SILICONE-COATED FILMS THE NEXT GENERATION

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "SILICONE-COATED FILMS THE NEXT GENERATION"

Transcription

1 SILICNE-CATED FILMS THE NEXT GENERATIN Dr Alfred Rengstl, Technical Service Manager, Wacker licones Corporation, Burghausen, Germany Vashti N. Ruley, Chemist, Wacker licones Corporation, Adrian, Michigan Introduction For years, low cost paper substrates have been the first choice of release liner producers. Today, as customer demands drive liner manufacturers to run faster and faster, paper substrates are unable to keep up. The trend to replace fragile paper substrates with more robust film substrates is increasing and the need to understand how to coat on a film is becoming more important. Film liners have high tear strength, good diecuttability and a smooth texture that can not be equaled with paper liners. However, high heat can cause the film s tensile properties to soften which causes gauge band issues and dimensional stability problems. Liner manufacturers therefore need to optimize both their chemistry and their manufacturing capabilities to help overcome these problems. When coating silicone, focusing on the levels of catalyst and inhibitor in the system, as well as optimizing oven conditions, can lower the temperature that is needed for cure and thus allow the potential for manufacturers to coat silicone on film substrates. Background In 2003, the world demand for film liners increased by tremendously over the previous year [1]. In North America, although films account for only 11% of the overall market, specific applications such as the building and insulation market use film substrates over 50% of the time [2]. Although paper substrates are cheaper and have a higher temperature resistance, films are more durable, offer excellent dimensional stability, diecuttability and layflat characteristics and is preferred on many optically clear applications because of it s smoothness. So even though films cost more, it may be worth the price to use a film substrate so you can end up with a better product [3]. licone curing is done primarily by thermal methods but there are some radiation-cured products on the market. With thermally cured silicones, the majority of products are cured by an addition-crosslinking mechanism. This crosslinking involves the addition of a hydrogen crosslinker across the double bond of the silicone polymer in the presence of a metal catalyst such as platinum (rhodium catalyzed products are also available but are slower curing than platinum catalyzed products). The reaction only proceeds when enough heat is added to remove the inhibitor from the system leaving the catalyst free to catalyze the exothermic reaction (see Figure 1). The levels of catalyst, crosslinker and inhibitor play a vital role in controlling the speed and temperature of cure. 1

2 + H [Pt] Figure 1: Following the evaporation of the inhibitor, in the presence of platinum, the hydrogen in the crosslinker adds across the double bond of the vinyl terminated silicone polymer. The formation of this network is generally referred to as curing [4]. If too little inhibitor is present (or too much time has elapsed allowing evaporation of the inhibitor), the reaction can take place at room temperature causing gelling in the bath or on the rollers of the coater. If too much inhibitor is present, it will require a higher temperature or a longer residence time in the oven in order to remove the inhibitor. This will increase the cure temperature or decrease the line speed both of which are unwanted in silicone coating. milarly, platinum levels greatly influence cure temperature, bath life and line speed. Too low a platinum level can lead to incomplete cure. An incomplete cure means that there is both unreacted silicone polymer (called free silicone ) and crosslinker left in the coating. The amount of free silicone is measured by first extracting it with a solvent such as toluene and then measuring the silicone content with an instrument such as an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results are referred to as extractables and show the amount of free silicone left in the coating as a percentage. It is important to note that there is no such thing as a complete cure. With any curing method, there is always some level of free silicone that is not crosslinked into the system. If the platinum to inhibitor ratio is too high, this could lead to premature polymerization and subsequently to gelling in the bath and on the coater. Also, since platinum is very costly (approximately 30 times more expensive than any of the other components), any small increase in the platinum level will drive up the formulation cost. Keeping in mind that films have strict heat limitations, the goal for converters is to find the right balance between the levels of inhibitor and catalyst as well as optimizing oven air flows in order to overcome the difficulties of coating films. ptimizing Inhibitor Levels Different silicone manufacturers use different types of inhibitors in thermal cured systems. However, all inhibitors are designed to perform the same way. For a system to cure at a lower temperature, less inhibitor should be used. This is shown in Figure 2. 2

3 Heat Flow (mw - Exo up) DSC Curves with varying Inhibitor Levels 25% Temperature (C) 50% 75% 100% Figure 2: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is used to determine the heat flow of formulas with different levels of inhibitor. The results show the onset, peak and end temperatures at which polymerization occurs. Lower inhibitor levels show a lower polymerization temperature. Figure 2 shows that lower inhibitor levels lead to lower cure temperatures. This is desired in film coating since high heat can cause a film to melt. It is also evident from the data that formulas with a lower inhibitor level have a larger temperature range over which the polymerization occurs. This is shown by the difference between the onset temperature and the end temperature. At 100% inhibitor level, the complete cure takes place in a temperature range of around 4 0 C whereas at 25% inhibitor level, the cure temperature range increases to approximately 8 0 C. This is important to keep in mind when curing at lower temperatures since there is a higher potential for incomplete cure to occur. ptimizing Catalyst Levels The majority of thermal systems on the market today use a platinum catalyst. In the past two years, as the demand for platinum has increased, platinum prices have skyrocketed. It is therefore imperative that manufacturers be efficient with the consumption of catalyst in their systems. As stated earlier, catalyst level contributes to both the cure temperature and to bath life. The ideal system will give the converter an adequate bath life without compromising the cure of the system. As platinum levels increase, the cure temperature (and bath life) will decrease. This is illustrated in Figure 3. 3

