very important environmental issues Effects shipping and utilization of Arctic resourses Currently a strong international interest on Arctic issues

6 Research on Arctic Technology at the Aalto University School of Engineering Department of Applied Mechanics Arctic marine technology: ships, offshore structures, ice loads Ice mechanics Department of Engineering Design and Production Tire-road contact on ice, snow and slush Department of Civil and Structural Engineering Concrete structures in Arctic conditions Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Frost depth, frost heave and thaw Highway engineering etc?

7 Frost Depth / Heave and Thaw Research Frost penetration to soil causes problems for traffic and road maintenance. Frost heaving causes unevennes and cracking to pavements during winter. Thawing in spring lowers the bearing capacity of roads and load restrictions may be necessary. Thawing of ice rich soils may also cause thaw settlements for roads and other structures.

8 Frost Depth / Heave and Thaw Research Modelling of frost depth and heave requires experimental work. An automatic frost depth measurement station is situated in Kirkkonummi, Southern Finland. Frost heaving is observed once a month. Using frost heave laboratory test equipment, a soil sample can be frozen to measure frost heave.

9 Activities of Highway Engineering Damages caused by studded tyres on highways - wearing of asphalt pavements - wearing of road markings - reducing reflective properties of road markings Winter maintenance of highways - quality of sidewalk sanding - urban snow logistics.

10 Concrete Structures in Arctic Conditions Concrete in cold environment may degrade due to internal frost, salt-frost scaling, chloride induced reinforcement corrosion and ice abrasion Deterioration of concrete in cold environment deterioration parameters service life of concrete Ice abrasion on concrete must be taken into account for marine structures

11 Tire-Road Contact on Ice, snow and Slush Vehicle Engineering research topics in tire-road contact Foot print area Ice - rubber contact Friction estimation Measurement and simulation Main tools: Cold chamber down to -50ºC Linear friction tester Test vehicle eith friction trailer IR-cam, high speed cam, force rim IR- picture of a studded rubber sample in braking on ice situation

12 Tire-Road Contact on Ice, Snow and Slush Mini-μ-Road Established 2000 as a tool for R&D measurements. Proved succesfull and was later developed to fit academic research Present Research Topics Measurement accuracy and reproducibility Pre-melting of the ice and the thickness of the water layer on ice The effect of the surface roughness The polishing effect in different temperatures Linear movement of 0 1,2m at mm/s and 1,2kN vertical load Both ice and rubber properties in focus ~10 similar test facilities in the world We are the best to make the ice

13 Arctic Marine Technology Active group for decades, more than 15 doctoral degrees Ongoing research Statistical nature of ice loads on ships. Measurements onboard MS Agulhass II (Baltic Sea 2012, Antarctica ). Safety of ships in dynamic ice. Field work to monitor ice movements and stresses in the Baltic. Laboratory work. Development of a risk model. Numerical modeling of ice failure Aalto Ice Tank

14 Aalto Ice Tank A 40m x 40m x 2.8m ice model basin Scale modeling: also ice properties are scaled Ice thickness: mm Bending strength: kpa Added ethanol weakens the grain boundary junctions Ice growth upwards through spraying of tank water at -12C Hydralab IV co-operation within EU Multipurpose: open water tests, wavemaker 14

15 Discrete Modeling of Sea Ice Failure Several problems in ice mechanics can be effectively studied by using a discontinuous / discrete approach. This can be done by using the Discrete Element Method (DEM), which simulates the Newtonian dynamics of a system of particles. In ice sheet failure, the failure products affect the failure process, Thus ice failure process is best studied through simulations.

16 FEM-DEM Simulations in Ice Mechanics Pile-up of sea ice against offshore structures load transmits through force chains. Parameters affecting ice load interact (ice thickness, strength, friction) Studies on deformation and strength ice rubble Verification through model tests and field data

17 POAC nd International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions Aalto University School of Engineering June 9 13, 2013

18 Arctic Research at the Aalto University School of Engineering Arctic marine technology: ships, offshore structures, ice loads Ice mechanics Tire-road contact on ice, snow and slush Concrete structures in Arctic conditions Frost depth, frost heave and thaw Highway engineering

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