4 DSC Curves with varying Platinum Levels Heat Flow (mw - Endo up) ppm 100 ppm 150 ppm 200 ppm 300 ppm Temperature (C) Figure 3: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is used to determine the heat flow of formulas with different levels of catalyst. The results show the onset, peak and end temperatures at which polymerization occurs. Higher catalyst levels show a lower polymerization temperature. The DSC scans above show that higher catalyst levels lead to lower cure temperatures. In addition, as seen with lower inhibitor levels, formulas with higher catalyst levels cure at a lower temperature but cure over a greater temperature range than those with a lower catalyst level. Thus, the catalyst level has a great influence on the degree of cure at lower temperatures. ptimizing ven Air Flows The goal of a thermal cure system is the evaporation of both the inhibitor and the solvent carrier (if present) thereby activating the catalyst and initiating the reaction between the polymer and crosslinker. The evaporation rate, which is the rate of solvent removal per unit surface area of the coating, is due to two things. First, it is influenced by the difference in the partial pressure of the solvent at the coating surface compared to the partial pressure of the nearby gas. The mass transfer coefficient of the gas at or near the coated surface is the second factor [5]. The difference in the partial pressures can be changed by changing the amount of fresh gas that is supplied compared to the gas that is being recycled. milarly, the mass transfer coefficient is affected by changing the flow direction and speed of the gas at or near the coating surface [6]. Therefore, if a sweeping motion of fresh gas above the coating surface is generated, the fresh air will be able to carry away the solvent present just above the coating surface and consequently speed up the evaporation of the inhibitor. Hence, changing airflow direction and speed near the coating surface will hasten curing. 4

5 Putting it Together Keeping in mind the effects of inhibitor and catalyst levels, liner manufacturers can then customize a solution that will work with their equipment. A simple DE can give a starting point for a formula that can be used to coat films. For example, Figure 4 shows DE results of the peak temperature of a system with varying catalyst and inhibitor levels. Contour Plot of Peak Pt Level Inh Hold values: XL Level: 2.5 Figure 4: Contour plot showing DSC Peak Temperatures with varying levels of inhibitor and catalyst. verlaid Contour Plot of Peak.Bath Life Lower Bound Upper Bound White area: feasible region Peak Bath Life Pt Level Inh Hold values: XL Level: 2.5 Figure 5: verlaid contour plot showing how varying levels of inhibitor and catalyst affect bath life and DSC peak temperatures. The white area is the feasible area for the particular customer for whom this DE was done. 5

6 Figure 5 shows an example of an overlaid contour plot that takes bath life as well as peak temperature into consideration. The white area shows an acceptable performance for the particular customer for which this plot was created. From the information garnered from such a DE, it is easy for a manufacturer to get a starting point as to the inhibitor and catalyst levels that they would need to use in their particular systems. Solutions for the future Low temperature cure is only one factor to consider in film coating. ther things such as anchorage to the substrate and coating quality also play a major role when selecting a particular silicone system. Adhesion to film substrates is greatly influenced by the type and level of crosslinker. Typical straight-chain homopolymer hydrogen crosslinkers provide good anchorage but tend to sacrifice cure speed. Copolymers give good cure speed but have trouble anchoring to hard-to-anchor substrates. The solution is an organo-functional crosslinker that provides good anchorage to film substrates and is fast enough to be used for low temperature cure. Introduced two years ago, the organo-functional crosslinker provides an excellent compromise between anchorage and cure speed and is thus a good solution for the next generation of film coating. A comparison of the crosslinker functionality is shown in Figure 6. Delayed anchorage and extractables comparison with different crosslinkers Homopolymer Copolymer rganofunctional 7-day Rub-off Extractables (%) Rub-off Scale 1 = Excellent 6 = Poor Figure 6: Combination plot showing delayed anchorage and percent extractables comparison with different crosslinkers on a 23-micron unprimed, coronatreated PET film. The organofunctional crosslinker provides excellent anchorage and low extractable results. ther products that may be useful to liner manufacturers include anchorage additives that give improved wet-out on films and alternate crosslinkers whose structure allows for low temperature cure and good anchorage. Polymers that are specifically designed to anchor to difficult substrates such as film are also an excellent choice for film coaters. 6

7 Conclusions Heat limitations of processing contribute to the difficulty in coating films. However, proper optimization of catalyst and inhibitor levels as well as maximizing oven air flows can help tremendously in overcoming temperature restrictions. Anchorage issues can be resolved with a variety of new crosslinkers and additives to help the silicone to anchor and wet-out on the film. Many suppliers provide a wide array of products that are suitable for film coating. The trick is to work with your supplier to find the system that is best for you. Literature Citations 1. Reardon, Corey, Release Liner Market Worldwide Industry Issues, pportunities & Value Chain, AWA Conferences Global Release Liner Conference Proceedings, April 30, Reardon, Corey, Spotlight on the North American Market, Paper, Film and Foil Converter nline, ctober 1, Sesetyan, Talar, Release Liners A powerful and versatile component of the pressure sensitive label, Label and Narrow Web, ctober Tomanek, Andreas, licones and Industry, Wacker-Chemie GmbH, Munich, 47, Carvalho, M.S., Basics of Heat and Mass Transfer in Solidification of Coatings. Convection Dryers and Condenser Dryers, University of Minnesota Coatings Process Fundamentals A Short Course, Section 20, Page i, June 25, Carvalho, M.S., Basics of Heat and Mass Transfer in Solidification of Coatings. Convection Dryers and Condenser Dryers, University of Minnesota Coatings Process Fundamentals A Short Course, Section 20, Page ii, June 25, Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Worldwide Wacker licones Paper Team for their invaluable support and contribution to this project. The benefits of teamwork are priceless. 7

8 Biography of Dr. Alfred Rengstl (Wacker Chemie) Born 1951 in Thaldorf, Germany : Elementary and Secondary School : Graduated in Chemistry at the Technical University of Munich : PhD in tallorganic Chemistry at Prof. E.. Fischer. Subject of thesis: Synthesis and Stabilization of laalkenes : Research department of Wacker Chemie GmbH: 1 st project: Production of basic organic raw materials from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by using homogeneous transition metal catalysts. 2 nd project: Production of licon carbide and licone nitride fibers by melt spinning and pyrolysis of polysilane and polysilazane resins : Technical Service Manager. for European customers producing silicone release coatings.

Solutions for Release Coating Success: Syl-Off brand Silicone Release Coatings from Dow Corning. RELIABILITY in. every INNOVATION

Solutions for Release Coating Success: Syl-Off brand Silicone Release Coatings from Dow Corning. RELIABILITY in. every INNOVATION Solutions for Release Coating Success: Syl-Off brand Silicone Release Coatings from Dow Corning RELIABILITY in every INNOVATION The Syl-Off brand Silicone Release Coating Line Dow Corning s Syl-Off silicone

More information

VITEL Copolyester resins

VITEL Copolyester resins VITEL Copolyester resins A company of TOTAL www.bostik.com What are VITEL resins? VITEL is the trade name for our co-polyester resins mainly used as heat sealable coatings and laminating adhesives. This

More information

Electron Beam Technology for Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Applications

Electron Beam Technology for Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Applications Electron Beam Technology for Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Applications Introduction Stephen C. Lapin, Ph.D. PCT Engineered Systems LLC Davenport, IA, USA Initial reports on the use of ultraviolet (UV) and

More information

Characterization of Electronic Materials Using Thermal Analysis

Characterization of Electronic Materials Using Thermal Analysis application Note Thermal Analysis Characterization of Electronic Materials Using Thermal Analysis Thermal analysis comprises a series of powerful techniques for the characterization of the thermal, physical,

More information

9. Silicone Release Coatings for the Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Industry S. Cray, Dow Corning Ltd, Barry (Wales)

9. Silicone Release Coatings for the Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Industry S. Cray, Dow Corning Ltd, Barry (Wales) 9. Silicone Release Coatings for the Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Industry S. Cray, Dow Corning Ltd, Barry (Wales) In today s modern environment there is a wide range of applications for silicone release

More information

Dielectric Analysis Permittivity and dielectric loss 100. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Mechanical strength and energy loss 200

Dielectric Analysis Permittivity and dielectric loss 100. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Mechanical strength and energy loss 200 Relative Signal Technique Property Measured Change at Tg Differential Scanning Calorimetry Heat flow (heat capacity) 0.2 Thermomechanical Analysis Expansion coefficient or softening 3 Dielectric Analysis

More information

Self-Healing Thermosets and Composites: Status and Future Perspectives for the Industry

Self-Healing Thermosets and Composites: Status and Future Perspectives for the Industry SBO SEPOCOM: SElf-healing thermoset POlymers and COMposites Self-Healing Thermosets and Composites: Status and Future Perspectives for the Industry Prof. Filip Du Prez, Polymer Chemistry Research Group,

More information

Epoxy Innovations Drive Adhesive Bonding Growth

Epoxy Innovations Drive Adhesive Bonding Growth TECH SPOTLIGHT Epoxy Innovations Drive Adhesive Bonding Growth Master Bond Inc. 154 Hobart Street, Hackensack, NJ 07601 USA Phone +1.201.343.8983 Fax +1.201.343.2132 WhitePaper@masterbond.com T E C H S

More information

Lecture 4.1: Thermoplastics and Thermosets

Lecture 4.1: Thermoplastics and Thermosets Lecture 4.1: Thermoplastics and Thermosets The word plastic comes from the Greek word Plastikos, meaning able to be shaped and molded. Plastics can be broadly classified into two major groups on the basis

More information

Session Five: Modern XLPE Materials for Extruded Energy Cable Systems

Session Five: Modern XLPE Materials for Extruded Energy Cable Systems Session Five: Modern XLPE Materials for Extruded Energy Cable Systems Abstract Hakan Lennartsson Senior Technical Service Manager, Borouge Hong Kong Pte. Ltd. The first medium voltage cables using extruded

More information

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,

More information

Differential Scanning Calorimetry theoretical background

Differential Scanning Calorimetry theoretical background Differential Scanning Calorimetry theoretical background Galina Kubyshkina Elektromaterial Lendava d.d., Slovenia Crystalline materials Typical features presence of a unit (cell), which is periodically

More information

Introduction: Background of the OIT Test:

Introduction: Background of the OIT Test: The Effect of Hindered Phenol Stabilizers on Oxygen Induction Time (OIT) Measurements, and The Use of OIT Measurements to Predict Long Term Thermal Stability Philip Jacoby, Vice President of Technology,

More information

CONTROLLING STRESS IN BONDED OPTICS

CONTROLLING STRESS IN BONDED OPTICS CONTROLLING STRESS IN BONDED OPTICS Andrew Bachmann, Dr. John Arnold and Nicole Langer DYMAX Corporation, Torrington, Connecticut October 1, 2001 INTRODUCTION Stress from adhesives can be an important

More information

Low Outgas Silicone Pressure Sensitive Adhesive for Aerospace Applications II

Low Outgas Silicone Pressure Sensitive Adhesive for Aerospace Applications II Low Outgas Silicone Pressure Sensitive Adhesive for Aerospace Applications II By Bill Riegler, Product Director-Engineering Materials, Joan Meyer, R&D Supervisor, NuSil Technology LLC, Carpinteria, CA

More information

HEAT, TEMPERATURE, & THERMAL ENERGY

HEAT, TEMPERATURE, & THERMAL ENERGY HEAT, TEMPERATURE, & THERMAL ENERGY Energy A property of matter describing the ability to do. Work - is done when an object is moved through a distance by a force acting on the object. Kinetic Energy Associated

More information

CREATING TOMORROW S SOLUTIONS CONSTRUCTION I DISPERSIBLE POLYMER POWDERS VINNAPAS 8620 E: THE NEW SPECIALIST FOR C2 CERAMIC TILE ADHESIVES

CREATING TOMORROW S SOLUTIONS CONSTRUCTION I DISPERSIBLE POLYMER POWDERS VINNAPAS 8620 E: THE NEW SPECIALIST FOR C2 CERAMIC TILE ADHESIVES CREATING TOMORROW S SOLUTIONS CONSTRUCTION I DISPERSIBLE POLYMER POWDERS VINNAPAS 8620 E: THE NEW SPECIALIST FOR C2 CERAMIC TILE ADHESIVES ANSWERING TOMORROW S TRENDS TODAY With its unique polymer base,

More information

When to Use a Fast Cure Adhesive

When to Use a Fast Cure Adhesive TECH SPOTLIGHT When to Use a Fast Cure Adhesive Fast cure adhesives are a great way to reduce assembly costs, but only in the right applications Master Bond Inc. 154 Hobart Street, Hackensack, NJ 07601

More information

Technical Data November, 2013

Technical Data November, 2013 Membrane s with Adhesive 200MP 7945MP 7952MP 7953MP 7955MP 7956MP 7957MP 7959MP 7961MP 7962MP 7965MP 7993MP 7995MP 7997MP 9045MP 9056MP 9057MP 9059MP 9061MP Technical Data November, 2013 Product Description

More information

Syl-Off Emulsion, Tin-Catalyzed Silicone Release Coatings from Dow Corning

Syl-Off Emulsion, Tin-Catalyzed Silicone Release Coatings from Dow Corning Release System Information Guide Syl-Off Emulsion, Tin-Catalyzed Silicone Release Coatings from Dow Corning General Information General Information Syl-Off brand emulsion, tin-catalyzed silicone release

More information

MORE OR LESS SILICONE

MORE OR LESS SILICONE Dr. Hans Lautenschlager, Wacker Chemie AG CREATING TOMORROW'S SOLUTIONS HOW MUCH SILICONE DO YOU NEED? Tapes Labels Application Packaging tapes Electronic applications Clear on Clear Labels Silicone films

More information

Bottle Labeling Adhesives SMART ADHESIVES FOR LABELING

Bottle Labeling Adhesives SMART ADHESIVES FOR LABELING Bottle Labeling Adhesives SMART ADHESIVES FOR LABELING Film Label H4360 H5401 H2790 L20167B L7295 L2627 Film Label H5401 H4360 H284-332 H1926A H9479 H4360 H5401 H2790 GLASS BOTTLE METAL CONTAINER Film

More information

Material Testing Services

Material Testing Services Material Testing Services Hawk offers state-of-the-art equipment for your analysis needs. Specific instrumental analysis capabilities and potential applications are as follows: Material Identification:

More information

LOW TEMPERATURE SILICONE RELEASE COATINGS FOR TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE FILMS

LOW TEMPERATURE SILICONE RELEASE COATINGS FOR TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE FILMS LOW TEMPERATURE SILICONE RELEASE COATINGS FOR TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE FILMS John Kilgour, Chemist, Momentive Performance Materials, Waterford, NY Introduction The fastest growing area for silicone release

More information

15.32 Of those polymers listed in Table 15.2, which polymer(s) would be best suited for use as ice cube trays? Why?

15.32 Of those polymers listed in Table 15.2, which polymer(s) would be best suited for use as ice cube trays? Why? 15.31 Name the following polymer(s) that would be suitable for the fabrication of cups to contain hot coffee: polyethylene, polypropylene, poly(vinyl chloride), PET polyester, and polycarbonate. Why? This

More information

Reaction Mechanism (continued) CHEMICAL KINETICS. Pt 2. Reaction Mechanisms. Often Used Terms. Reaction Mechanisms. The reaction

Reaction Mechanism (continued) CHEMICAL KINETICS. Pt 2. Reaction Mechanisms. Often Used Terms. Reaction Mechanisms. The reaction Reaction Mechanism (continued) CHEMICAL KINETICS Pt The reaction C H O + 5O 6CO + 4H O 3 4 3 has many steps in the reaction mechanism. Objectives! Be able to describe the collision and transition-state

More information

HEAT RECOVERY OPTIONS FOR DRYERS AND OXIDIZERS

HEAT RECOVERY OPTIONS FOR DRYERS AND OXIDIZERS HEAT RECOVERY OPTIONS FOR DRYERS AND OXIDIZERS William K. Scullion, Application Engineering Leader, MEGTEC Systems, De Pere, WI Introduction Competitive pressures continuously motivate us to examine our

More information

3 Screen Printable Sheet Polyester Label Material FL 7908FL

3 Screen Printable Sheet Polyester Label Material FL 7908FL 3 Screen Printable Sheet Polyester Label Material 7903 7905 7908 7909 7903FL 7908FL Technical Data October, 2009 Product Description 3M Screen Printable Sheet Polyester Label Materials are durable, high

More information

Industry. Sandwich Panels Building for the Future

Industry. Sandwich Panels Building for the Future Industry Sandwich Panels Building for the Future Delivering Your Solution The market is seeing increasing demands for energy efficient buildings, temperature controlled environments and fire performance

More information

Features of the formation of hydrogen bonds in solutions of polysaccharides during their use in various industrial processes. V.Mank a, O.

Features of the formation of hydrogen bonds in solutions of polysaccharides during their use in various industrial processes. V.Mank a, O. Features of the formation of hydrogen bonds in solutions of polysaccharides during their use in various industrial processes. V.Mank a, O. Melnyk b a National University of life and environmental sciences

More information

Measurement of Tg by DSC

Measurement of Tg by DSC application note Measurement of Tg by DSC W.J. Sichina What is Tg? Tg is the accepted abbreviation for the glass transition temperature. All amorphous (non-crystalline or semi-crystalline) materials will

More information

Advantages of UV Curing in Composite Manufacturing. Jonathan Shaw. Ph.D. Cytec Coating Resins February 26, 2013

Advantages of UV Curing in Composite Manufacturing. Jonathan Shaw. Ph.D. Cytec Coating Resins February 26, 2013 Advantages of UV Curing in Composite Manufacturing Jonathan Shaw. Ph.D. Cytec Coating Resins February 26, 2013 Agenda UV Curing Basics Materials/Formulations Lamps Cure Process Advantages & Considerations

More information

Product Information. Thermal Properties of Elvax Measured by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) Summary

Product Information. Thermal Properties of Elvax Measured by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) Summary Product Information Thermal Properties of Elvax Measured by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) Summary The melting and freezing points of various Elvax ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) polymers were measured

More information

Peculiarities of Titanium Compound Films Formation on Heat Sensitive Substrates by Electric Arc Vaporization

Peculiarities of Titanium Compound Films Formation on Heat Sensitive Substrates by Electric Arc Vaporization Peculiarities of Titanium Compound Films Formation on Heat Sensitive Substrates by Electric Arc Vaporization A. Vovsi and Y. Lipin, J/S Co Sidrabe, Latvia Keywords: darc vaporization; Polymer substrates;

More information

Product Sheet. Silicone Adhesive Sealants. RTV Silicone Adhesive Sealants

Product Sheet. Silicone Adhesive Sealants. RTV Silicone Adhesive Sealants Product Sheet Silicone Adhesive Sealants Adhesives come in a wide array of chemistries each having its specialist properties and applications. In this context silicones are often referred to as sealants

More information

Silicone products for tissues

Silicone products for tissues Creating tomorrow s solutions Silicone products for tissues The paper used in tissues must meet tough demands. It must be odorless or have a fresh fragrance. It must be fluffy, soft and gentle on the skin,

More information

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

More information

UV curable polyurethane dispersions: a VOC compliant high performance solution for indoor and outdoor wood coatings

UV curable polyurethane dispersions: a VOC compliant high performance solution for indoor and outdoor wood coatings UV curable polyurethane dispersions: a VC compliant high performance solution for indoor and outdoor wood coatings Dr. Jonathan Shaw, Cytec Industries Inc., USA Abstract Energy curable (UV/EB) coatings

More information

Effects of Tg and CTE on Semiconductor Encapsulants

Effects of Tg and CTE on Semiconductor Encapsulants Effects of Tg and CTE on Semiconductor Encapsulants Dr. Mark M. Konarski Loctite Corporation www.loctite.com Abstract As the role of direct-chip-attachment increases in the electronics industry, the reliability

More information

Emoltene 100 The versatile plasticizer

Emoltene 100 The versatile plasticizer Our Emoltene 100 Improves the properties of vinyl Excellent versatility and flexibility Expands the lifespan of end products High technical performance, with tough outdoor resistance Safe and sustainable

More information

POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES

POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES Master in Nanoscience Low dimensional systems and nanostructures January 24 th 2008 Lourdes del Valle Carrandi POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES INTRODUCTION WHY NANOCOMPOSITES? POLYMER MATRICES

More information

Polymer Chemistry. 3.1 What is a Polymer?

Polymer Chemistry. 3.1 What is a Polymer? 3 asic Polymer hemistry Polymer chemistry is a very complex subject. The basic information presented here is sufficient for the reader to gain a good understanding of polymers which forms the base for

More information

Organic Conductive Polymer

Organic Conductive Polymer Polymer Touch Panel As a transparent conductive film for touch panels, FUJITSU COMPONENT and FUJITSU LABORATORIES have jointly developed an organic conductive polymer film with excellent environmental

More information

Alenica Technologies Symposium& Expo July Thermal Spot Curing of Adhesives with Photonic Energy Ruben Burga

Alenica Technologies Symposium& Expo July Thermal Spot Curing of Adhesives with Photonic Energy Ruben Burga Alenica Technologies Symposium& Expo July 2011 Thermal Spot Curing of Adhesives with Photonic Energy Ruben Burga IRphotonics Inc. Montreal CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY IRphotonics provides Mid IR Fibers

More information

Guide to Maximizing Spray Paint Adhesion

Guide to Maximizing Spray Paint Adhesion Guide to Maximizing Spray Paint Adhesion Introduction The world of paint has come a long way since its origin. We not only have a myriad of color options, but there are also far more paint types available

More information

thermoscript perfectly printed

thermoscript perfectly printed thermoscript perfectly printed Introduction < thermoscript perfectly printed Printing ink > Introduction > Surface finish of thermal paper > Offset printing > UV inks > Flexographic printing > Contact

More information

... complement Information for Processing

... complement Information for Processing AZ nlof 2xx Negative Resist... complement Information for Processing revised 25--7 General Information AZ nlof 2xx is a family of negative s, with the exposed remaining on the substrate after development.

More information

Maximizing operational efficiency and increasing customer loyalty

Maximizing operational efficiency and increasing customer loyalty Maximizing operational efficiency and increasing customer loyalty Don't let receipt paper cost you time and money An NCR White Paper Todd Lilley, Paper Roll Product Manager, Debora Jeske PhD, Paper Research

More information

Chemical Reactions - Chapter 2 - Review p #1-23; p. 81 #1-4 Science 8

Chemical Reactions - Chapter 2 - Review p #1-23; p. 81 #1-4 Science 8 Name KEY Date Hour Chemical Reactions - Chapter 2 - Review p. 79-80 #1-23; p. 81 #1-4 Science 8 Reviewing Key Terms Choose the letter of the best answer. 1. Which of the following is not a physical property?

More information

Characterization of Polymers Using TGA

Characterization of Polymers Using TGA application note Characterization of Polymers Using TGA W.J. Sichina, Marketing Manager Introduction Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is one of the members of the family of thermal analysis techniques

More information

Study Guide B. Answer Key. Chemistry of Life

Study Guide B. Answer Key. Chemistry of Life Chemistry of Life Answer Key SECTION 1. ATOMS, IONS, AND MOLECULES 1. An element is a certain type of atom. 2. Sketch should resemble one of the illustrations in Figure 1.2 in Section 1. Nucleus should

More information

Better DSC Isothermal Cure Kinetics Studies Using Power Compensation DSC

Better DSC Isothermal Cure Kinetics Studies Using Power Compensation DSC application Note Thermal Analysis Better DSC Isothermal Cure Kinetics Studies Using Power Compensation DSC Introduction One important aspect of a thermosetting resin, such as an epoxy, is the cure kinetics

More information

Section 7.1 Describing Reactions (pages )

Section 7.1 Describing Reactions (pages ) Section 7.1 Describing Reactions (pages 192 198) This section discusses the use of chemical equations and how to balance them. It also demonstrates the use of calculations in chemistry. Reading Strategy

More information

3M Ionic Liquid Antistat FC-4400

3M Ionic Liquid Antistat FC-4400 Technical Data September 14 3M Ionic Liquid Antistat FC-40 Introduction 3M Ionic Liquid Antistat FC-40 is a high purity antistatic additive compatible with a variety of high performance polymer systems,

More information

Metal Adhesion to PET Film Ed Culbertson, Mitsubishi Polyester Film, Inc.

Metal Adhesion to PET Film Ed Culbertson, Mitsubishi Polyester Film, Inc. Metal Adhesion to PET Film Ed Culbertson, Mitsubishi Polyester Film, Inc. Introduction As the move from rigid packaging to flexible packaging continues the barrier of materials used becomes more important.

More information

Characteristics of Vinyl Ester Laminates Suitable for Chimney Liner Applications after High Temperature Thermal Stress

Characteristics of Vinyl Ester Laminates Suitable for Chimney Liner Applications after High Temperature Thermal Stress Characteristics of Vinyl Ester Laminates Suitable for Chimney Liner Applications after Author: Scott Lane Date: October 18 20, 2006 INTRODUCTION Chimney liner fiberglass laminates made from vinyl ester

More information

IR-LC Deposition and Detection System. Deformulating UV Coating System by LC-IR Technology

IR-LC Deposition and Detection System. Deformulating UV Coating System by LC-IR Technology DiscovIR-GPC DiscovIR-L IR-LC Deposition and Detection System Application Note 9 Deformulating UV Coating System by LC-IR Technology This application note describes the use of coupled LC-IR to identify

More information

CREATING TOMORROW S SOLUTIONS HEALTHCARE I WOUND CARE SILICONES FOR WOUND CARE

CREATING TOMORROW S SOLUTIONS HEALTHCARE I WOUND CARE SILICONES FOR WOUND CARE CREATING TOMORROW S SOLUTIONS HEALTHCARE I WOUND CARE SILICONES FOR WOUND CARE A SUCCESSFUL FUTURE WITH WACKER Regardless of the challenges the future holds, offers you a future-proof solution that satisfies

More information

Plastics and Polymer Business. Properties enhancement for Plastics

Plastics and Polymer Business. Properties enhancement for Plastics News Letter Vol. 18, issue October-December, 2012 Hyperdispersants and Coupling Agents for Thermoplastics and Thermosets Solplus, Ircolplus and Solsperse hyperdispersants and coupling agents have been

More information

SPRAY POLYURETHANE FOAM CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

SPRAY POLYURETHANE FOAM CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES FUNDAMENTALS OF SPF FOR THE INDEPENDENT BUILDING ENVELOPE INSPECTOR CHAPTER 1 SPRAY POLYURETHANE FOAM CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION... 3 CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES...

More information

CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERS BY TMA. W.J. Sichina, National Marketing Manager

CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERS BY TMA. W.J. Sichina, National Marketing Manager PERKIN ELMER Polymers technical note CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERS BY W.J. Sichina, National Marketing Manager Thermomechanical analysis () is one of the important characterization techniques in the field

More information

Athena is the name given to our assortment of electronic tapes. products of the very highest quality. These tapes both conduct and

Athena is the name given to our assortment of electronic tapes. products of the very highest quality. These tapes both conduct and Electric Athena. Athena is the name given to our assortment of electronic tapes products of the very highest quality. These tapes both conduct and insulate against electricity, in addition to warmth and

More information

6.2 Determination of Heats of Reaction

6.2 Determination of Heats of Reaction 162 6 Applications of Differential Scanning Calorimetry 6.2 Determination of Heats of Reaction The aim is to determine a thermodynamically well defined (temperature dependent) reaction enthalpy. If a subsequent

More information

PYROLYSIS STUDY OF HYDRIDE-FUNCTIONALISED SOL-GEL SILICA

PYROLYSIS STUDY OF HYDRIDE-FUNCTIONALISED SOL-GEL SILICA PYRLYSIS STUDY F YDRIDE-FUNCTINALISED SL-GEL SILICA Renzo Campostrini, Adriana curelli, Giovanni Carturan, Marco Ischia X(R) 3 alkoxides are precursors of 2 -based xerogels and advanced materials. -X functional

More information

3 Destructible Vinyl Label Material 7613T / 7930T

3 Destructible Vinyl Label Material 7613T / 7930T 3 Destructible Vinyl Label Material Technical Data September, 2010 Product Description 3M Destructible Vinyl Label Materials 7613T and 7930T are consistent, smooth, topcoated films designed to exhibit

More information

TA INSTRUMENTS DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETER (DSC) Insert Nickname Here. Operating Instructions

TA INSTRUMENTS DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETER (DSC) Insert Nickname Here. Operating Instructions TA INSTRUMENTS DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETER (DSC) Insert Nickname Here Operating Instructions Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION Safety 2 Sample Preparation 3 2 BACKGROUND Background Information 4 Resources

More information

Chemical Reactions Practice Test

Chemical Reactions Practice Test Chemical Reactions Practice Test Chapter 2 Name Date Hour _ Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The only sure evidence for a chemical reaction

More information

2. Thermal analysis of polymer films 2.1 Introduction

2. Thermal analysis of polymer films 2.1 Introduction 2. 2.1 Introduction DSC and TMA are widely used to determine the glass transition temperature T g of free films [48,64-67]. The glass transition temperature is defined as the transformation of a substance

More information

Science Standard 2 Materials and Their Properties Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 2 Materials and Their Properties Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 2 Materials and Their Properties Grade Level Expectations Properties and Structure of Materials Enduring Understanding: The structures of materials determine their properties. Essential

More information

Alumina Trihydrate (ATH) A Versatile Pigment for Coatings, Inks, Adhesives, Caulks and Sealants Applications

Alumina Trihydrate (ATH) A Versatile Pigment for Coatings, Inks, Adhesives, Caulks and Sealants Applications Alumina Trihydrate (ATH) A Versatile Pigment for Coatings, Inks, Adhesives, Caulks and Sealants Applications Huber s Alumina Trihydrate (ATH) Alumina trihydrate (ATH) is often associated with its role

More information

CREATING TOMORROW S SOLUTIONS

CREATING TOMORROW S SOLUTIONS CREATING TOMORROW S SOLUTIONS DELIVERY FORMS and Storage of Dispersible Polymer Powders 2 VINNAPAS dispersible polymer powders are the most successful polymeric binders worldwide. To ensure that you get

More information

CREATING TOMORROW S SOLUTIONS

CREATING TOMORROW S SOLUTIONS CREATING TOMORROW S SOLUTIONS Coatings & Packaging I Binders V IS FOR versatile VINNOL surface coating resins for Heat-Sealable Coatings How do you meet the multitude of challenges in the heat-sealable

More information

Filtration applications

Filtration applications Filtration applications High Performance Fibers & Yarns www.lenzing.com/plastics Lenzing Plastics High performance fibers A powerful alliance Lenzing Plastics is one of the world s leading producers of

More information

C2 revision topics 5 and 6

C2 revision topics 5 and 6 C2 revision topics 5 and 6 To understand heat changes in reactions To be able to describe what controls rates of reactions To be able to explain how to change the rate of a reaction Exothermic Gives out

More information

FIBER-MANUFACTURING SOLUTIONS

FIBER-MANUFACTURING SOLUTIONS FIBER-MANUFACTURING SOLUTIONS CREATING TOMORROW S SOLUTIONs Contents ADVALON Fiber Expertise 4 Consultancy and Service 6 WACKER at a Glance 7 THE ADVALON BRAND NAME STANDS FOR RELIABILITY AND EXCEPTIONAL

More information

Determining the Right Molding Process for Part Design

Determining the Right Molding Process for Part Design Determining the Right Molding Process for Part Design How RIM Molding Advantages Compare with Traditional Production Technologies Page 2 Introduction This White Paper details the part production processes

More information

Selecting Sealants Based on Masonry Movement

Selecting Sealants Based on Masonry Movement Selecting Sealants Based on Masonry Movement The Construction Specifier August 2002 Movement capability must be considered when selecting the proper sealant for joints in clay or concrete masonry walls.

More information

New developments in radiation curable resins for inks. European Coatings SYMPOSIUM Dusseldorf, May 15t h 2012

New developments in radiation curable resins for inks. European Coatings SYMPOSIUM Dusseldorf, May 15t h 2012 New developments in radiation curable resins for inks European Coatings SYMPOSIUM Dusseldorf, May 15t h 2012 Paul Gevaert Content Why and where UV/EB? Development in resins for Shrink sleeves Development

More information

New waterbased UV curing PUD s for industrial wood finishing. Laurie Morris Scientist Technical Service Alberdingk Boley, Inc.

New waterbased UV curing PUD s for industrial wood finishing. Laurie Morris Scientist Technical Service Alberdingk Boley, Inc. New waterbased UV curing PUD s for industrial wood finishing Laurie Morris Scientist Technical Service Alberdingk Boley, Inc. Why use UV Curable Coatings? Benefits Little-no solvent emissions Excellent

More information

New Advances in Polymeric MDI Variants

New Advances in Polymeric MDI Variants New Advances in Polymeric MDI Variants Thorsten Gurke Application and Product Development Manager - Adhesives Huntsman Polyurethanes Everslaan 45 B3078 Everberg, Belgium Tel. +32 2 758 9298 thorsten_gurke@huntsman.com

More information

High Stress Silicon Nitride Films for Strained Silicon Technology

High Stress Silicon Nitride Films for Strained Silicon Technology High Stress Silicon Nitride Films for Strained Silicon Technology Bhadri Varadarajan*, Jim Sims PECVD Business Unit Novellus Systems, Inc. Effect of Strain on Carrier Mobility! Strain lifts degeneracy,

More information

Rate of Reaction and the Collision Theory. Factors that Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

Rate of Reaction and the Collision Theory. Factors that Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction Chemical Kinetics and Thermodynamics Chemical Kinetics- concerned with: 1. Rates of Chemical Reactions- # of moles of reactant used up or product formed Unit time Or 2. Reaction Mechanisms- Rate of Reaction

More information

Pressure Effects in a PVD system on Thin Film Chemistry and Mechanical Properties

Pressure Effects in a PVD system on Thin Film Chemistry and Mechanical Properties Pressure Effects in a PVD system on Thin Film Chemistry and Mechanical Properties Introduction Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) is a vacuum deposition technique used to describe any of a variety of methods

More information

Which Temperature Sensor To Choose From, Thermistor, Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) or Thermocouple?

Which Temperature Sensor To Choose From, Thermistor, Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) or Thermocouple? Which Temperature Sensor To Choose From, Thermistor, Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) or Thermocouple? The concept of temperature From a physical point of view, heat is a measure of the energy contained

More information

Resin based materials in prosthetic dentistry. Mercedes Linninger DDS Department of prosthodontics

Resin based materials in prosthetic dentistry. Mercedes Linninger DDS Department of prosthodontics Resin based materials in prosthetic dentistry Mercedes Linninger DDS Department of prosthodontics Resins in dentistry Denture base Crown and bridge Artificial teeth Special tray Modelling Filling materials

More information

Derakane epoxy vinyl ester resins: The Evolution of Corrosion Resistant FRP

Derakane epoxy vinyl ester resins: The Evolution of Corrosion Resistant FRP A Brief History on Corrosion Derakane epoxy vinyl ester resins: The Evolution of Corrosion Resistant FRP Corrosion in industrial processes has always threatened pipes, ducting, process equipment, scrubbers

More information

Epoxy Curing Agents and Modifiers

Epoxy Curing Agents and Modifiers Epoxy Curing Agents and Modifiers Ancamine 2441 Curing Agent Description Ancamine 2441 curing agent is a modified polyamine which was designed for use as a latent curing agent for one-component adhesive

More information

Eastman AAEM (acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate)

Eastman AAEM (acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate) Eastman AAEM (acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate) Acetoacetyl chemistry H 2 C = C C CH ( 2 ) 2 C CH 2 C IUPAC: 2-[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl)oxy]ethyl 3-oxobutanoate CAS: 021282-97-3 Key features Reduced solution

More information

Acrodur. The innovative product class of reactive acrylate binders with versatile application possibilities and. good ecological compatibility.

Acrodur. The innovative product class of reactive acrylate binders with versatile application possibilities and. good ecological compatibility. 15:38 Uhr Seite 1 Polymer Dispersions for: A broader base for your success Construction Architectural Coatings Adhesives Fiber Bonding Acrodur is used in WICANDERS cork flooring of our partner Amorim.

More information

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia.

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. Chemistry C2 Foundation and Higher Questions Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. (a) Complete the word equation for the reaction that takes place

More information

Advanced Higher Chemistry. THERMODYNAMICS (Reaction Feasibility) Learning Outcomes Questions & Answers

Advanced Higher Chemistry. THERMODYNAMICS (Reaction Feasibility) Learning Outcomes Questions & Answers Advanced Higher Chemistry Unit 2 - Chemical Reactions THERMODYNAMICS (Reaction Feasibility) Learning Outcomes Questions & Answers KHS Chemistry Nov 2006 page 1 4. THERMODYNAMICS (Reaction Feasibility)

More information

An entirely new set of special effects capabilities are possible with UV.

An entirely new set of special effects capabilities are possible with UV. Why Go UV? Benefits - Special Effects - Substrates UV Print Benefits Inks Varnishes Coatings Synthetic & Special Effects Substrates UV Print Benefits UV printing is completely dried at the point of printing

More information

Coatings Technology : What is Paint?

Coatings Technology : What is Paint? WHAT IS PAINT? Paint, surface coating, lacquer and varnish are terms which have become somewhat synonymous and confused. International Standard ISO 4618-1 gives the following definitions:- Paint: a pigmented

More information

High School Core Science Standards Chemistry

High School Core Science Standards Chemistry Overview The standards for chemistry establish scientific inquiry skills and core content for all chemistry courses in DoDEA schools. In chemistry, students acquire a fundamental knowledge of the substances

More information

Light metal corrosion protection with water-borne silane systems

Light metal corrosion protection with water-borne silane systems Platzhalter Titelbild Light metal corrosion protection with water-borne silane systems Dr. Philipp Albert 14.06.2011 Agenda 1. lanes, hydrolysis and condensation, sol-gel process 2. Water-borne sol-gel

More information

Chapter 15: Processing of Polymers

Chapter 15: Processing of Polymers Chapter 15: Characteristics, Applications & Processing of Polymers ISSUES TO ADDRESS... What are the tensile properties of polymers and how are they affected by basic microstructural features? Hardening,

More information

Characterization of Polyketone Copolymer by High Speed DSC

Characterization of Polyketone Copolymer by High Speed DSC application Note Thermal Analysis Authors Wim M. Groenewoud Eerste Hervendreef 32 5232 JK S Hertogenbosh The Netherlands Nik Boer PerkinElmer, Groningen The Netherlands Phil Robinson Thermal Analysis Consultant

More information

ANALYSIS OF THE ENDOTHERMIC BEHAVIOR IN THE CURING PROCESS OF RESOLE

ANALYSIS OF THE ENDOTHERMIC BEHAVIOR IN THE CURING PROCESS OF RESOLE ANALYSIS OF THE ENDOTHERMIC BEHAVIOR IN THE CURING PROCESS OF RESOLE 1 Jiao Bin and 2 Cai Qing 1 FRP Research & Design Institute, P.O. Box 261, Beijing, 102101,China 2 Institute of Chemistry, Academia

More information

No liner No waste. Radiation Curable Silicones. Linerless labels with TEGO RC Silicones

No liner No waste. Radiation Curable Silicones. Linerless labels with TEGO RC Silicones Radiation Curable Silicones No liner No waste Linerless labels with TEGO RC Silicones Innovative and cost reducing technology for the manufacture of release liners Introduction In 1985, our predecessor

More information

EB Technology For Fast, Safe Curing of Inks

EB Technology For Fast, Safe Curing of Inks EB Technology For Fast, Safe Curing of Inks PackAge 2009 Packaging For Changing Markets New Delhi India July 9-10, 2009 Imtiaz Rangwalla Energy Sciences Inc. USA ESI Is the World Leader In making Low voltage

More information